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Determination of β-Carotene and Retinol in Korean Noodles and Bread Products (가공 및 외식식품 중 면류 및 제빵류의 레티놀 및 베타카로틴 함량 조사)

  • Shin, Jung-Ah;Chun, Ji Yeon;Lee, Junsoo;Shin, Ki Yong;Lee, Soon Kyu;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.1949-1957
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    • 2013
  • The contents of ${\beta}$-carotene and retinol in processed and restaurant foods, such as Korean noodles, mandus, rice cakes and bread products, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV/visible and fluorescence detector, respectively. Samples were collected from different local areas (i.e. Gangwon-do, Gyeonggi-do, Gyeongsang-do, Seoul, Jeolla-do, and Chungcheong-do). After homogenization, samples were hydrolyzed by direct alkali saponification; thereafter, fat-soluble components were extracted by a mixture of n-hexane/ethylacetate (85:15, v/v), containing 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). ${\beta}$-carotene and retinol contents in infant formula used as an in-house material for the analytical quality control. Among 14 Korean noodles, high contents of ${\beta}$-carotene were found in Bibim-Guksu (average 442.43 ${\mu}g/100g$) and Jjolmyeon (average 301.39 ${\mu}g/100g$). In 4 Korean mandus, the highest contents of ${\beta}$-carotene was determined in Kimchi-mandu (average 197.64 ${\mu}g/100g$), resulting in 33.3 RE of the converted vitamin A. Among 12 Korean rice cakes, Maeun-Tteokbokki and Modm-Chaltteok contained relatively high content of ${\beta}$-carotene with 205.11 and 41.33 ${\mu}g/100g$, respectively, while retinol was detected only in Maeun- Tteokbokki (1.65~10.45 ${\mu}g/100g$). In addition, among 8 bread products, 77.3 RE of pastry, 51.2 RE of buttercream- bread, and 41.4 RE of morning roll were found as the contents of the converted vitamin A.

Comparison of Nutrient Composition of Yacon Germplasm (야콘 유전자원의 영양성분 비교 분석)

  • Kim, Su Jeong;Jin, Yong Ik;Nam, Jeong Hwan;Hong, Su Young;Sohn, Whang Bae;Kwon, Oh Kuen;Chang, Dong Chil;Cho, Hyun Mook;Jeong, Jin Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this study is to provide the basic data for yacon [Samallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Robinson] in dietary food. The nutritional compositons, such as protein, ash, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, vitamin and fructooligosaccharide, were analyzed for 4 yacon germplasm lines. Yacon has low calories with only 46~56 kcal/100 g. The contents of water, fat, ash, protein, carbohydrate and dietary fiber were ranged 85.9~86.8%, 0.1~0.2%, 0.2~0.3%, 0.5~0.7%, 12.2~13.1% and 1.05~1.14%, respectively. The iodine-starch test did not show any color or precipitation reaction, which indicates that yacon has no starch content. However, in the absence of starch, yacon is rich in fluctooligosaccharide, which is between 9.6~11.1%. Maltose is present in the larger amount, followed by sucrose, glucose, and fructose in terms of free sugars. The analysis of minerals revealed that yacon contains potassium in the larger amount of 141~176 mg/100 g F.W., followed by magnesium at 8.2~10.6 mg, calcium, and sodium representing the least present mineral. Yacon proved to have a total of 17 types of amino acids, which are between 404.0~581.8 mg per 100 g of yacon. Glutamic acid, the main sweetening component, is present in the large amount of 94.0~182.2 mg/100 g F.W., followed by aspartic acid, arginine, and alanine. The proportion of the essential amino acid was 24.8~33.6%. Results of analysis also showed that yacon contains 0.001~0.024 mg, 0.03~0.11 mg, 0.02~0.3 mg, 0.3~0.4 mg and 14.1~20.6 mg of ${\beta}$-carotene, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and ascorbic acid, respectively. It is also likely to be highly used as functional food material in the future because it is abundant in both fluctooligosaccharide and antioxidants which are important functional components.

Effects of Feeding Herbaceous Peat on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Holstein Beef Cattle (허브부식토 급여가 비육우의 증체 및 육질개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hong-Yun;Park, Joong-Kook;Ahn, Jong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.79-93
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    • 2013
  • The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding herbaceous peat on growth performance and meat quality of Holstein beef cattle. Total of 20 Holstein beef cattle (18~20 month of age, $657{\pm}31kg$ body weight) were conventionally and separately fed a concentrate diet and rice straw for 134 days. The dietary treatments were randomly assigned by complete block design into four treatments, each of which were five heads in early fattening stage. The treatments in this study were the control group fed basal diet, feeding herbaceous peat group (5%/diet, T1), feeding coated vitamin C group (20g/head, T2) and feeding mixture of herbaceous peat and coated vitamin C group (5%/diet+20g/head, T3). The initial body weights between the groups of control, T1, T2 and T3 were similar showing with $689{\pm}31$, $661{\pm}24$, $659{\pm}32$ and $622{\pm}19kg$. The daily body weight gain was higher in T3 by 8.3% than that in the control (p<0.05). Glucose concentration in control group was the highest among treatments (p<0.05), but there was no significant differences between treatments on AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), BUN and total protein concentrations of blood. The fat content of sirloin in the T2 was significantly higher than control and T1 group (p<0.05). Meat color (CIE) values in T2 was the highest among treatments (p<0.05), and other treatments also increased those values. In overall, the feeding herbaceous peat and vitamin C to the Holstein beef cattle was considered to have positive effects on the growth performance of Holstein beef cattle. In addition, the effects on the performances of animals were more improved when fed herbaceous peat and vitamin C concurrently.

Detection of Hydrocarbons Induced by Electron Beam Irradiation of Almond (Prunus amygosalus L.) and Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (전자선 조사한 아몬드(Prunus amygosalus L.)와 땅콩(Arachis hypogaea)에서 유래한 지방분해산물 분석)

  • Jeong, In Seon;Kim, Jae Sung;Hwang, In Min;Choi, Sung Hwa;Choi, Ji Yeon;Nho, Eun Yeong;Khan, Naeem;Kim, Byung Sook;Kim, Kyong Su
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.20-24
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    • 2013
  • Food irradiation has recently become one of the most successful techniques to preserve food with increased shelf life. This study aims to analyze hydrocarbons in almonds (Prunus amygosalus L.) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) induced by electron beam irradiation. The samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy by e-beam and using florisil column chromatography fat, and content was extracted. The induced hydrocarbons were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major hydrocarbons in both irradiated samples were 1,7-hexadecadiene ($C_{16:2}$) and 8-heptadecene ($C_{17:1}$) from oleic acid, 1,7,10-hexadecatriene ($C_{16:3}$) and 6,9-heptadecadiene ($C_{17:2}$) from linoleic acid and 1-tetradecene ($C_{14:1}$) and pentadecane ($C_{15:0}$) from palmitic acid. Concentrations of the hydrocarbons produced by e-beam were found to be depended upon the composition of fatty acid in both almonds and peanuts. The $C_{n-2}$ compound was found to be higher than $C_{n-1}$ compound in oleic acid and palmitic acid, while in case of linoleic acid, $C_{n-1}$compound was higher than $C_{n-2}$ compound. The radiation induced hydrocarbons were detected only in irradiated samples, with 1 kGy or above, and not in the non-irradiated ones. The production of 1,7-hexadecadiene ($C_{16:2}$), 8-heptadecene ($C_{17:1}$), 1,7,10-hexadecatriene ($C_{16:3}$) and 6,9-heptadecadiene ($C_{17:2}$), in high concentration gave enough information to suggest that these may be the possible marker compounds of electron beam irradiation in almonds and peanuts.

Comparison of an Automated Most-Probable-Number Technique TEMPO®TVC with Traditional Plating Methods PetrifilmTM for Estimating Populations of Total Aerobic Bacteria with Livestock Products (축산물가공품에서 건조필름법과 TEMPO®TVC 검사법의 총세균수 비교분석)

  • Kim, Young-Jo;Wee, Sung-Hwan;Yoon, Ha-Chung;Heo, Eun-Jeong;Park, Hyun-Jeong;Kim, Ji-Ho;Moon, Jin-San
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.103-107
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    • 2012
  • We compared between an automated most-probable-number technique $TEMPO^{(R)}$TVC and traditional plating methods $Petrifilm^{TM}$ for estimating populations of total aerobic bacteria in various livestock products. 257 samples randomly selected in local retail stores and 87 samples inoculated with $E.$ $coli$ ATCC 25922, $Staphylococcus$ $aureus$ ATCC 12868 were tested in this study. The degree of agreement was estimated according to the CCFRA (Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Group) Guideline 29 and the agreement indicates the difference of two kinds methods is lower than 1 log base 10($log_{10}$). The samples of hams, jerky products, ground meat products, milks, ice creams, infant formulas, and egg heat formed products were showed above 95% in the agreement of methods. In contrast, proportion of agreement on meat extract products, cheeses and sausages were 93.1%, 92.1%, 89.1%, respectively. One press ham and five sausages containing spice and seasoning, two pork cutlets containing spice and bread crumbs, two meat extract product and two natural cheeses and one processing cheese with a high fat content, and one ice cream containing chocolate of all samples showed the discrepancy. Our result suggest that $TEMPO^{(R)}$TVC system is efficient to analyses total aerobic bacteria to compare manual method in time-consuming and laborious process except livestock products having limit of detection.

Effects of Total Mixed Rations with Corn on Growth and Meat Quality of Castrated Korean Black Goats (옥수수 첨가 TMR 사료 급여가 거세흑염소의 발육과 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sang-Uk;Choi, Young-Sun;Yoo, Dae-Joong;Ku, Min-Jung;Lee, Gi-Ho;Park, Sang-Guk
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.350-356
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dietary corn levels in Total Mixed Rations (TMR) on growth and meat quality of castrated Korean black goats. For feeding trials, thirty-two castrated Korean black goats with similar age (average of 3 months) and body weight (average of 15.9 kg) were divided into the following four treatment groups: commercial feed (control), TMR containing 15% of corn (T1), TMR containing 25% of corn (T2), and TMR containing 35% of corn (T3) in a randomized complete block design. Final body weight was the highest in T2 (58.9 kg), followed by that in control group (53.1 kg). Average daily gain (ADG) and total dry matter intake (TDMI) were also the highest in T2 (100.2 g and 1,346 g, respectively). However, feed conversion ratio (13.4) was the lowest in T2. Carcass weight and dressing percentage in T2 and T3 were higher than those in the control. For meat quality characteristics, crude fat content was the highest in T2 (6.54%). Cooking loss (15.2%) was the lowest in the control. However, the control had the highest flavor value (5.3%). Oleic acid (C18:l) and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the highest in T2 (48.6% and 22.4%, respectively). Stearic acid (C18:0) was the highest in T1 (14.5%). Unsaturated fatty acid was the highest in the control (58.8%), followed by that in T3 (58.2%), T2 (57.8%), and T1 (54.4%). These results indicate that TMR containing 25% of corn could improve the growth performance and meat quality of castrated Korean black goats.

Quality Characteristics of Pettitoes(Jokbal) added with Coffee Meal (커피박 첨가 돈족(豚足)의 품질특성)

  • Choi, Seok-Bong;An, Sang-Ran;Lee, Myung-Ho
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this paper is to verify improvement of the basic quality of food resources and make the pork legs as the more advanced food products after taking special processing steps with the mixture of traditional medical herbs and hot water extracted coffee meal. The pH level of the pettitoes(Jokbal) showed the highest rate among the control group but it showed no statistical differences in the moisture content between the control and the pettitoes(Jokbal) processed with coffee waste extract as an additional component. In addition, the levels of crude fat and crude ash showed slight increases as the addition of the amount increase. In case of the proteins, however, tendency of slight was decreased but it was not significantly difference as the amount increases. The sodium rate in the pettitoes(Jokbal) was higher in the additional group than in the control group. Texture analysis showed a tendency of wide decrease in the hardness and chewiness depending on amount of the added coffee waste extract. On the other hand, as for the cohesiveness and springiness, there was no significant difference with the control group. In case of the lightness value, as the amount of added coffee waste extract is increased from 10% to 20% and 30%, the 'L' value was reduced significantly compared to that of the control. And the 'a' value was not significantly different compared to the coffee waste extract foil impregnated furniture control. But the 'b' values were significantly increased in accordance with the result of increasing the amount of control is at the lowest level. The result may come from the influence of coffee waste extract, which affects the color of the pettitoes(Jokbal). According to the sensory evaluation, the pork part with 10% of coffee waste extract showed the highest score in looking, chewiness, smell and preference, resulting in the improvement in quality of the pettitoes(Jokbal).

Gel and Texture Properties of Fish-meat Gel Prepared with Pagrus major in Comparison to Different Grades of Alaska Pollock (도미를 활용하여 제조한 연제품의 겔 및 texture 특성)

  • Gao, Ya;Oh, Jung Hwan;Karadeniz, Fatih;Lee, Seul-Gi;Kim, Hyung Kwang;Kim, Se Jong;Jung, Jun Mo;Cheon, Ji Hyeon;Kong, Chang-Suk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.955-962
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    • 2016
  • Fish-meat gel is an intermediate product used in a variety of surimi-based seafood. One of the most-used raw materials of fish-meat gel is Alaska Pollock due to its high-quality meat in terms of gel strength and texture. However, increasing demand for fish-meat gel, along with overexploitation of the wild catch Alaska Pollock, has put the industry in need of low-cost sustainable alternative sources for fish-meat gel. Pagrus major (PM) is a widely aquacultured fish known for having white meat that is low in fat. The current study compares the quality of fish-meat gel prepared from aquacultured PM to that of high and mid-grade Alaska Pollock fish-meat gel. Gels were compared in terms of gel strength, texture, color, and protein pattern. Results indicated that fish-meat gels prepared from PM were superior to Alaska Pollock fish-meat gels with regard to gel strength, hardness, springiness, chewiness, cutting strength, and breaking force. In addition, although not matching in quality, PM exhibited a cohesiveness, whiteness, and expressible moisture content comparable to Alaska Pollock of both grades. Protein pattern analysis also showed that PM and Alaska Pollock fish-meat gels had similar protein profiles before and after gel preparation. Therefore, P. major is suggested as a potential substitute for Alaska Pollock in fish-meat gel production.

Effect of Cooking Methods with Various Heating Apparatus on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken (가열기구에 따른 조리방법이 닭고기의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Ki-Hong;Kwon, Ki-Hyun;Kim, Eun-Mi;Kim, Young-Boong;Sohn, Dong-In;Choi, Jin-Young
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.201-213
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    • 2014
  • This study showed the quality characteristics of chicken breast meat(CB) and leg meat(CL) with various kinds of existing cooking methods and double layer pan filled with Phase Change Materials(PCM) heating. Steaming resulted the highest moisture contents of 63.9% and 62.1% each in CB and CL. Also, steaming showed the lowest with 1.3% and 8.6% of crude fat in CB and CL(p<0.05) respectively. Crude protein content of CB in charcoal heating and grilling of CL had the highest values of 37.9% and 30.5% each. In the test of crude ash, grilling showed the highest with 2.4% in CB(p<0.05) and oven heating and charcoal heating was the highest with 1.3% in CL(p<0.05). In the test of cooking loss, charcoal heating showed much higher with 33.52% and 41.16% in CB and CL each than the other cooking treatments. And in case of shear force test, $5.93kg/cm^2$ in CB and $6.80kg/cm^2$ in CL were the highest scores in grilling. In the test of color, L value of CB prepared by steaming showed the highest scores of 78.31(p<0.05) while CL by oven heating was the highest of 10.00 in a value. In the overall acceptability test of 9 point-scale sensory evaluation, CB prepared by charcoal heating showed the highest score of 7.25 points in boiling, but the lowest score of 6.00 points in steaming(p<0.05). CL by charcoal heating resulted the highest score of 7.71 points but had no significant difference.

Effect of water extract and distillate from the mixture of black goat meat and medicinal herb on osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast formation (흑염소와 약용식물 복합 증탕추출액 및 증류액이 조골세포 증식과 파골세포 형성에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Hyo-Nam;Leem, Kang-Hyun;Kwun, In-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.157-166
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The effects of water extract and distillate from the mixture of black goat meat and medicinal herb on MG-63 osteoblast proliferation and mouse bone marrow derived osteoclast formation were investigated. Methods: Proximate composition, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), mineral content, free amino acid composition and free fatty acid composition in black goat meat were determined. Water extract and distillate were prepared with three groups; goat meat only (BG-E, BG-D), six herbs added group (BG-E6, BG-D6), and eight herbs added group (BG-E8, BG-D8). Osteoblast proliferation, mineralization and calcium uptake activity of MG-63 cells were measured and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity of osteoclasts was analyzed. Results: Black goat meat had remarkably low fat and high level of calcium. Glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid. Herbs added extract groups (BG-E6 and BG-E8) showed increased MG-63 cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner, while all the distillates did not show the effect. All extracts and distillates showed significantly increased osteoblast mineralization depending on the concentration. In particular, herb added extract, BG-E6, increased 170.3% of control and the distillate of BG-D and BG-D6 increased up to 168.5% and 159.8%, respectively. Calcium uptake activities of all water extracts showed remarkable increase of BG-E6 and BG-E8 up to 615.5% and 628.1% of control, respectively. Ditillates had no effect except BG-D6. All water extracts significantly reduced the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in osteoclasts derived from mouse bone marrow. Conclusion: Combination of black goat meat and medicinal herb increased the MG-63 cell proliferation and effectively inhibited osteoclast differentiation in both water extracts and distillate of them, which implies that they could be used as potent functional food materials for bone health.