• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Content

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Quality Characteristics of Low-Fat Muffins Containing Whey Protein Concentrate (유청농축분말을 첨가한 저지방 머핀의 품질특성)

  • Chung, Hai-Jung
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.890-897
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    • 2006
  • The aim of this study was to develop muffins with whey protein concentrate (WPC) substituted for fat at the content of 10%, 20%, 40% or 80%. The quality characteristics were compared with those of a full-fat counterpart. With increasing WPC content, moisture, protein, and ash contents increased, fat content decreased, volume and specific volume of muffin decreased, but weight was unaffected. Crust lightness and yellowness of muffins increased, but redness decreased with increasing amount of WPC. Hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and brittleness were the highest in muffin substituted with 80% WPC. Results of sensory evaluation indicated that muffin with up to 40% of the butter substituted by WPC was considered to be as acceptable as the control muffin prepared without WPC.

Effects of Crossbreeding and Gender on the Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Korean Native Black Pig and Duroc Crossbred

  • Muhlisin, Muhlisin;Panjono, Panjono;Lee, Sung-Jin;Lee, Jeong Koo;Lee, Sung Ki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1019-1025
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP) and $KNP{\times}Duroc$ crossbred ($KNP{\times}D$). A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty $KNP{\times}D$ barrows and fifteen $KNP{\times}D$ gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were obtained for meat quality analysis. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage of $KNP{\times}D$ were higher (p<0.001) than those of KNP. The slaughter and carcass weights and backfat thickness of barrows were higher (p<0.01) than those of gilts. There were no significant difference in carcass conformation and quality grade between KNP and $KNP{\times}D$ as well as barrow and gilt. Fat content of $KNP{\times}D$ was higher (p<0.001) than that of KNP. Fat content of barrow was higher (p<0.001) than that of gilt. There was interaction between crossbreeding and gender on the fat content. KNP gilt showed higher fat content than KNP barrow whereas $KNP{\times}D$ barrow showed higher fat content than $KNP{\times}D$ gilt. Lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle values and color preference of meat of $KNP{\times}D$ were lower (p<0.001) than those of KNP. Redness, yellowness and chroma values of meat of barrow were lower (p<0.05) than those of gilt. It is concluded that crossbreeding KNP with Duroc increases carcass productivity and meat fat but decreases meat color values and preference. Crossbreeding of KNP with Duroc produces a better fat deposition in meat of barrows than in gilts.

Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and adiposity measurements in the general Korean population

  • Kim, Dasom;Kim, Jihye
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.206-211
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity, which is a known risk factor for many chronic diseases, has also been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study explored the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and adiposity measures in a general Korean population using the most recent, nationally representative survey data. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study sample consisted of 4,771 Korean adults (${\geq}19years$) who participated in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Serum 25(OH)D was determined by radioimmunoassay. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and total body fat content were measured as adiposity measurements. Total body fat content was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The serum 25(OH)D level was significantly higher in men than in women. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was positively correlated with energy intake, and it was negatively correlated with total body fat content (P < 0.0001) and percentage body fat (P < 0.0001) after adjustment for age in both sexes, while was inversely correlated with BMI only in women. In multivariable regression analysis, serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with the total body fat content after adjustment for age, BMI, education, region, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and energy intake only in men (P = 0.0047). However, the serum 25(OH)D concentration was not associated with WC or BMI, indicators of adiposity after adjustment for potential risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Serum 25(OH)D concentration was independently associated with the total body fat content in a general Korean population, but it may be not associated with the indicators for estimating adiposity, such as WC or BMI.

Effects of Dietary Fat Level on the Lipid Metabolism in Rats of Different Stapes of Aging (나이가 다른 단계에서 식이지방 수준이 흰쥐의 체내 지방대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 조미숙
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 1996
  • Male rats of 2 months-old(young), 6 months-old(adult) and 30 months-old(old)were fed 8 or 16 weeks to investigate the e(feats of dietary fat level on the lipid metabolism in the different stages of aging. The response of 30 month old rats to dietary fat level differed from either 2 or 6-months old rats. In 30-months old rats, dietary fat level had a little effect on weight gains, lipid content of serum as compared with other two age groups. Young rats showed higher body weight gain, F.S.R, and PER compared with aged rat. The younger and the more high fat fed the rats were, the more body weight gains, FER and PER showed. Weight of liver and kidney was increased in aged rats but ratio per unit weight of liver and kidney was not affected by age. Serum lipid content was higher in aged rat compared with the young and liver lipid content was higher in high fat diet fed rats. But TG of liver and serum was not changed with aging process. Intake, excretion and absorption of lipid was not changed by age of animals. but absorption was decreased as experimental period was increased.

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Fermented Kochujang Supplement Shows Anti-obesity Effects by Controlling Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6J Mice Fed High Fat Diet

  • Koo, Bon-Sun;Seong, So-Hui;Kown, Dae-Young;Sohn, Hee-Sook;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.336-342
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    • 2008
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of fermented kochujang supplement in C57BL/6J mice. Thirty mice were divided into 3 groups; normal diet control group (ND), high fat diet control group (HD), and high fat diet plus kochujang supplemented group (HDK). Results were as follows: 1. Fennented kochujang supplement in high fat diet decreased body weight and epidydimal and back fat weight compared to non-supplement in HD group. 2. Lipid content and blood glucose level were lower in HDK group than HD group. 3. Fermented kochujang supplement increased mRNA level of lipolytic genes such as acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), and uncoupling proteins-1 (UCP-1) expression, whereas decreased mRNA level of adipogenic genes such as acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) expression. These findings suggest that fermented kochujang supplement in high fat diet normalized body weight, epididymal and back fat weight, lipid content, and blood glucose levels through controlling lipid metabolism and provides basic information on the control of obesity.

Effects of Dietary Heat Extruded Soybean Meal and Protected Fat Supplement on the Production, Blood and Ruminal Characteristics of Holstein Cows

  • Chen, Kuen-Jaw;Jan, Der-Fang;Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg;Yang, Der-Wei
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.821-827
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of protected fat and heat-extruded soybean meal on the lactation performance of Holstein cows. Twenty-four cows, consisting of 20 lactating cows and 4 rumen-fistulated dry cows, were randomly allocated into four groups with 5 lactating cows and 1 fistulated cow in each group. A replicated 4${\times}$4 Latin square design with four 21 day periods, including 14 days of adaptation and 7 collection days within each period was employed. The experiment was a 2${\times}$2 arrangement, with or without heat-extruded soybean meal and protected fat inclusion. The dietary treatments consisted of supplements of (a) soybean meal (the control), (b) heat-extruded soybean meal, (c) protected fat, and (d) heat-extruded soybean meal and protected fat. The results showed that there were no significant differences in feed intake, milk yield, milk protein content, milk lactose content and body weight change between the dietary treatments. However, cows supplemented with protected fat showed a significantly increased (p<0.05) milk fat yield, 3.5% FCM and total solid yield. The increase in undegradable intake protein (UIP) via heat extruded soybean meal supplement significantly decreased the urea nitrogen concentration in the blood (p<0.05). Dietary fat inclusion significantly increased the blood cholesterol concentration (p<0.01) and decreased the ruminal pH value (p<0.01). Increased dietary UIP significantly decreased the ammonia nitrogen concentration in the rumen (p<0.01), but did not significantly influence the pH and VFA molar percentage in the rumen. It appears that dietary protected fat inclusion could improve milk fat and solid content. Increased dietary undegradable intake protein through heat extruded soybean meal did not improve milk yield. But it could alleviate the adverse effect of decreased milk protein due to dietary fat supplementation. Increased UIP could also decrease the ammonia nitrogen concentration in the rumen and plasma urea nitrogen concentration in the blood.

Seasonal Variation of Proximate Composition in Edible Portion or Ark Shell (Scapharca subcrenata) (새고막(Scapharca subcrenata) 가식부 일반성분의 계절변동)

  • 박춘규
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.1226-1229
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    • 1999
  • In order to investigate the harvest time for the production of high value added ark shell(Scapharca subcrenata) cultured at the south coast of Korea, the seasonal variations of proximate composition(mois ture, protein, fat, ash and glycogen) in the edible portions of ark shell were measured from December 1994 to December 1995. Moisture contents were the lowest in spring, but the highest in summer season being the spawning season of the S. subcrenata. The other hand, protein contents were a maximum in spring and minimum in summer. In June, just before the spawning season, fat and glycogen content was the highest, and ash content was little changed through a year. After spawning season, glycogen contents, showed decrement. In evaluating the seasonal variation of protein, moisture, and glycogen content in ark shell, the relationships of moisture protein content, moisture glycogen content and glycogen protein content show to be reverse.

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Effects of Lower Dietary Lysine and Energy Content on Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Zhang, Jinxiao;Yin, Jingdong;Zhou, Xuan;Li, Fengna;Ni, Jianjun;Dong, Bing
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.1785-1793
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    • 2008
  • Fifty-four PIC barrows were used to evaluate the effects of lower dietary lysine content and energy level on carcass characteristics and meat quality in slaughter pigs. Pigs were allotted to one of three treatments by body weight with six replicate pens in each treatment. The dietary treatments for body weights of 20-50 kg, 50-80 kg and 80-90 kg were as follows, respectively: control diet (digestible energy 14.22 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.67 g/MJ, 0.53 g/MJ and 0.42 g/MJ); a low lysine group (digestible energy 14.22 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.49, 0.38 and 0.30 g/MJ); and a low lysine-low energy group or low nutrient group (digestible energy 13.11 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.49, 0.38 and 0.30 g/MJ). The daily weight gain, daily feed intake and feed efficiency were calculated in the overall growth period (nearly 12 weeks). Meanwhile, carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated at 60 and 90 kg body weight respectively. During the overall growth trial, lowering dietary lysine and nutrient level both decreased weight gain (p<0.05) and feed efficiency (p<0.01). At 60 kg body weight, decreasing dietary lysine and nutrient level noticeably decreased dressing percentage (p<0.01) and back fat depth at last rib of PIC pigs (p<0.01), but enhanced marbling scores (p<0.10), intramuscular fat content (p<0.10) and water loss rate (p<0.01) of the longissimus dorsi muscle. At 90 kg body weight, lean percentage (p<0.01) was evidently reduced by both lowering lysine content and nutrient level in the diet. However, the shoulder back fat depth (p<0.05) and marbling scores of the loin eye muscle (p<0.05) were increased; Lowering dietary nutrient level could improve back fat depth of 10th rib (p<0.01) and last rib (p<0.01), intramuscular fat content (p<0.10), redness (p<0.01) and water loss rate of the loin eye muscle (p<0.05), but decrease loin area (p<0.05). Finally, when comparing the 60 kg and 90 kg slaughter weights, it was found that the shoulder back fat depth (p<0.01, p<0.10), 6th-7th rib (p<0.01, p<0.01), 10th-rib (p<0.01, p<0.01) and last rib back fat depth (p<0.01, p<0.01) of the low lysine and low nutrient group were all obviously increased comparing with the control group. Taken together, the results showed that decreasing dietary lysine content and nutrient level increased intramuscular fat content and water loss rate of longissimus dorsi muscle; On the other hand, both lowering dietary lysine and nutrient level markedly compensated to increase back fat deposition in the later finishing period (body weight from 60 to 90 kg) in contrast to the control group.

Nutritional Factors Affecting Abdominal Fat Deposition in Poultry: A Review

  • Fouad, A.M.;El-Senousey, H.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1057-1068
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    • 2014
  • The major goals of the poultry industry are to increase the carcass yield and to reduce carcass fatness, mainly the abdominal fat pad. The increase in poultry meat consumption has guided the selection process toward fast-growing broilers with a reduced feed conversion ratio. Intensive selection has led to great improvements in economic traits such as body weight gain, feed efficiency, and breast yield to meet the demands of consumers, but modern commercial chickens exhibit excessive fat accumulation in the abdomen area. However, dietary composition and feeding strategies may offer practical and efficient solutions for reducing body fat deposition in modern poultry strains. Thus, the regulation of lipid metabolism to reduce the abdominal fat content based on dietary composition and feeding strategy, as well as elucidating their effects on the key enzymes associated with lipid metabolism, could facilitate the production of lean meat and help to understand the fat-lowering effects of diet and different feeding strategies.

Reduced-Fat Frankfurters with Varying Types of Meat and Fat

  • Rhee, Ki-Soon;Susan U. Bohanan
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.15-19
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to determine sensory and chemical traits of reduced-fat frankfurters made with lean lamb or lean lamb/pork (50%/50%), fat from three different sources(pork fat, lamb fat or high-oleic sunflower oil) and added water products designated as L-P-15, LP-L-15, LP-So-15 and LP-P-15, according to lean meat type, source of added fat and target fat content and to compare such products with a similar reduced-fat product made with lean beef/pork (50%/50%) with pork fat(product designated as BP-P-15) and high-fat products made with lean beef/pork (50%/50%) or lamb/pork (50%/50%) with pork fat (BP-P-30 and LP-P-30). Actual fat contents of reduced-fat and high-fat products formulated for 15% and 30% fat were 17~18% and 28~31%, respectively, after processing. Processing yields were lower for all reduced-fat products than for the high-fat products. Trained sensory panelists rated LP-P-15 less intense in lamb flavor as compared to LP-L-15 and LP-So-15. Off-flavor intensity was positively correlated with lamb-flavor intensity (r=0.80), whereas frankfurter-flavor intensity was negatively correlated with lamb-flavor intensity (-0.88) and off-flavor intensity (r=-0.90). According to consumer panelists, LP-P-15 was as desirable in flavor as BP-P-15 or the two high-fat products (BP-P-30 and LP-P-30), while LP-So-15 and LP-L-15 were not. LP-P-15 and BP-P-15 were not notably different from their high-fat counterparts in juiciness and texture desirability and overall palatability. Regardless of fat content, meat type and fat source, there was little lipid oxidation when vacuum-packaged products were refrigerated for 12 weeks.

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