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Effects of Total Mixed Rations with Corn on Growth and Meat Quality of Castrated Korean Black Goats (옥수수 첨가 TMR 사료 급여가 거세흑염소의 발육과 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sang-Uk;Choi, Young-Sun;Yoo, Dae-Joong;Ku, Min-Jung;Lee, Gi-Ho;Park, Sang-Guk
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.350-356
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dietary corn levels in Total Mixed Rations (TMR) on growth and meat quality of castrated Korean black goats. For feeding trials, thirty-two castrated Korean black goats with similar age (average of 3 months) and body weight (average of 15.9 kg) were divided into the following four treatment groups: commercial feed (control), TMR containing 15% of corn (T1), TMR containing 25% of corn (T2), and TMR containing 35% of corn (T3) in a randomized complete block design. Final body weight was the highest in T2 (58.9 kg), followed by that in control group (53.1 kg). Average daily gain (ADG) and total dry matter intake (TDMI) were also the highest in T2 (100.2 g and 1,346 g, respectively). However, feed conversion ratio (13.4) was the lowest in T2. Carcass weight and dressing percentage in T2 and T3 were higher than those in the control. For meat quality characteristics, crude fat content was the highest in T2 (6.54%). Cooking loss (15.2%) was the lowest in the control. However, the control had the highest flavor value (5.3%). Oleic acid (C18:l) and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the highest in T2 (48.6% and 22.4%, respectively). Stearic acid (C18:0) was the highest in T1 (14.5%). Unsaturated fatty acid was the highest in the control (58.8%), followed by that in T3 (58.2%), T2 (57.8%), and T1 (54.4%). These results indicate that TMR containing 25% of corn could improve the growth performance and meat quality of castrated Korean black goats.

Quality Characteristics of Pettitoes(Jokbal) added with Coffee Meal (커피박 첨가 돈족(豚足)의 품질특성)

  • Choi, Seok-Bong;An, Sang-Ran;Lee, Myung-Ho
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this paper is to verify improvement of the basic quality of food resources and make the pork legs as the more advanced food products after taking special processing steps with the mixture of traditional medical herbs and hot water extracted coffee meal. The pH level of the pettitoes(Jokbal) showed the highest rate among the control group but it showed no statistical differences in the moisture content between the control and the pettitoes(Jokbal) processed with coffee waste extract as an additional component. In addition, the levels of crude fat and crude ash showed slight increases as the addition of the amount increase. In case of the proteins, however, tendency of slight was decreased but it was not significantly difference as the amount increases. The sodium rate in the pettitoes(Jokbal) was higher in the additional group than in the control group. Texture analysis showed a tendency of wide decrease in the hardness and chewiness depending on amount of the added coffee waste extract. On the other hand, as for the cohesiveness and springiness, there was no significant difference with the control group. In case of the lightness value, as the amount of added coffee waste extract is increased from 10% to 20% and 30%, the 'L' value was reduced significantly compared to that of the control. And the 'a' value was not significantly different compared to the coffee waste extract foil impregnated furniture control. But the 'b' values were significantly increased in accordance with the result of increasing the amount of control is at the lowest level. The result may come from the influence of coffee waste extract, which affects the color of the pettitoes(Jokbal). According to the sensory evaluation, the pork part with 10% of coffee waste extract showed the highest score in looking, chewiness, smell and preference, resulting in the improvement in quality of the pettitoes(Jokbal).

Gel and Texture Properties of Fish-meat Gel Prepared with Pagrus major in Comparison to Different Grades of Alaska Pollock (도미를 활용하여 제조한 연제품의 겔 및 texture 특성)

  • Gao, Ya;Oh, Jung Hwan;Karadeniz, Fatih;Lee, Seul-Gi;Kim, Hyung Kwang;Kim, Se Jong;Jung, Jun Mo;Cheon, Ji Hyeon;Kong, Chang-Suk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.955-962
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    • 2016
  • Fish-meat gel is an intermediate product used in a variety of surimi-based seafood. One of the most-used raw materials of fish-meat gel is Alaska Pollock due to its high-quality meat in terms of gel strength and texture. However, increasing demand for fish-meat gel, along with overexploitation of the wild catch Alaska Pollock, has put the industry in need of low-cost sustainable alternative sources for fish-meat gel. Pagrus major (PM) is a widely aquacultured fish known for having white meat that is low in fat. The current study compares the quality of fish-meat gel prepared from aquacultured PM to that of high and mid-grade Alaska Pollock fish-meat gel. Gels were compared in terms of gel strength, texture, color, and protein pattern. Results indicated that fish-meat gels prepared from PM were superior to Alaska Pollock fish-meat gels with regard to gel strength, hardness, springiness, chewiness, cutting strength, and breaking force. In addition, although not matching in quality, PM exhibited a cohesiveness, whiteness, and expressible moisture content comparable to Alaska Pollock of both grades. Protein pattern analysis also showed that PM and Alaska Pollock fish-meat gels had similar protein profiles before and after gel preparation. Therefore, P. major is suggested as a potential substitute for Alaska Pollock in fish-meat gel production.

Effect of Cooking Methods with Various Heating Apparatus on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken (가열기구에 따른 조리방법이 닭고기의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Ki-Hong;Kwon, Ki-Hyun;Kim, Eun-Mi;Kim, Young-Boong;Sohn, Dong-In;Choi, Jin-Young
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.201-213
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    • 2014
  • This study showed the quality characteristics of chicken breast meat(CB) and leg meat(CL) with various kinds of existing cooking methods and double layer pan filled with Phase Change Materials(PCM) heating. Steaming resulted the highest moisture contents of 63.9% and 62.1% each in CB and CL. Also, steaming showed the lowest with 1.3% and 8.6% of crude fat in CB and CL(p<0.05) respectively. Crude protein content of CB in charcoal heating and grilling of CL had the highest values of 37.9% and 30.5% each. In the test of crude ash, grilling showed the highest with 2.4% in CB(p<0.05) and oven heating and charcoal heating was the highest with 1.3% in CL(p<0.05). In the test of cooking loss, charcoal heating showed much higher with 33.52% and 41.16% in CB and CL each than the other cooking treatments. And in case of shear force test, $5.93kg/cm^2$ in CB and $6.80kg/cm^2$ in CL were the highest scores in grilling. In the test of color, L value of CB prepared by steaming showed the highest scores of 78.31(p<0.05) while CL by oven heating was the highest of 10.00 in a value. In the overall acceptability test of 9 point-scale sensory evaluation, CB prepared by charcoal heating showed the highest score of 7.25 points in boiling, but the lowest score of 6.00 points in steaming(p<0.05). CL by charcoal heating resulted the highest score of 7.71 points but had no significant difference.

Effect of water extract and distillate from the mixture of black goat meat and medicinal herb on osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast formation (흑염소와 약용식물 복합 증탕추출액 및 증류액이 조골세포 증식과 파골세포 형성에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Hyo-Nam;Leem, Kang-Hyun;Kwun, In-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.157-166
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The effects of water extract and distillate from the mixture of black goat meat and medicinal herb on MG-63 osteoblast proliferation and mouse bone marrow derived osteoclast formation were investigated. Methods: Proximate composition, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), mineral content, free amino acid composition and free fatty acid composition in black goat meat were determined. Water extract and distillate were prepared with three groups; goat meat only (BG-E, BG-D), six herbs added group (BG-E6, BG-D6), and eight herbs added group (BG-E8, BG-D8). Osteoblast proliferation, mineralization and calcium uptake activity of MG-63 cells were measured and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity of osteoclasts was analyzed. Results: Black goat meat had remarkably low fat and high level of calcium. Glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid. Herbs added extract groups (BG-E6 and BG-E8) showed increased MG-63 cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner, while all the distillates did not show the effect. All extracts and distillates showed significantly increased osteoblast mineralization depending on the concentration. In particular, herb added extract, BG-E6, increased 170.3% of control and the distillate of BG-D and BG-D6 increased up to 168.5% and 159.8%, respectively. Calcium uptake activities of all water extracts showed remarkable increase of BG-E6 and BG-E8 up to 615.5% and 628.1% of control, respectively. Ditillates had no effect except BG-D6. All water extracts significantly reduced the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in osteoclasts derived from mouse bone marrow. Conclusion: Combination of black goat meat and medicinal herb increased the MG-63 cell proliferation and effectively inhibited osteoclast differentiation in both water extracts and distillate of them, which implies that they could be used as potent functional food materials for bone health.

Hepatoprotective Effects of Semisulcospira libertine Hydrolysate on Alcohol-induced Fatty Liver in Mice (알코올성 지방간 유발 마우스에서 다슬기 유래 가수분해물의 간 보호 효과)

  • Song, Eun Jin;Cho, Kyoung Hwan;Choo, Ho Jin;Yang, Eun Young;Jung, Yoon Kyoung;Seo, Min Gyun;Kim, Jong Cheol;Kang, Eun Ju;Ryu, Gi Hyung;Park, Beom Yong;Hah, Young-Sool
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.318-325
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    • 2017
  • Alcoholic steatosis is a fundamental metabolic disorder and may precede the onset of more severe forms of alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we isolated enzymatichydrolysate from Semisulcospira libertine by alcalase hydrolysis and investigated the protective effect of Semisulcospira libertine hydrolysate on liver injury induced by alcohol in the mouse model of chronic and binge ethanol feeding (NIAAA). In an in vitro study, the hydrolysate protects HepG2 cells from ethanol toxicity. Liver damage was assessed by histopathological examination, as well as by quantitating activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). After the administration of S. libertina hydrolysate, fat accumulation and infiltration of inflammatory cells in liver tissues were significantly decreased in the NIAAA mouse model. The elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities, along with the lipid contents of a damaged liver, were recovered in experimental mice administrated with S. libertina hydrolysate, suggesting its role in blood enzyme activation and lipid content restoration within damaged liver tissues. Moreover, treatment with S. libertine hydrolysate reduced the expression rate of cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$, and IL-6, which accelerate inflammation and induces tissue damage. All data showed that S. libertine hydrolysate has a preventive role against alcohol-induced liver damages by improving the activities of blood enzymes and modulating the expression of inflammation factor, suggesting S. libertine hydrolysate could be a commercially potential material for the restoration of hepatotoxicity.

Effects of Total Mixed Fermentation Feeds Based on Rice-straw and Six Forage Crops on the Productivity of Holstein Cows (청예사료작물과 볏짚 위주의 완전배합발효사료 급여가 Holstein 착유우의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, H. J.;Kim, H. S.;Ki, K. S.;Jeong, H. Y.;Baek, K. S.;Kim, J. S.;Cho, K. K.;Cho, J. S.;Lee, H. G.;Woo, J. H.;Choi, Y. J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 2003
  • This experiment was carried out to evaluate the value of total mixed fermentation feeds(TMFF) as completely mixed ration and to observe the effect of various kinds of TMFF on the palatability, feed intake, and milk performance in Holstein cows. The dry matter (DM) content of TMFF used in the experiment was 23.98-28.42% range, and CP, TDN, ADF and NDF were 16.2${\sim}$19.2%, 58.3-65.1%, 34.4-39.6% and 46.9${\sim}$49.9% levels, respectively. The relative feed value (RFV) in rape-, alfalfa-, grass-, oat-, corn-TMFF groups were 138.6, 133.9, 116.5, 111.8, 111.4 and 108.1, respectively. Among these groups, RFV of rye-TMFF group was lowest. Dry matter disappearance(DMD) showed 0.8${\sim}$.9% to the all kinds of TMFF groups. The pH was 3.89${\sim}$.87 and $NH_3$-N concentration was 6.93-8.66 mg/$d\ell$. The acetic acid concentration in the raw material of TMFF showed low level of 0.19${\sim}$0.57%, lactic acid showed high level of 1.17${\sim}$3.21% and butyric acid was very high as 0.03${\sim}$0.32%. Therefore, these results provide evidence that the quality of TMFF was not so bad. In the daily fresh matter intake on the alfalfa-, grass-, rape-, corn-, oats- and rye-TMFF were showed 62.85, 60.48, 58.04, 57.11, 54.61 and 45.74 kg respectively. All TMFF showed high palatability as daily dry matter intake of 1.95 to 2.90% by body weight of experimental cows. Body condition score(BCS) was gradually increased in during 60 days of the experiment term. Average daily gain(ADG) showed about 140.0${\sim}$326.7g. In alfalfa-TMFF group, the ADG was higher than in the other groups (p<0.05). Also, the increase in BCS was observed in grass-TMFF group (3.07 to 3.34) and rye-TMFF group was decreased in 3.07 to 3.34 (p<0.05). The milk yield appropriately showed a range of 16.16${\sim}$18.95 kg in all groups. Among these groups, alfalfa-TMFF group was highest(P<0.05). Average milk fat contents showed high levels of 4.06${\sim}$4.79% and the level was high in order of rape-, grass-, corn-, alfalfa-, rye- and oats-TMFF. Milk protein was highest in forage-TMFF and level of lactose in milk was approximately 4.56% in overall groups. Solid non fat(SNF) and total solid(TS) contents were 8.75% and 12.8%, respectively. However, milk composition was not significantly affected by TMFF.

A Development of Cholesterol Removed Cheese (콜레스테롤을 제거한 치즈의 개발에 관한 연구)

  • 정청송
    • Proceedings of the Korea Hospitality Industry Research Society Conference
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    • pp.83-98
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    • 2002
  • The old testament of the Bible has written the milk and curd. God said, I will ive you to how the milk and honey. The present study was designed to examine the effects of different homogenization pressure, homogenization temperature and $\beta$-cyclodextrin concentration on cholesterol removal rate of cheese, and to optimize the factors of cheese manufacture Process. In addition, the characteristics from cholesterol removed cheese and control are compared in the rheological and ensory analysis. The optimized process condition for cholesterol removal was for homogenization pressure, 74$^{\circ}C$ for homogenization temperature and 2% for $\beta$-cyclodextrin concentration, it showed 875% of the highest cholesterol removal rate in milk. Therefore, manufacture conditions of cholesterol removed cheese were chosen 74$^{\circ}C$ for homogenization temperature, for homogenization pressure, and I or 2% for $\beta$-cyclodextrin concentration. Cholesterol removed cheese and control were compared with yield, cholesterol removal, meltability, stretchability, textural properties and sensory analysis. Cholesterol content of control cheese containing 23.8% milk fat was cheese made from milk treated with 2% $\beta$-cyclodextrin and homogenization pressure was cholesterol removal. Yield of cholesterol removed cheese. As the homogenization pressure increased, oiling off reduced with showed better surface appearance. Stretchability of cholesterol removed cheese was lower 5~10cm than over 30cm of control. Meltability of cholesterol removed cheese also was lower than control. The hardness, gumminess, chewiness reduced to respectively. In the result of sensory analysis, treatment of homogenization for cholesterol removed cheese improved appearance and flavor, however texture fell. In addition, the resent result of the study indicated that about 75% of cholesterol in cheese could be removed, and the possibility of development of cholesterol removed cheese was observed. We have hope to research manufacture cheese global wide.

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The Ripening of Camembert Cheese Made with Mucor Miehei Rennet (Mucor Miehei 응유효소(凝乳酵素)로 제조(製造)한 Camembert Cheese의 숙성(熟成)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Mooh Il;Kim, Jong Woo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.179-200
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    • 1989
  • Mucor miehei rennet(MR) was added as calf rennet(CR) substitutes in the fixed amounts of mixed rennets in making Camembert cheese. The conditions in the variations of chemical composition: water-soluble nitrogen, non-caseinic nitrogen, non-proteinic nitrogen, amino nitrogen, ammoniacal nitorgen, electrophoresis, molecular fractionation, mineral distribution, texture characterisitics, free amino acids and free fatty acids, were checked up with the sensory test and the chesse yields at each ripening period. The results obtained by investigating the utility of Mucor rennet were summarized as follows: 1. CR chesse, MR cheese and the mixed-rennet chesse failed to show any significant difference in their yields of 15%. 2. The contents of protein, fat and ash in MR cheese gave lower value than CR cheese did and with progress of ripening lactose decreased rapidly after 14 days of ripening. The difference among the rate of addition of mucor rennet was not recognized. 3. The WSN contents of 5 fresh sample chesse were from 14.7% to 17.3% and WSN increased from 39.7% to 41.0% with progress of ripening. After 21 days of ripening MR chesse had more WSN than CR cheese did. In NCN and ammoniacal nitrogen MR cheese showed higher value. 4. As the ripening progressed, MR chesse showed more cystein, phenylalanine and proline than CR chesse did but it failed to show any increase in aspartic acid, threonine and glutamic acid etc. 5. In the content of free fatty acid MR chesse showed higher value than CR cheese did and with the progress of ripening fatty acids increased from 8.36 mEq to 26.36 mEq but did not show any significant difference in the cheese types by the coagulant ratio. 6. Ca contents in the sample chesse were 0.238-0.27%, Mg 0.019-0.022%, Na 0.910-1.047%, and K 0.175-0.200%. The important non-sedimentable Ca in casein remained from 61 % to 77% without regard the ripening periods and added-rennets and Mg remained from 59.1% to 92.5% in non-sedimentable and water-soluble conditions. 7. In the fractionation of protein by ultrafilteration, MW> $5{\times}10^4$ decresed from 95% at the beginning period of ripening to 45% and MW< $10^4$ increased from 0.2% to 38% and definite caseinolysis was shown in all samples. 8. All the cheese showed to different electrophoretic patterns for the added-amounts of mucor rennet in the 14 days of ripenig. In the 28 days or ripening, MR cheese kept some bands on the patterns compared with CR cheese. 9. In vitro digestibility increased from 81.48-94.81 % to 94.47-98.61% but failed to show any significant difference in the cheese types by the coagulant ratio. 10. In hardness, MR cheese showed lower value compared with CR cheese as the ripening progressed. 11. The results of the sensory test failed to show any difference in flora rind, feelings in mouth and hands, deep structure, flavor and bitterness between CR Camembert cheese and MR Camembert chesse.

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Composition of Vitamin A, E, $B_l$ and $B_2$ Contents in Korean Cow's Raw Milk in Korea (국내산 원유 중 비타민 A, E, $B_l$$B_2$ 함량에 관한 연구)

  • Kwak Byung-Man;Kim Sung-Han;Kim Kang-Seob;Lee Ki-Woong;Ahn Jang-Hyuk;Jang Chi-Hoon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.245-251
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to investigate the changes of vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin $B_l$ and vitamin $B_2$ contents in cow's raw milk collected from dairy farms in Chungcheong-do and Jeolla-do for a year. The contents of fat soluble vitamin A and E were changed as seasonal effect, but water soluble vitamin $B_l$ and $B_2$ contents were not changed as seasonal effect. Vitamin A content in cow's raw milk was as follows [minimum ${\sim}$maximum (mean), ug/100 mL]; $35.1{\sim}59.0$ (44.4) in spring, $36.7{\sim}65.6$ (50.0) in summer, $28.7{\sim}61.2$ (46.8) in autumn and $29.9{\sim}57.8$ (43.1) in winter. In case of vitamin E was as follows [minimum${\sim}$maximum (mean), ug/100 mL]; $28.3{\sim}59.2$ (45.8) in spring, $39.6{\sim}69.9$ (58.8) in summer, $35.0{\sim}62.8$ (46.2) in autumn and $26.0{\sim}55.4$ (41.5) in winter. In case of vitamin $B_l$ was as follow [minimum${\sim}$maximum (mean), ug/100 mL]; $27.7{\sim}57.9$ (42.84) in spring, $32.4{\sim}66.1$ (49.39) in summer, $34.1{\sim}63.7$ (46.69) in autumn and $20.6{\sim}61.4$ (43.20 in winter. The amounts of vitamin $B_2$ in cow's raw milk was as follows [minimum${\sim}$maximum (mean), ug/100 mL]; $150{\sim}182$ (160 in spring, $145{\sim}185$ (163) in summer, $149{\sim}180$ (166) in autumn and $148{\sim}190$ (167) in winter.