• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Content

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Variance Components and Genetic Parameters Estimated for Fat and Protein Content in Individual Months of Lactation: The Case of Tsigai Sheep

  • Oravcova, Marta
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.170-175
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to assess variance components and genetic parameters for fat and protein content in Tsigai sheep using multivariate animal models in which fat and protein content in individual months of lactation were treated as different traits, and univariate models in which fat and protein content were treated as repeated measures of the same traits. Test day measurements were taken between the second and the seventh month of lactation. The fixed effects were lactation number, litter size and days in milk. The random effects were animal genetic effect and permanent environmental effect of ewe. The effect of flock-year-month of test day measurement was fitted either as a fixed (FYM) or random (fym) effect. Heritabilities for fat content were estimated between 0.06 and 0.17 (FYM fitted) and between 0.06 and 0.11 (fym fitted). Heritabilities for protein content were estimated between 0.15 and 0.23 (FYM fitted) and between 0.10 and 0.18 (fym fitted). For fat content, variance ratios of permanent environmental effect of ewe were estimated between 0.04 and 0.11 (FYM fitted) and between 0.02 and 0.06 (fym fitted). For protein content, variance ratios of permanent environmental effect of ewe were estimated between 0.13 and 0.20 (FYM fitted) and between 0.08 and 0.12 (fym fitted). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by fym effect ranged from 0.39 to 0.43 for fat content and from 0.25 to 0.36 for protein content. Genetic correlations between individual months of lactation ranged from 0.74 to 0.99 (fat content) and from 0.64 to 0.99 (protein content). Fat content heritabilities estimated with univariate animal models roughly corresponded with heritability estimates from multivariate models: 0.13 (FYM fitted) and 0.07 (fym fitted). Protein content heritabilities estimated with univariate animal models also corresponded with heritability estimates from multivariate models: 0.18 (FYM fitted) and 0.13 (fym fitted).

The Relationship between Chemical Compositions, Meat Quality, and Palatability of the 10 Primal Cuts from Hanwoo Steer

  • Jung, Eun-Young;Hwang, Young-Hwa;Joo, Seon-Tea
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.145-151
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    • 2016
  • The relationship between chemical compositions, meat quality traits, and palatability attributes in 10 primal cuts from Hanwoo steer carcasses were assessed. Sensory palatability attributes of Hanwoo beef were more closely related with fat content than to moisture or protein content. Among the chemical compositions, only fat had a significant correlation with juiciness (0.67, p<0.001), tenderness (0.32, p<0.05), and overall palatability (0.56, p<0.001). Oleic acid (%) was not significantly related with overall palatability (p>0.05). Overall palatability was negatively correlated with drip loss (−0.32, p<0.05), cooking loss (−0.36, p<0.05), and shear force (−0.54, p<0.01). The correlation between fat content and overall palatability was increased when higher fat cuts (Ansim, Dungsim, Chaekeut, Yangjee, and Kalbi) were analyzed, compared to lower fat cuts (Moksim, Abdari, Udun, Suldo, and Satae). Also, the correlation between shear force and overall palatability was decreased in lower fat cuts compared to higher fat cuts. Our results suggest that the palatability of Hanwoo beef can be improved by increasing fat content in muscles, as increased fat content leads to an increase in sensory tenderness, flavor, and juiciness.

Cholesterol Content , Calories and Production Costs of Low Fat Ground Beef Manufactured with the Addition of Cooked Old Rice (취반 재고미를 첨가하여 제조한 저지방 분쇄우육의 Cholesterol 함량 및 열량과 생산원가)

  • Whang, Key;Kim, Hyuk-Il;Lee, Sam-Bin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.673-677
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    • 1996
  • Four low fat ground beef groups containing 10% fat plus 0, 5, 10 and 20% additional cooked old rice and a control ground beef containing 30% fat were prepared and their cholesterol contents, calories and production costs were investigated to find out the appropriateness of addition of cooked old rice. There were no differences in pHs with the variations in fat content and the content of cooked old rice. As the amount of added cooked old rice increased from 5 to 20%, cook yield of ground beef also increased. When the fat content of beef was reduced from 30 to 10%, the cholesterol content of beef was not reduced but with the fat content fixed to 10% and the content of added cooked old rice increased from 5 to 20%, the cholesterol content of ground beef decreased. Calories of ground beef were reduced by approximately 50% with the reduction of fat content from 30 to 10% and production costs decreased with the increase in the content of added cooked old rice.

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Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Low-fat Frankfurters

  • Yeo, Eui-Joo;Kim, Hyun-Wook;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Song, Dong-Heon;Kim, Yong-Jae;Ham, Youn-Kyung;He, Fu-Yi;Park, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Cheon-Jei
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.415-422
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    • 2014
  • Duck feet gelatin (DFG) gel was added as a fat replacer to low-fat frankfurters and the effect of DFG on physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of low-fat frankfurters was evaluated. DFG gel was prepared with a 20% duck feet gelatin concentration (w/w). Adding DFG decreased lightness and increased yellowness of the low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). However, DFG did not affect redness of low-fat frankfurters (p>0.05). The statistical results indicated that adding DFG improved cooking yield of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In addition, replacing pork back fat with DFG resulted in increased moisture content, protein content, and ash content of low-fat frankfurters, and the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel had the highest moisture content and lowest fat content (p<0.05). Adding of DFG increased all textural parameters including hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and gumminess of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In terms of sensory properties, the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel showed similar satisfaction scores for the flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance when compared to the regular frankfurters (20% back fat). Therefore, our results suggest that DFG could be an effective novel source, as a fat replacer, for manufacturing of low-fat frankfurters.

Manufacture and Evaluation of Low-Eat Meat Products(A review) (저지방 육제품의 제조 및 평가)

  • 진구복
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.363-372
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    • 2002
  • Reducing the fat content of processed meat products can be performed by (1) using leaner raw meat materials (2) inducing non-meat ingredients that serve to replace a portion or all of the fat, and (3) applying new ingredient combinations, technologies or processing procedures that decrease the fat and cholesterol content of meat products. Low-fat meat products were manufactured with Int replacers which were food ingredients that had the functional and sensory properties of fat without contributing fat calories, resulting in lower fat(<3%) content. Added water, non-meat proteins, carbohydrates, such as starch and hydrocolloids(gums) and vegetable oils have been used as typical fat replacers to be used in meat products. In addition, fat substitutes included structural lipids, sucrose polyester and ingredient combinations. Formulations for the manufacture of low-fat meat products in combined with new technologies have focused on the use of fat replacer combinations that contributes a minimum of calories and not detrimental to flavor, juiciness, mouthfeel or textural traits expected more traditional products. In conclusion, some combinations of fat replacements that mimics the flavor, mouthfeel and textural characteristics of fat offer potential for further development of low-fat meat products to have similar characteristics of regular-fat counterparts.

Comparison of crude fat content and intramuscular fat score at different position of loin from Hanwoo (한우 등심의 위치별 조지방 함량 및 근내지방도 비교)

  • Lee, Chulwoo;Lee, Hanhyeon;Baek, Junoh;Park, Jungyu;Jung, Samooel;Jo, Cheorun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to make certain that the intramuscular fat score at 13th rib could represent the fat content of whole loin from Hanwoo in Korea beef grading system. A total 42 loins from 23 carcasses of grade $1^{{+}{+}}$, 16 carcasses of grade $1^+$, and 3 carcasses of grade 1 of Hanwoo were used for this study. The crude fat content and intramuscular fat score at the $1^{st}$, $6^{th}$, and $13^{th}$ rib, and the last lumbar position of loin were measured. The crude fat content was the highest at the $6^{th}$ rib of loin from the carcasses of grade $1^{{+}{+}}$ and $1^+$ (p<0.05). There were no significant difference of the intramuscular fat scores measured by image analysis and beef marbling score (BMS) between the 6th and $13^{th}$ rib of loin from the carcasses of $1^{{+}{+}}$ and $1^+$ and that were significantly higher than intramuscular fat scores at the $1^{st}$ rib and the last lumbar position of the loin. From the results, we conclude that the intramuscular fat score at the $13^{th}$ rib can represent the fat content of loin when meat graders decide the grade of Hanwoo carcass.

Comparison of the Bakery Products Made Commercial Fat or Low Trans Fat (일반 고체지와 저트랜스 고체지를 이용한 베이커리 제품의 특성 비교)

  • Hwang, Pu-Yeon;Kim, Yu-Mi;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 2007
  • Breads and cookies made with conventional or low-trans fat(margarine and shortening) were analyzed by determining their trans fat content, textural properties and color values after production. The trans fatty acids content in conventional margarine was three times higher than that of low-trans margarine. Moreover, the content of trans fatty acids in the conventional shortening was 49 times higher than that of low-trans shortening. The trans fatty acid contents of cookies and breads made with low-trans fat, can be reduced more than 2 to 75 times compared to cookies and breads made with conventional fat. In the produced cookies and breads, the color values and textural properties(hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness) did not differ significantly when the conventional fat or low-trans fat was used.

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The Quality Characteristics of Salted Ground Pork Patties Containing Various Fat Levels by Microwave Cooking

  • Jeong, Jong Youn;Lim, Seung Taek;Kim, Cheon Jei
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.538-546
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of fat level on the microwave cooking properties of ground pork patties with NaCl (1.5%). Ground pork patties were processed from pork hams to achieve fat levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. Each patty was cooked from a thawed state to 75℃ in a microwave oven at full power (700 W). After microwave cooking, protein content, moisture content, fat retention, and shear force values in patties decreased as fat level increased from 10 to 25%. As fat level increased, cooking time decreased but total cooking loss and drip loss were increased, whereas slight differences in diameter reduction and thickness of patties were observed. In raw patties, 10% fat patties had lower L* values and higher a* values compared to patties with more fat, but these differences were reduced when patties were cooked. Patties with 10% fat showed a more pink color on the surface and interior than patties with a higher fat content but more air pockets were noted in higher-fat patties. Higher-fat patties were more tender, juicy, and oily than lower-fat patties.

Anti-obesity Effects of Kochujang in Rats Fed on a High-fat Diet (고지방 식이를 섭취시킨 흰쥐에서 고추장의 항비만효과)

  • 주종재
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.787-793
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of kochujang and red pepper on energy intake, body fat content and energy expenditure in rats fed on high-fat(30%) diet. Kochujang and red pepper power were added in the high-fat diet, adjusting the level to 95 and 22g/kg diet, respectively, The level of red pepper addition was corresponding was corresponding to the level of the content of red pepper powder in the kichujang-added diet. Kochujang induced a 30% reduction in body fat gain which was associated with a significant increase in energy expenditure. However, red pepper reduced body fat gain by only 15%. Furthermore, energy expenditure was not affected by red pepper. Metabolizable energy intake, apparent digestibility and body protein gain were not affected by either kochujang or red pepper. It has been known that capsaicin, a pungent component of red pepper, enhances activity of brown adipose tissue through increasing protein content. In the present study, in addition of protein content, DNA content of interscapular brown adipose tissue was also increased by kochujang. Therefore, it appeared that the anti-obesity effects of kochujang was greater than those of red pepper, indicating more than red pepper was involved in the expression of the anti-obesity effects of kochujang(Korean J Nutrition 33(8) : 787-793, 2000)

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Effect of Age on Liquid Metabolism in Rats Fed Diets with Different Fat Lieval and in Meal Fed Rats (나이가 다른 흰쥐에서 식이내 지방수준과 식이횟수가 체내 지방대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 정호영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.255-265
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    • 1986
  • This study was designed to investigate the effect of age on the lipid metabolism in the rats fed different diets. In experiment A male Wistar rats of 5 weeks of age and of 32 weeks of age were divided into low fat diet groups and high fat-cholesterol groups. The rats were sacrificed 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks after experiment begins. Also after 4 weeks. the rats in low and high fat diet groups were tube-fed 500mg of choelsterol and were sacrified 3 days later. In experiment b, male Wistar rats of 4 weeks of age and of 6 months of age were divided into 2 groups of butter and cron oil groups. And then eachgroup were divided into 2 subgroups ; meal feeding and nibbling groups . Each diet was fed for 4 weeks. In experiment A, age of the rats and experimental diets did not affect the serum cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were higher in rats fed high fat cholesterol diet than in those fed low-fat or high -fat diets, but age of the animals had no effect on liver lipid content. The weight and cholesterol content of epidymal fat pad, however were higher in adult rats than in young ones regardless of the diets fed. When the rats were challenged with 500mg cholesterol, the rates of increase in serum and hepatic cholesterol level were higher in adult rats compared to young rats regardless of the diets . On the other hand, the rate of increase of small intestinal cholesterol content was lower in adult rats than in young rats. In experiment B, serum cholesterol and triglyceride content were relatively higher in young rats than adult ones. Stored body lipid was higher in adult rats, as judged by epididymal fat pad weight and total carcass lipid. Meal frequency and the kinds of fat in the diet did not affect the serum choelstero concentration . The serum triglyceride levels. however, was higher in butter fed rats thancron oil fed ones. The cholesterol content of live rand epididymal fat pad was lower in butter fed groups than corn oil groups for both young and adult rats, but there was no difference in liver triglycerides livel.

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