• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Content

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Milk Yield and Its Fat Content as Affected by Dietary Factors: A-Rewiew

  • Sawal, R.K.;Kurar, C.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.217-233
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    • 1998
  • Milk yield and its composition is governed by level of nutrition and the composition of diet. Higher concentrate input improves milk yield, whereas its input at moderate levels improves yield of milk fat. High level of dietary protein improves dry matter intake and milk production, however, CP content above 14% has less advantage. Milk yield is enhanced by the feeding of cottonseed and soyabean meal, whereas milk fat increases by the supplementation of cottonseed. Dietary fat increases energy intake, production of milk and milk fat. Quality and quantity of feeds consumed affect fermentation patterns in rumen. Among the rumen metabolites, volatile fatty acids (VFA) content and propionate proportion have been related positively with milk yield, whereas proportion of acetate and butyrate have been related positively with milk fat content. Dietary carbohydrates through the source of sugar, starch, roughage and fibre affect VFA concentration in rumen. Therefore, concentration of volatile fatty acids could be altered to the advantage of consumer through judicious manipulation of diet.

Effect of Increasing Dietary Fat on Plasma Lipoprotein in Young Korean Women (지방 섭취 증가가 일부 젊은 여성의 혈장 지단백 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 허영란
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.697-705
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing dietary fat on plasma lipoprotein in young Korean women. During the three weeks of experimental periods, 8 healthy college women consumed a regular diet, a medium fat diet and a high fat diet for one week, consecutively. The percentages of fat from energy intake in the subjects on the regular, medium, and high fat diets were 20, 29 and 38%, respectively. Our data showed that the dietary intakes of fat and cholesterol had an influence on the plasma lipoprotein. The medium fat diet enhanced the blood glucose concentration and the plasma HDL, and the high fat diet resulted in increases in the blood glucose concentration and the plasma LDL as well as HDL. Also the type of diets led to changes in the composition of lipoprotein. When on the medium fat diet, HDL and LDL had higher phospholipid content. On the high fat diet, LDL had higher phospholipid, cholesterol and triglyceride contents, and HDL included higher cholesterol content.

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Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Patties with Pork Back Fat Replaced by Dietary Fiber from Wheat Sprout

  • Choi, Yun-Sang;Sung, Jung-Min;Park, Jong-Dae;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Lee, Cheol-Won;Kim, Tae-Kyung;Jeon, Ki-Hong;Kim, Cheon-Jei;Kim, Young-Boong
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.799-806
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    • 2016
  • The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 20% to 15% or 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with wheat sprout fiber in reduced-fat chicken patties were investigated. Approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, shear force, and sensory properties were determined. Moisture content, ash contents, yellowness of uncooked and cooked reduced-fat chicken patties with wheat sprout were higher than those in the control, while displaying fat content, calorie content, and pH of uncooked and cooked lower in reduced-fat chicken patties than in the control. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were the highest in the reduced-fat chicken patties with 10% fat level. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were decreased when fat levels and wheat sprout levels were increased. Control samples without wheat sprout dietary fiber had significantly (p<0.05) higher color and flavor scores compared to reduced-fat chicken patties containing wheat sprout dietary fiber. The overall acceptability of the control and treatment with 15% fat and 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber (T3) was the highest. Therefore, 15% fat level in reduced-fat chicken patties with the addition of 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber can be used to improve the quality and sensory characteristics of regular-fat chicken patties containing 20% fat level.

Influence of the Mineral Potassium Permanganate on the Biochemical Constituents in the Fat Body and Haemolymph of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

  • Bhattacharya, A.;Kaliwal, B.B.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.131-135
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    • 2004
  • Oral supplementation with potassium permanganate (30, 50 and 100 $\mu\textrm{g}$) to fifth instar larvae of the ${CSR_2}{\times}{CSR_4}$ race of the silkworm, B. mori resulted in a significant increase in the glycogen content of the fat body and haemolymph trehalose. The protein content of the fat body is also significantly increased in all the potassium permanganate treated groups where as that of the haemolymph is significantly increased only in the 30 ${\mu}g4 fed group. The total lipids content of the fat body increased significantly in all the potassium permanganate treated groups. This indicates that the potassium permanganate may stimulate metabolic activity, there by influencing the biochemical contents in the fat body and haemolymph of the silkworm, B. mori.

Product Characteristics of Comminuted Sausages as Affected by Various Fat and Moisture Combinations

  • Chin, Koo Bok;Lee, Hye Lan;Chun, Soon Sil
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.538-542
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    • 2004
  • Comminuted sausages with reduced fat (25-0%) and increased moisture (19-44%) combinations were manufactured, and their chemical composition, and physico-chemical, textural and sensory properties were determined for the selection of the most palatable sausage treatment. The moisture and fat contents of the comminuted sausages varied from 55-79% and 26.4-2.14%, respectively, whereas, the protein content was relatively constant at 13.5-14.5%. Expressible moisture (EM, %) decreased with increased fat addition, and the high-fat control sausage (~25% fat) had lower EM than those with lower than 15% fat addition. Increased fat level also increased Hunter L values (lightness) of sausage samples taken from the core, and differences in lightness were observed between 15 and 25% fat level at the initial mixture. Sausages without fat addition had different textural characteristics from high-fat control sausages in most texture profile analysis (TPA) values. However, no differences in TPA values were observed among treatments with added fat (<25%) in the formulation. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that the most appropriate fat content of comminuted sausages to have better sensory properties ranged from 15-20% of added fat at the initial mixture. These results also indicated that decreased fat and increased moisture contents produce sausages with higher EM and lower lightness. Comminuted sausages without fat addition had different textural characteristics from the high-fat control.

Expression of lipid metabolism genes provides new insights into intramuscular fat deposition in Laiwu pigs

  • Wang, Hui;Wang, Jin;Yang, Dan-dan;Liu, Zong-li;Zeng, Yong-qing;Chen, Wei
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.390-397
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to measure the special expression pattern of lipid metabolism genes and investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in Longissimus dorsi muscle of Laiwu pigs. Methods: Thirty-six pigs (Laiwu n = 18; Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire n = 18) were used for the measurement of the backfat thickness, marbling score, IMF content, and expression of lipid metabolism genes. Results: Significant correlations were found between IMF content and the mRNA expression of lipid metabolism genes. Of the 14 fat deposition genes measured, fatty acid synthase (FASN) showed the strongest correlation (r = 0.75, p = 0.001) with IMF content, and of the 6 fat removal genes, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1B (CPT1B) exhibited the greatest negative correlation (r = -0.66, p = 0.003) with IMF content in Laiwu pig. Multiple regression analysis showed that CPT1B, FASN, solute carrier family 27 member 1 (SLC27A1), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) contributed 38% of the prediction value for IMF content in Laiwu pigs. Of these four variables, CPT1B had the greatest contribution to IMF content (14%) followed by FASN (11%), SLC27A1 (9%), and FABP3 (4%). Conclusion: Our results indicate that the combined effects of an upregulation in fat deposition genes and downregulation in fat removal genes promotes IMF deposition in Laiwu pigs.

Effect of Cooking Methods and Fat Levels on the Physico-chemical, Processing, Sensory and Microbial Quality of Buffalo Meat Patties

  • Mohammad, Nisar P.U.;Chatli, M.K.;Sharma, D.K.;Sahoo, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1380-1385
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    • 2010
  • Buffalo meat patties with two fat levels, F1 (15% added fat) and F2 (5% added fat and 3% tapioca starch), were cooked in a pre-heated hot air oven (HO) at $175{\pm}2^{\circ}C$ for 15 min, in a microwave oven (MO) for 70 sec and by pressure cooking (PC) at 15 psi pressure for 10 min. and compared for physico-chemical, processing, sensory and microbiological quality attributes. F2 had significantly (p<0.05) higher value for the moisture and moisture protein ratio than F1. However, MO and PC patties had significantly (p<0.05) higher moisture content than HO-cooked buffalo meat patties irrespective of fat content. Highest fat percentage was in MO patties while the minimum was in PC patties. Moisture and fat retention and cooking yield were highest in MO patties irrespective of added fat content in the formulation. Cooking yield and dimensional parameters were better maintained in F2 than F1. Sensory scores viz. appearance and color, flavour, juiciness and texture for HO patties were better than other cooking methods. Sensory panelists rated overall acceptability of HO patties very good to excellent, whereas PC and MO patties were rated as good to very good irrespective of fat content. Microbiological quality was comparable in both groups irrespective of cooking methods used.

Effects of Alcohol Consumption and Fat Content in Diet on Chemical Composition and Morphology of Liver in Rat (알콜과 식이지방량이 흰쥐의 간 지질조성과 간조직형태에 미치는 영향)

  • 정경희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.154-163
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    • 1988
  • Effects of alchohol and fat content in a balanced diet on chemical composition and morphology of liver were investigated in growing rats. Fourth eight male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain weighing about 160g were divided into 4 groups ; high fat diet group, alcohol-administered high fat diet group, low fat diet group and alcohol-administered high fat diet group, low fat diet group and alcohol-administered low fat diet group. High and low fat diets supplied 30% and 12%, respectively, of total calorie intake from fat, and alcohol was given by adding ethanol in drinking waster at 10%. Diets contained adequate amounts of all nutrients required for rats, including lipotrpoic agents(choline and methionine) to minimize effects of factors other than alcohol on liver damage. Ratios of liver weight to body weight were statistically different among groups. Liver/dody weight ratios alcohol-administered rats were significantly higher than those of non-alcohol groups after 6 weeks treatment. Although total lipid and triglyceride per gram liver were increased in alcohol-administered rats, especially low fat diet fed rats, the values were not significantly different. Opticmicroscopical observation revealed increase in cell size and no change in morphology of liver. Examination of hepatocytes by electron microscopy showed that fat droplets were observed in all groups but enlarged in the alcohol-administered low fat diet fed rat. Contents of protein, cholesterol and phospholipid were not affected by alcohol consumption. The level of lipid peroxide was significantly lower in the livers of alcohol-administered rats than in the livers of non-alcohol groups. The results of this study indicate that even moderate alcohol drinking and dietary fat content did not affect any significant change in composition and morphology of liver until 6 week treatment but that even moderate alcohol drinking caused some signs of steatosis of liver.

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Effects of Alcohol Consumption and Fat Content in Diet on Growth, Hepatic Function and Biochemical Indices of Blood in Rat (알콜과 식이지방량이 흰쥐의 성장, 간기능 및 혈액의 생화화적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 최영선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.432-441
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    • 1987
  • This study was undertaken to investigate effects of alcohol and fat content in a balanced diet on growth, hepatic function and some biochemical indices of blood in growing rats. Fourty eight male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain weighing about 160g were divided into 4 groups ; high fat diet group, alcohol-adminstered high fat diet group, low fat diet group and alcohol-administered low fat diet group. High and low fat diet supplied 30% and 12%, respectively, of total calorie intake from fat and alcohol-treated groups received water containing 10% ethanol. Diets contained adequate amounts of all nutrients required for rats, including lipotropic agents(choline and methionine) to minimize effects of factors other than alcohol on liver function. Growth rate was lowest in alcohol-administered low-fat diet group, despite that their energy intake was equivalent to the others. For a 3-week study period, 21.86% and 23.61% of total calorie intake were derived from alcohol in alcohol-adminitered high fat diet group and low fat diet group, respectively. There was no influenced on vitamin B$_1$ status by alcohol consumption. Concentration of triglyceride in plasma increased with alcohol comsumption, and the effect was greater after 6 weeks than after 3 weeks of alcohol consumption . Difference of dietary fat content did not affect the level of triglyceride . The levels of total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in plasma were not influenced by alcohol consumption. Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase activity and hepatic mitochondrial respiration rate did not differ between groups. The results indicate that neither moderate alcohol drinking for 6 weeks nor fat content with a balanced diet caused any dramatic change of metabolism and liver function in rats. However they suggest that even moderate alcohol consumption can affect growth of animals dramatically and the effect may be lessened with relatively high fat content in diet.

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Improving the Nutritive Value of Full-Fat Rice Bran for Broiler Chickens Using a Lipase-Based Enzyme Preparation

  • Tan, S.H.;Thomas, D.V.;Camden, B.J.;Kadim, I.T.;Morel, P.C.H.;Pluske, J.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.360-368
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    • 2000
  • Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that a lipase-based enzyme preparation would increase the AME content of full-fat rice bran (FFRB) by increasing fat digestibility when fed to broiler chickens. Experiment 1 used FFRB from Australia and lasted for 35 days, while Experiment 2 used FFRB from Thailand and lasted for 14 days. Rice bran was substituted in a maize-soybean diet at levels of 90 g/kg (Experiment 1) and at 90 and 180 g/kg in Experiment 2. Total collections of excreta were used for determination of AME content and fat digestibility. In Experiment 1, the enzyme increased the AME content of FFRB between days 4-7, 18-21 and 32-35 by 6.1-16.1% (p>0.05), however this was not associated with improved fat digestibility. In Experiment 2, the enzyme enhanced the AME content of FFRB between days 4-7 (10.42 vs. 9.06, p=0.107) and 11-14 (11.94 vs. 9.93, p=0.041), but again, this was not caused by increased fat digestibility. Inclusion of 180 g/kg depressed the AME content of FFRB by 7.4-11.5% (p>0.10) in conjunction with decreased (p<0.05) fat digestibility between 0-14 days of age. Improvements in bird growth with the enzyme were seen in Experiment 2 but not in Experiment 1. Increases in AME content of FFRB per se were not caused by enhanced fat digestibility, suggesting that the side activities associated with the preparation must have acted singularly or in combination to improve AME content and bird performance. These data show that the response of FFRB to the lipase-based enzyme preparation was dependent upon the geographical origin of the rice bran and the level of FFRB substituted in the basal diet.