• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fasted Chicks

Search Result 11, Processing Time 0.05 seconds

Response of Muscle Protein Synthesis to the Infusion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and Fasting in Young Chickens

  • Kita, K.;Shibata, T.;Aman Yaman, M.;Nagao, K.;Okumura, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.15 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1760-1764
    • /
    • 2002
  • In order to elucidate the physiological function of circulating IGF-I on muscle protein synthesis in the chicken under malnutritional conditions, we administrated recombinant chicken IGF-I using a osmotic mini pump to fasted young chickens and measured the rate of muscle protein synthesis and plasma metabolite. The pumps delivered IGF-I at the rate of $22{\mu}g/d\{300{\mu}g{\cdot}(kg\;body\;weight{\cdot}d)^{-1}\}$. Fractional rate of protein synthesis in the muscle was measured using a large dose injection of L-[$2,6-^3H$]phenylalanine. Constant infusion of chicken IGF-I did not affect plasma glucose level. Significant interaction between dietary treatment and IGF-I infusion was observed in plasma NEFA and total cholesterol concentrations. When chicks were fasted, IGF-I infusion decreased plasma NEFA and total cholesterol concentrations. On the other hand, IGF-I administration did not affect plasma levels of both metabolites. Fasting reduced plasma triglyceride concentration significantly. IGF-I infusion also decreased the level of plasma triglyceride. Plasma IGF-I concentration of young chickens was halved by fasting for 1 d. IGF-I infusion using an osmotic minipump for 1 d increased plasma IGF-I concentration in fasted chicks to the level of fed chicks. Fasting decreased body weight and the loss of body weight was significantly ameliorated by IGF-I infusion. There was a significant interaction between dietary treatment and IGF-I infusion in the fractional rate of breast muscle protein synthesis. There was no effect of IGF-I infusion on muscle protein synthesis in fed chicks. Muscle protein synthesis reduced by fasting was ameliorated by IGF-I infusion, but did not reach to the level of fed control. Muscle weight of fasted chicks infused with IGF-I was similar to fasted birds without IGF-I infusion, which suggests that muscle protein degradation would be increased by IGF-I infusion as well as protein synthesis in fasted chicks.

Influence of Refeeding of Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat on Hepatic Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I mRNA Level in Fasted Chicks

  • Kita, K.;Hangsanet, K.;Okumura, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.11 no.3
    • /
    • pp.245-248
    • /
    • 1998
  • The influence of refeeding either protein, carbohydrate or fat on hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) mRNA level in chicks which had been fasted for 2 days was examined. The hepatic IGF-I mRNA was measured by ribonuclease protection assay. Fasting reduced hepatic IGF-I mRNA levels to less than half of those in the fed control. When chicks were refed either a control, protein or carbohydrate diet, IGF-I mRNA levels significantly increased to those in the fed control until 2 hours of refeeding. Refeeding of fat did not alter hepatic IGF-I mRNA levels. The significant correlation between liver weight and hepatic IGF-I gene expression suggests that when chicks are refed after 2-d fasting, the acute increase in hepatic IGF-I gene expression brought about after refeeding may be partly regulated by the increase in liver protein metabolism.

Influence of Refeeding with Vitamin, Mineral and Fibre on Protein Synthesis and Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Content in the Liver and Muscle of Fasted Chicks

  • Aman Yaman, M.;Kita, K.;Pinontoan, R.;Okumura, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.11 no.5
    • /
    • pp.545-549
    • /
    • 1998
  • The influence of refeeding with either vitamin, mineral, fibre of water on protein synthesis and mRNA content in the liver and breast muscle of fasted chicks was investigated. At 15 d of age, chicks were fasted for 2 d and then refed either vitamin, mineral, fibre or water. The fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of protein was measured after 30 min of refeeding by using a large dose injection of L - 2, $6[^3H]$ phenylalanine. In the liver, FSR was reduced by fasting and tended to increase but not significantly by refeeding with vitamin or mineral. FSR was not affected by refeeding with fibre or water. There was no influence of fasting and refeeding on ribosomal capacity (the RNA : protein ratio) and ribosomal efficiency (total protein synthesised per total RNA). The absolute synthesis rate (ASR) of liver protein and hepatic mRNA content were reduced by fasting and unchanged by refeeding. In the muscle, FSR, ASR and mRNA content were significantly decreased by fasting and not recovered by refeeding with either vitamin, mineral, fibre or water. It concluded that vitamin, mineral, fibre and water have little capacity to stimulate liver and muscle protein synthesis reduced by fasting.

Peripheral Insulin Doesn't Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks

  • Liu, Lei;Xu, Shaohua;Wang, Xiaojuan;Jiao, Hongchao;Lin, Hai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.29 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1294-1299
    • /
    • 2016
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline). The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU) did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05). Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p<0.05). In fasted chicks, 10 and 20 IU insulin treatments significantly decreased the plasma glucose level for 4 h (p<0.05). Peripheral insulin treatment of 10 IU for 2 or 4 h did not significantly affect the hypothalamic genes expression of neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin-releasing factor and insulin receptors (p>0.05). All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks.

Effects of Refeeding with a Protein-Free Diets Supplemented with Various Essential Amino Acids on the Plasma Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Concentration in Fasting Young Chickens

  • Kita, K;Shibata, T.;Nagao, K.;Hwangbo, J.;Okumura, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.15 no.3
    • /
    • pp.406-409
    • /
    • 2002
  • The effect of refeeding with various single essential amino acids on the recovery of plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentration in fasted young chickens was examined. Young chickens (29 days of age) were divided into 15 experimental groups. Chickens in one group were fed on the commercial diet ad libitum for 4 days. The remaining 56 chickens in 14 experimental groups were fasted. After 2 days of fasting, 52 chicks in 13 fasted groups were refed with one of the following experimental diets for 2 days. Eleven experimental diets were protein-free diets supplemented with one of 11 essential amino acids (Arg, Gly, His, Ileu, Leu, Met, Phe, Lys, Thr, Trp, Val). The remaining 2 experimental diets were a protein-free diet containing 11 essential amino acids and a protein-free diet not supplemented with amino acids. Birds in the remaining fasted group continued to be fasted for 2 days. Fasting for 2 days markedly reduced plasma IGF-I concentration. When fasted chickens were refed the protein-free diet containing either Gly alone or all essential amino acids, plasma IGF-I concentration was recovered to the level similar to that of fed chickens. Protein-free diet alone, however, failed to restore the reduced IGF-I concentration in plasma. Body weight loss modulated by feeding with protein-free diets supplemented with various single essential amino acids was associated with changes in plasma IGF-I concentrations. We concluded that body weight loss by feeding with a protein-free diet was lower than that of fasted chickens and that body weight loss associated with the decrease in plasma IGF-I concentration was modulated by feeding with protein-free diets containing various single essential amino acids.

EFFECTS OF DIETARY PROTEINS ON THE ACTIVITIES OF LIPOGENIC ENZYMES IN THE LIVER OF GROWING CHICKS

  • Tanaka, K.;Okamoto, T.;Ohtani, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.5 no.1
    • /
    • pp.123-128
    • /
    • 1992
  • In Experiment 1, when fasted chicks were fed diets containing various sources of protein for 3 days, the activities of lipogenic enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase, citrate cleavage enzyme and malic enzyme) in the liver of growing chicks were significantly lower in the soybean protein or gluten diet than in the casein or fish protein diet. Triglycride contents of the liver and plasma of chicks fed the casein or fish protein diet were significantly lower than that of those fed soybean protein or gluten diet. In Experiment 2, the effects of dietary amino acid mixture simulating casein or protein on the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes were examined. The activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase in the liver of chicks fed the casein diet were significantly higher than that of those fed the soybean protein diet or two diets of amino acid mixtures. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the two diets of amino acid mixture based on casein or soybean protein. However, the activities of malic enzyme and citrate cleavage enzyme tended to be lower in the soybean-type amino acid diet than in the casein-type amino acid diet. Thus, some effects can be ascribed to the protein itself and some to the amino acid composition of the protein sources.

Effect of the Length of Feed Withdrawal on Weight Loss, Yield and Meat Color of Broiler

  • Kim, D.H.;Yoo, Y.M.;Kim, S.H.;Jang, B.G.;Park, B.Y.;Cho, S.H.;Seong, P.N.;Hah, K.H.;Lee, J.M.;Kim, Y.K.;Hwang, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.106-111
    • /
    • 2007
  • The current study was conducted to determine the optimum length of feed withdrawal for pre-harvest broilers. A total of three hundred broilers were sampled from an industrial population, and 30 chicks for each weight group (e.g., 1.5 and 2.5 kg) were randomly assigned to feed withdrawal treatments for 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h. Weight loss, yield, muscle pH, objective meat color and weights of gastro intestinal contents, crop, gizzard, provenriculus, small intestine, caecum, and rectum were determined. Live weight loss was significantly (p<0.05) increased as length of feed withdrawal extended. A significant (p<0.05) carcass yield for both 1.5 and 2.5 kg groups coincided after 9 and 6 h feed withdrawal, respectively. Net weights of intestinal contents for crop and gizzard were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by 6 h, and the reduction for proventriculus and small intestine occurred from 3 h. A noticeable effect of feed withdrawal on pH for breast muscle at 3 h postmortem occurred only when chicks were fasted for 3 h of which pH (6.05) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that for other groups including the control (5.74). There was a linear tendency of higher lightness (Hunter L* value) numerically for chicks fasted for longer periods. The highest coefficient of determinations of regression models to estimate weight loss as a function of fasting period and body weights were achieved, when the models included both linear and quadratic terms for fasting period, and linear term for both 1.5 ($R^2=0.76$) and 2.5 kg ($R^2=0.78$) body weight groups. Given the practical aspect, approximately 1.5 kg of body weight is dominant, weight loss could be predicted by the following function; live weight $loss=26.6-0.28{\times}(fasting period)^2+12.34{\times}pasting\;period-0.012{\times}body\;weight$, $R^2=0.76$. Current data implied that the optimum fasting time for pre-slaughter chicks varied depending on slaughter weight; 6 and 9-h fasting were recommendable for 2.5 and 1.5 kg chicks, with little effect on objective meat color.

Effect of 24 h Fasting on Gene Expression of AMPK, Appetite Regulation Peptides and Lipometabolism Related Factors in the Hypothalamus of Broiler Chicks

  • Lei, Liu;Lixian, Zhu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.25 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1300-1308
    • /
    • 2012
  • The 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key part of a kinase-signaling cascade that acts to maintain energy homeostasis. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the possible effects of fasting and refeeding on the gene expression of hypothalamic AMPK, some appetitive regulating peptides and lipid metabolism related enzymes. Seven-day-old male broiler (Arbor Acres) chicks were allocated into three equal treatments: fed ad libitum (control); fasted for 24 h; fasted for 24 h and then refed for 24 h. Compared with the control, the hypothalamic gene expression of $AMPK{\alpha}2$, $AMPK{\beta}1$, $AMPK{\beta}2$, $AMPK{\gamma}1$, Ste20-related adaptor protein ${\beta}$ ($STRAD{\beta}$), mouse protein $25{\alpha}$ ($MO25{\alpha}$) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) were increased after fasting for 24 h. No significant difference among treatments was observed in mRNA levels of $AMPK{\alpha}1$, $AMPK{\gamma}2$, LKB1 and neuropeptide Y (NPY). However, the expression of $MO25{\beta}$, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), ghrelin, fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase ${\alpha}$ ($ACC{\alpha}$), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) were significantly decreased. The present results indicated that 24 h fasting altered gene expression of AMPK subunits, appetite regulation peptides and lipometabolism related factors in chick's hypothalamus; the hypothalamic FAS signaling pathway might be involved in the AMPK regulated energy homeostasis and/or appetite regulation in poultry.

EFFECT OF URINARY NITROGENOUS COMPOUNDS ON THE ENERGY METABOLISM OF BIRD

  • Koh, T.S.;Choi, W.I.;Han, S.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.267-274
    • /
    • 1992
  • In order to study the relationships between the contents of urinary nitrogenous compounds and energy utilization of bird, the sum of nitrogen contents of uric acid, ammonia, creatine and urea voided in excreta was estimated as the urinary nitrogen (UN) in 13-33 day-old fed or fasted White Leghorn male chicks. Energy retention and heat production of birds were determined by comparative slaughter studies. 2.75 mg of endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUn) and 2.19 mg of uric acid was excreted constantly per kJ heat production in fasted bird. One mg of UN was proportionated to 32.26 J (r = 0.999, n = 8) of the urinary energy (UE) in fed and 32.97 J (r = 0.9998, n = 8) of the endogenous urinary energy (UEn) in the fasted bird. Also relationships between 1 mg of uric acid and 38.95 J of UE (r = 0.998, n = 8) or 38.97 J of UEe (r = 0.996, n = 8) were significant (p<0.01). The EUn (r = 0.997, n = 4), uric acid (r = 0.995, n = 4) and metabolic fecal energy (FEm) plus UEe (r = 0.961, n = 4) were increased with the increase of body weight (g/bird). Metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFn) or energy (FEm), EUn and UEe per unit diet were not influenced by the age of day or body weight. The results indicated that energy and protein utilization of bird can be approximated by the relationships among urinary nitrogen, urinary energy, uric acid content in excreta and body weight of bird.

Effects of Skip-a-day Feeding Program in Early Growing Stage on Compensatory Growth and Development of Visceral Organs Following Realimentation in Male Broiler Chicks (성장초기의 격일급이가 육계 수컷의 후기 보상성장과 장기발달에 미치는 효과)

  • You, D.C.;Lee, B.D.;Lee, S.K.;Han, S.W.;Im, J.S.;Seo, O.S.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.23 no.4
    • /
    • pp.185-191
    • /
    • 1996
  • A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of skip-a-day feeding program in early growing stage of male broiler chicks on the compensatory growth, and development of visceral organs during the later realimentation period. Day-old 328 male broiler chickens( Avian x Avian) were divided into control(ad libitum feeding) and skip-a-day feeding(limited feeding) treatments. Each treatment was consisted of 4 pens( replicates) of 41 birds each. Chickens on the skip-a-day program were fasted every other day during the second wk of age(8~15 d of age). During the starter period(0~4 wk), chickens were fed a commercial crumble diet. A commercial pellet diet was fed to chickens during the finishing period( 5~8 wk). Chickens were group-weighed every week, and one bird was selected from each pen to measure carcass characteristics. The skip-a-day program delayed the growth rate of male broilers up to 4 wk of age(P

  • PDF