• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fat Content

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Variance Components and Genetic Parameters Estimated for Fat and Protein Content in Individual Months of Lactation: The Case of Tsigai Sheep

  • Oravcova, Marta
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.170-175
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to assess variance components and genetic parameters for fat and protein content in Tsigai sheep using multivariate animal models in which fat and protein content in individual months of lactation were treated as different traits, and univariate models in which fat and protein content were treated as repeated measures of the same traits. Test day measurements were taken between the second and the seventh month of lactation. The fixed effects were lactation number, litter size and days in milk. The random effects were animal genetic effect and permanent environmental effect of ewe. The effect of flock-year-month of test day measurement was fitted either as a fixed (FYM) or random (fym) effect. Heritabilities for fat content were estimated between 0.06 and 0.17 (FYM fitted) and between 0.06 and 0.11 (fym fitted). Heritabilities for protein content were estimated between 0.15 and 0.23 (FYM fitted) and between 0.10 and 0.18 (fym fitted). For fat content, variance ratios of permanent environmental effect of ewe were estimated between 0.04 and 0.11 (FYM fitted) and between 0.02 and 0.06 (fym fitted). For protein content, variance ratios of permanent environmental effect of ewe were estimated between 0.13 and 0.20 (FYM fitted) and between 0.08 and 0.12 (fym fitted). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by fym effect ranged from 0.39 to 0.43 for fat content and from 0.25 to 0.36 for protein content. Genetic correlations between individual months of lactation ranged from 0.74 to 0.99 (fat content) and from 0.64 to 0.99 (protein content). Fat content heritabilities estimated with univariate animal models roughly corresponded with heritability estimates from multivariate models: 0.13 (FYM fitted) and 0.07 (fym fitted). Protein content heritabilities estimated with univariate animal models also corresponded with heritability estimates from multivariate models: 0.18 (FYM fitted) and 0.13 (fym fitted).

The Relationship between Chemical Compositions, Meat Quality, and Palatability of the 10 Primal Cuts from Hanwoo Steer

  • Jung, Eun-Young;Hwang, Young-Hwa;Joo, Seon-Tea
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.145-151
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    • 2016
  • The relationship between chemical compositions, meat quality traits, and palatability attributes in 10 primal cuts from Hanwoo steer carcasses were assessed. Sensory palatability attributes of Hanwoo beef were more closely related with fat content than to moisture or protein content. Among the chemical compositions, only fat had a significant correlation with juiciness (0.67, p<0.001), tenderness (0.32, p<0.05), and overall palatability (0.56, p<0.001). Oleic acid (%) was not significantly related with overall palatability (p>0.05). Overall palatability was negatively correlated with drip loss (−0.32, p<0.05), cooking loss (−0.36, p<0.05), and shear force (−0.54, p<0.01). The correlation between fat content and overall palatability was increased when higher fat cuts (Ansim, Dungsim, Chaekeut, Yangjee, and Kalbi) were analyzed, compared to lower fat cuts (Moksim, Abdari, Udun, Suldo, and Satae). Also, the correlation between shear force and overall palatability was decreased in lower fat cuts compared to higher fat cuts. Our results suggest that the palatability of Hanwoo beef can be improved by increasing fat content in muscles, as increased fat content leads to an increase in sensory tenderness, flavor, and juiciness.

Cholesterol Content , Calories and Production Costs of Low Fat Ground Beef Manufactured with the Addition of Cooked Old Rice (취반 재고미를 첨가하여 제조한 저지방 분쇄우육의 Cholesterol 함량 및 열량과 생산원가)

  • Whang, Key;Kim, Hyuk-Il;Lee, Sam-Bin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.673-677
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    • 1996
  • Four low fat ground beef groups containing 10% fat plus 0, 5, 10 and 20% additional cooked old rice and a control ground beef containing 30% fat were prepared and their cholesterol contents, calories and production costs were investigated to find out the appropriateness of addition of cooked old rice. There were no differences in pHs with the variations in fat content and the content of cooked old rice. As the amount of added cooked old rice increased from 5 to 20%, cook yield of ground beef also increased. When the fat content of beef was reduced from 30 to 10%, the cholesterol content of beef was not reduced but with the fat content fixed to 10% and the content of added cooked old rice increased from 5 to 20%, the cholesterol content of ground beef decreased. Calories of ground beef were reduced by approximately 50% with the reduction of fat content from 30 to 10% and production costs decreased with the increase in the content of added cooked old rice.

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Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Low-fat Frankfurters

  • Yeo, Eui-Joo;Kim, Hyun-Wook;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Song, Dong-Heon;Kim, Yong-Jae;Ham, Youn-Kyung;He, Fu-Yi;Park, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Cheon-Jei
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.415-422
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    • 2014
  • Duck feet gelatin (DFG) gel was added as a fat replacer to low-fat frankfurters and the effect of DFG on physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of low-fat frankfurters was evaluated. DFG gel was prepared with a 20% duck feet gelatin concentration (w/w). Adding DFG decreased lightness and increased yellowness of the low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). However, DFG did not affect redness of low-fat frankfurters (p>0.05). The statistical results indicated that adding DFG improved cooking yield of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In addition, replacing pork back fat with DFG resulted in increased moisture content, protein content, and ash content of low-fat frankfurters, and the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel had the highest moisture content and lowest fat content (p<0.05). Adding of DFG increased all textural parameters including hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and gumminess of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In terms of sensory properties, the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel showed similar satisfaction scores for the flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance when compared to the regular frankfurters (20% back fat). Therefore, our results suggest that DFG could be an effective novel source, as a fat replacer, for manufacturing of low-fat frankfurters.

Effect of Multiple Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Myoglobin and Lipid Oxidations of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Surimi with Different Pork Back Fat Content

  • Shang, Xiaolan;Yan, Xunyou;Li, Qiuling;Liu, Zizheng;Teng, Anguo
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.969-979
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    • 2020
  • Fresh grass carp was used to produce surimi and 50 g/kg, 100 g/kg, or 150 g/kg pork back fat was added. The water distribution, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), myoglobin oxidation, color parameter (L*, a*, and b*), heme and non-heme iron content of samples were determined to analyze the effects of different fat content on the oxidation of myoglobin and lipids during multiple freeze-thaw cycles of grass carp surimi. Both multiple freeze-thaw cycles and increased fat content lead to an increase in TBARS, a blue shift in the absorption peak of myoglobin porphyrin, a decrease in heme iron content, and an increase of non-heme iron content. Repeated freeze-thaw caused a decrease in immobilised water content and L*, and caused an increase in a* and b*. Increased fat content caused an increase in immobilised water content, L* and a*, and caused a decrease in b*.

Manufacture and Evaluation of Low-Eat Meat Products(A review) (저지방 육제품의 제조 및 평가)

  • 진구복
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.363-372
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    • 2002
  • Reducing the fat content of processed meat products can be performed by (1) using leaner raw meat materials (2) inducing non-meat ingredients that serve to replace a portion or all of the fat, and (3) applying new ingredient combinations, technologies or processing procedures that decrease the fat and cholesterol content of meat products. Low-fat meat products were manufactured with Int replacers which were food ingredients that had the functional and sensory properties of fat without contributing fat calories, resulting in lower fat(<3%) content. Added water, non-meat proteins, carbohydrates, such as starch and hydrocolloids(gums) and vegetable oils have been used as typical fat replacers to be used in meat products. In addition, fat substitutes included structural lipids, sucrose polyester and ingredient combinations. Formulations for the manufacture of low-fat meat products in combined with new technologies have focused on the use of fat replacer combinations that contributes a minimum of calories and not detrimental to flavor, juiciness, mouthfeel or textural traits expected more traditional products. In conclusion, some combinations of fat replacements that mimics the flavor, mouthfeel and textural characteristics of fat offer potential for further development of low-fat meat products to have similar characteristics of regular-fat counterparts.

Comparison of the Bakery Products Made Commercial Fat or Low Trans Fat (일반 고체지와 저트랜스 고체지를 이용한 베이커리 제품의 특성 비교)

  • Hwang, Pu-Yeon;Kim, Yu-Mi;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 2007
  • Breads and cookies made with conventional or low-trans fat(margarine and shortening) were analyzed by determining their trans fat content, textural properties and color values after production. The trans fatty acids content in conventional margarine was three times higher than that of low-trans margarine. Moreover, the content of trans fatty acids in the conventional shortening was 49 times higher than that of low-trans shortening. The trans fatty acid contents of cookies and breads made with low-trans fat, can be reduced more than 2 to 75 times compared to cookies and breads made with conventional fat. In the produced cookies and breads, the color values and textural properties(hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness) did not differ significantly when the conventional fat or low-trans fat was used.

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Comparison of crude fat content and intramuscular fat score at different position of loin from Hanwoo (한우 등심의 위치별 조지방 함량 및 근내지방도 비교)

  • Lee, Chulwoo;Lee, Hanhyeon;Baek, Junoh;Park, Jungyu;Jung, Samooel;Jo, Cheorun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to make certain that the intramuscular fat score at 13th rib could represent the fat content of whole loin from Hanwoo in Korea beef grading system. A total 42 loins from 23 carcasses of grade $1^{{+}{+}}$, 16 carcasses of grade $1^+$, and 3 carcasses of grade 1 of Hanwoo were used for this study. The crude fat content and intramuscular fat score at the $1^{st}$, $6^{th}$, and $13^{th}$ rib, and the last lumbar position of loin were measured. The crude fat content was the highest at the $6^{th}$ rib of loin from the carcasses of grade $1^{{+}{+}}$ and $1^+$ (p<0.05). There were no significant difference of the intramuscular fat scores measured by image analysis and beef marbling score (BMS) between the 6th and $13^{th}$ rib of loin from the carcasses of $1^{{+}{+}}$ and $1^+$ and that were significantly higher than intramuscular fat scores at the $1^{st}$ rib and the last lumbar position of the loin. From the results, we conclude that the intramuscular fat score at the $13^{th}$ rib can represent the fat content of loin when meat graders decide the grade of Hanwoo carcass.

The Quality Characteristics of Salted Ground Pork Patties Containing Various Fat Levels by Microwave Cooking

  • Jeong, Jong Youn;Lim, Seung Taek;Kim, Cheon Jei
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.538-546
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of fat level on the microwave cooking properties of ground pork patties with NaCl (1.5%). Ground pork patties were processed from pork hams to achieve fat levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. Each patty was cooked from a thawed state to 75℃ in a microwave oven at full power (700 W). After microwave cooking, protein content, moisture content, fat retention, and shear force values in patties decreased as fat level increased from 10 to 25%. As fat level increased, cooking time decreased but total cooking loss and drip loss were increased, whereas slight differences in diameter reduction and thickness of patties were observed. In raw patties, 10% fat patties had lower L* values and higher a* values compared to patties with more fat, but these differences were reduced when patties were cooked. Patties with 10% fat showed a more pink color on the surface and interior than patties with a higher fat content but more air pockets were noted in higher-fat patties. Higher-fat patties were more tender, juicy, and oily than lower-fat patties.

Evaluation of Nutritional Content in Convenience Store Lunchboxes by Meal Type, Price, and Store Brand (편의점 도시락의 식단형태별, 가격대별, 편의점 브랜드별 영양성분 함량 평가)

  • Park, Jin-Seon;Han, Young-Hee;Hyun, Taisun
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.280-290
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: This study investigated the menu and nutritional contents of convenience store lunchboxes, and evaluated the nutritional content by meal type, price, and store brand. Methods: In September 2019, 93 convenience store lunchboxes from the top five franchise stores were purchased. Relevant information on price, food weight, food ingredients, cooking methods, and nutrition labeling were subsequently collected. Nutritional content was evaluated based on the daily value (DV) and Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ), and energy contribution of carbohydrate, protein, fat, saturated fat and sugar was compared with the recommended range. Results: Most lunchboxes included the food groups; grains/starches, meats/fish/eggs/legumes, and vegetables. However, none provided fruits, and only a few lunchboxes provided milk/milk products. Stir-frying, deep-frying, and pan-frying were the most frequent methods of cooking. The average energy content of the lunchboxes was 736.6 kcal, whereas the average contents of protein, fat and saturated fat were higher than 40% of the DV, and sodium content was 66.8% of the DV. The contents of most nutrients in traditional type lunchboxes were higher, as compared to nutrients in onedish type lunchboxes. Considering pricing of lunchboxes, protein and sodium contents were higher in the higher-priced lunchboxes as compared to lower-priced lunchboxes, but there were no differences in the INQs. The contents of energy, protein, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol significantly differed by brand. Conclusions: Our results indicate that convenience store lunchboxes contain high levels of protein, fat, saturated fat, and sodium. The nutritional contents differed by meal type, price, and store brand, and higher price did not imply higher nutritional quality. We propose the need to educate consumers to check nutrition labels and purchase appropriate lunchboxes. Manufacturers also need to make efforts to reduce the amounts of fat, saturated fat, and sodium, and not provide protein in excess.