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Management of Non-pain Symptoms in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients: Based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines (말기암환자에서 통증 외 증상의 관리: 최신 NCCN(National Comprehensive Cancer Netweork) 권고안을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Hye Ran
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.205-215
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    • 2013
  • Most terminally ill cancer patients experience various physical and psychological symptoms during their illness. In addition to pain, they commonly suffer from fatigue, anorexia-cachexia syndrome, nausea, vomiting and dyspnea. In this paper, I reviewed some of the common non-pain symptoms in terminally ill cancer patients, based on the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines to better understand and treat cancer patients. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common symptom in terminally ill cancer patients. There are reversible causes of fatigue, which include anemia, sleep disturbance, malnutrition, pain, depression and anxiety, medical comorbidities, hyperthyroidism and hypogonadism. Energy conservation and education are recommended as central management for CRF. Corticosteroid and psychostimulants can be used as well. The anorexia and cachexia syndrome has reversible causes and should be managed. It includes stomatitis, constipation and uncontrolled severe symptoms such as pain or dyspnea, delirium, nausea/vomiting, depression and gastroparesis. To manage the syndrome, it is important to provide emotional support and inform the patient and family of the natural history of the disease. Megesteol acetate, dronabinol and corticosteroid can be helpful. Nausea and vomiting will occur by potentially reversible causes including drug consumption, uremia, infection, anxiety, constipation, gastric irritation and proximal gastrointestinal obstruction. Metoclopramide, haloperidol, olanzapine and ondansetron can be used to manage nausea and vomiting. Dyspnea is common even in terminally ill cancer patients without lung disease. Opioids are effective for symptomatic management of dyspnea. To improve the quality of life for terminally ill cancer patients, we should try to ameliorate these symptoms by paying more attention to patients and understanding of management principles.

A Study on the fantasy of Disney animation (<겨울왕국>을 통해 본 디즈니 애니메이션의 환상성)

  • Lee, Hye-Won;Kim, Min-Jung
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.107-128
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    • 2014
  • Cultural Content industries based on imagination and creativity are attracting attention and the animation high value-added industry is still spotlighted. Among them, Disney Studios make money through using their professional skills. There are the know-how has developed for a long time, and there are timeless strategy. This study is analyzing by fantasy elements for knowing the messages of Disney animation. Fantasy defined as genre of literature by Todorov and Jackson emphasized its social role and significance. Hume expanded the area of fantasy and Tolkein Jahoriski and Boyer classified the fantasy according to the purpose. Through the analyzing Disney animation , Disney's fantasy show the specific expression depending on the target. Disney is based on the three types of fantasy depending on the growth of the journey. The first area is composed of the main character's growth and satisfy the desire and escapism, The second is the word of antagonist who opposed to reality and break the rules of the dominant ideology. The last area is the utopia provided after hero beat the antagonist. Disney characters give the messages by using the fantasy like the transformation or alter ego. That show the subject of the main character's growth and the supporting characters as the expression of the multiple personality of main. These emphasize the hero's growth and give the fun. Also, in the subject of the otherness, the hero always destroy the evil who broke the rules of reality. In this way, the fantasy offered by Disney give the messages of sacrifice and family from true love. Disney has the support of their target audiences continue to be able to convey ideology.

PRESENT SITUATION AND PROSPECT OF PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY IN KOREA - FOCUSED ON MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL CARIES - (한국 소아치과의 현재와 전망 - 치아우식증관리 분야를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Sang-Ho
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.206-225
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    • 2012
  • General status of pediatric dentistry in Korea is to conduct vigorous academic activities and specialized medical care centering the Korean Association of Pediatric Dentistry (KAPD) that has about 1,000 pediatric dentists as members, pediatric dentistry departments of 11 Colleges of Dentistry, numbers of pediatric dentistry training institutions and private clinics specialized in children. From 1996, the accredited pediatric dentists were produced by the KAPD and from 2008, the state began to produce the accredited pediatric dentists. Since then, doctors with expertise in pediatric care had opened private clinics in addition to the university hospitals, it became the basis of a momentum to deepen the specialty of pediatric dentistry. The Dentistry community of Korea is going through rapid and profound changes recently, and the underlying reasons for such changes can be classified largely into a few categories: (1) Decreasing population and structural changes in population (2) Increase in numbers of dentists, (3) Changes in the pattern of dental diseases and (4) Changes in medical environment. In Korea, the children population in the age range of 0 ~ 14 years old had been decreased by 2 million in 2010 compared to that of 2000 due to reduction of birth rate. The current population of children in the age range of 0 ~ 4 years old in 2010 takes up 16.2% of the total population, but it is estimated that such percentage would decrease to 8.0% by 2050. Such percentage is largely behind the estimated mean global population of 19.6% by 2050. On the other hand, the number of dentists had been largely increased from 18,000 in 2000 to 25,000 in 2010. And it is estimated that the number will be increased to 41,000 by 2030. In addition, the specialized personnel of Pediatric dentistry had been shown as increased by 2.5 times during past 10 years. For the changes in the pattern of dental diseases, including dental caries, each df rate of 5 years old children and 12 years old children had been decreased by 21.9% and 16.7% respectively in 2010 compared to 2000. Each df Index also had been decreased by 2.5 teeth and 1.2 teeth respectively. The medical expenditure of Korea is less than that of OECD and more specifically, the expenditure from the National Health Plan is less than OECD but the expenditure covered by households is larger than OECD. These facts indicate that it is considered as requiring the coverage of the national health plan to be reinforced more in the future and as such reinforcement needs continuous promotion. In medical examination pattern of Pediatric dentistry, the preventive and corrective treatment were increased whereas the restorative treatment was decreased. It is considered that such change is caused from decrease of dental caries from activation of the prevention project at national level. For the restorative treatment, the restorations in use of dental amalgam, pre-existing gold crowning and endodontic treatment had been decreased in their proportion while the restorative treatment in use of composite resin had been increased. It is considered that such changes is caused by the change of demands from patients and family or guardians as they desired more aesthetic improvement along with socio-economic growth of Korean society. Due to such changes in dentistry, the pediatric dentistry in Korea also attempts to have changes in the patterns of medical examination as follows; It tends to implement early stage treatment through early diagnosis utilizing various diagnostic tools such as FOTI or QLF. The early stage dental caries so called white spot had been included in the subjects for dental care or management and in order to do so, the medical care guidelines essentially accompanied with remineralization treatment as well as minimally invasive treatment is being generalized gradually. Also, centering the Pediatric dentists, the importance of caries risk assessment is being recognized, in addition that the management of dental caries is being changed from surgical approach to internal medicinal approach. Recently, efforts began to emerge in order to increase the target patients to be managed by dentists and to expand the application scope of Pediatric dentistry along with through such changes. The interest and activities of Pediatric dentists which had been limited to the medical examination room so far, is now being expanded externally, as they put efforts for participating in the preventive policy making process of the community or the state, and to support the political theories. And also opinions are being collected into the direction that the future- oriented strategic political tasks shall be selected and researches as well as presentations on the theoretical rationale of such tasks at the association level.

Dietary behaviors of female marriage immigrants residing in Gwangju, Korea (광주지역에 거주하는 결혼이주 여성의 식생활 조사)

  • Yang, Eun Ju
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This cross-sectional study aimed to document the dietary behaviors, dietary changes, and health status of female marriage immigrants residing in Gwangju, Korea. Methods: The survey included 92 female immigrants attending Korean language class at a multi-cultural family support center. General characteristics, health status, anthropometric data, dietary behaviors, and dietary changes were collected. Results: Mean age of subjects was 31.3 years, and home countries of subjects were Vietnam (50.0%), China (26.0%), Philippines (12.0%), and others (12.0%). Frequently reported chronic diseases were digestive diseases (13.2%), anemia (12.1%), and neuropsychiatry disorder (8.9%). Seventeen percent of the subjects was obese ($BMI{\geq}25kg/m^2$). Dietary score by Mini Dietary Assessment was 3.45 out of 5 points. Dietary scores for dairy foods, meat/fish/egg/bean intake, meal regularity, and food variety were low, and those for fried foods and high fat meat intake were also low. Thirty-three percent of subjects answered that they have changed their diet and increased their consumption of fruits and vegetables after immigration. Length of residence in Korea was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference. Length of residence tends to be positively associated with dietary changes and obesity as well as inversely associated with disease prevalence. Conclusion: The study shows that length of residence is inversely related to disease prevalence. However, this association is thought to be due to the relatively short period of residence in Korea and thus the transitional phase to adapting to dietary practices. As the length of residence increases, disease patterns related to obesity are subject to change. Healthy dietary behaviors and adaptation to dietary practices in Korea in female marriage immigrants will not only benefit individuals but also their families and social structure. Therefore, varied, long-term, and target-specific studies on female marriage immigrants are highly needed.

The effect of job stress on organizational commitment for senior welfare facility staffs suffering from emotional labor (노인복지시설 종사자의 감정노동으로 인한 직무스트레스가 조직몰입에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Jong-hyeon
    • Journal of Venture Innovation
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.129-143
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    • 2018
  • When consulting with senior service user or his or her family members, employees of senior welfare facilities face a vertical relationship due to age rather than a horizontal relationship. Despite few cases reported, service users and the families afflict physical and mental pain on the employees through irrational demands, physical abuses, and verbal abuses. In particular, the Korean society has advocated the notion of respecting elders and thus emphasized members of society to provide unconditional support to those of old age. In reality, however, people who work at senior welfare facilities report the difficulty of providing supports to heavy demands in selfish complaints that are often impossible to fulfill. Starting from May 2018, there has been a petition to the Korean Blue House, seeking protective measures for 'Senior welfare facility professions who are exposed to violence'. The study conduct researches on the effect of job stress on the organizational commitment for senior welfare facility employees from suffering emotional labor. Furthermore, it also aims to point the difficulties that the professions face and the solutions that alleviate the conflicts between the rights of services users of senior welfare facilities and its staffs. The study surveyed 178 staffs who work in senior welfare facilities in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province as its research method. The collected data was analyzed by using IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0 to derive the general characteristics of the sample, reliability, feasibility analysis, correlation analysis, and verification of the research hypothesis. The study was able to conclude the following: First, the frequency of emotional expression of senior welfare facility staffs had negative(-) influences on job stress. Second, the incongruity of emotions of senior welfare facility staffs had negative(-) influences on job stress. Third, the incongruity of emotions of senior welfare facility staffs had negative (-) influences on job stress. Fourth, the job stress showed mediating effects between emotional labor factors and organizational commitment

The Empirical Exploration of the Conception on Nursing (간호개념에 대한 기초조사)

  • 백혜자
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.65-87
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    • 1981
  • The study is aimed at exploring concept held by clinical nurses of nursing. The data were collected from 225 nurses conviniently selected from the population of nurses working in Kang Won province. Findings include. 1) Nurse's Qualification. The respondents view that specialized knowledge is more important qualification of the nurse. Than warm personality. Specifically, 92.9% of the respondents indicated specialized knowledge as the most important qualification while only 43.1% indicated warm personality. 2) On Nursing Profession. The respondents view that nursing profession as health service oriented rather than independent profession specifically. This suggests that nursing profession is not consistentic present health care delivery system nor support nurses working independently. 3) On Clients of Nursing Care The respondents include patients, family and the community residents in the category of nursing care. Specifically, 92.0% of the respondents view that patient is the client, while only 67.1% of nursing student and 74.7% of herself. This indicates the lack of the nurse's recognition toward their clients. 4) On the Priority of Nursing care. Most of the respondents view the clients physical psychological respects as important component of nursing care but not the spiritual ones. Specially, 96.0% of the respondents indicated the physical respects, 93% psychological ones, while 64.1% indicated the spiritual ones. This means the lack of comprehensive conception on nursing aimension. 5) On Nursing Care. 91.6% of the respondents indicated that nursing care is the activity decreasing pain or helping to recover illness, while only 66.2% indicated earring out the physicians medical orders. 6) On Purpose of Nursing Care. 89.8% of the respondents indicated preventing illness and than 76.6% of them decreasing 1;ai of clients. On the other hand, maintaining health has the lowest selection at the degree of 13.8%. This means the lack of nurses' recognition for maintaining health as the most important point. 7) On Knowledge Needed in Nursing Care. Most of the respondents view that the knowledge faced with the spot of nursing care is needed. Specially, 81.3% of the respondents indicated simple curing method and 75.1%, 73.3%, 71.6% each indicated child nursing, maternal nursing and controlling for the communicable disease. On the other hand, knowledge w hick has been neglected in the specialized courses of nursing education, that is, thinking line among com-w unity members, overcoming style against between stress and personal relation in each home, and administration, management have a low selection at the depree of 48.9%,41.875 and 41.3%. 8) On Nursing Idea. The highest degree of selection is that they know themselves rightly, (The mean score measuring distribution was 4.205/5) In the lowest degree,3.016/5 is that devotion is the essential element of nursing, 2.860/5 the religious problems that human beings can not settle, such as a fatal ones, 2,810/5 the nursing profession is worth trying in one's life. This means that the peculiarly essential ideas on the professional sense of value. 9) On Nursing Services. The mean score measuring distribution for the nursing services showed that the inserting of machine air way is 2.132/5, the technique and knowledge for surviving heart-lung resuscitating is 2.892/s, and the preventing air pollution 3.021/5. Specially, 41.1% of the respondents indicated the lack of the replied ratio. 10) On Nurses' Qualifications. The respondents were selected five items as the most important qualifications. Specially, 17.4% of the respondents indicated specialized knowledge, 15.3% the nurses' health, 10.6% satisfaction for nursing profession, 9.8% the experience need, 9.2% comprehension and cooperation, while warm personality as nursing qualifications have a tendency of being lighted. 11) On the Priority of Nursing Care The respondents were selected three items as the most important component. Most of the respondents view the client's physical, spiritual: economic points as important components of nursing care. They showed each 36.8%, 27.6%, 13.8% while educational ones showed 1.8%. 12) On Purpose of Nursing Care. The respondents were selected four items as the most important purpose. Specially,29.3% of the respondents indicated curing illness for clients, 21.3% preventing illness for client 17.4% decreasing pain, 15.3% surviving. 13) On the Analysis of Important Nursing Care Ranging from 5 point to 25 point, the nurses' qualification are concentrated at the degree of 95.1%. Ranging from 3 point to 25, the priorities of nursing care are concentrated at the degree of 96.4%. Ranging from 4 point to 16, the purpose of nursing care is concentrated at the degree of 84.0%. 14) The Analysis, of General Characteristics and Facts of Nursing Concept. The correlation between the educational high level and nursing care showed significance. (P < 0.0262). The correction between the educational low level and purpose of nursing care showed significance. (P < 0.002) The correlation between nurses' working yeras and the degree of importance for the purpose of nursing care showed significance (P < 0.0155) Specially, the most affirmative answers were showed from two years to four ones. 15) On Nunes' qualification and its Degree of Importance The correlation between nurses' qualification and its degree of importance showed significance. (r = 0.2172, p< 0.001) 0.005) B. General characteristics of the subjects The mean age of the subject was 39 ; with 38.6% with in the age range of 20-29 ; 52.6% were male; 57.9% were Schizophrenia; 35.1% were graduated from high school or high school dropouts; 56.l% were not have any religion; 52.6% were unmarried; 47.4% were first admission; 91.2% were involuntary admission patients. C. Measurement of anxiety variables. 1. Measurement tools of affective anxiety in this study demonstrated high reliability (.854). 2. Measurement tools of somatic anxiety in this study demonstrated high reliability (.920). D. Relationship between the anxiety variables and the general characteristics. 1. Relationship between affective anxiety and general characteristics. 1) The level of female patients were higher than that of the male patient (t = 5.41, p < 0.05). 2) Frequencies of admission were related to affective anxiety, so in the first admission the anxiety level was the highest. (F = 5.50, p < 0.005). 2, Relationship between somatic anxiety and general characteristics. 1) The age range of 30-39 was found to have the highest level of the somatic anxiety. (F = 3.95, p < 0.005). 2) Frequencies of admission were related to the somatic anxiety, so .in first admission the anxiety level was the highest. (F = 9.12, p < 0.005) 0. Analysis of significant anxiety symptoms for nursing intervention. 1. Seven items such as dizziness, mental integration, sweating, restlessness, anxiousness, urinary frequency and insomnia, init. accounted for 96% of the variation within the first 24 hours after admission. 2. Seven items such as fear, paresthesias, restlessness, sweating insomnia, init., tremors and body aches and pains accounted for 84% of the variation on the 10th day after admission.

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Genetic Counseling in Korean Health Care System (한국 의료제도와 유전상담 서비스의 구축)

  • Kim, Hyon-J.
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.89-99
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    • 2011
  • Over the years Korean health care system has improved in delivery of quality care to the general population for many areas of the health problems. The system is now being recognized in the world as the most cost effective one. It is covered by the uniform national health insurance policy for which most people in Korea are mandatory policy holders. Genetic counseling service, however, which is well recognized as an integral part of clinical genetics service deals with diagnosis and management of genetic condition as well as genetic information presentation and family support, is yet to be delivered in comprehensive way for the patients and families in need. Two major obstacles in providing genetic counseling service in korean health care system are identified; One is the lack of recognition for the need for genetic counseling service as necessary service by the national health insurance. Genetic counseling consumes a significant time in delivery and the current very low-fee schedule for physician service makes it very difficult to provide meaningful service. Second is the critical shortage of qualified professionals in the field of medical genetics and genetic counseling who can provide the service of genetic counseling in clinical setting. However, recognition and understanding of the fact that the scope and role of genetic counseling is expanding in post genomic era of personalized medicine for delivery of quality health care, will lead to the efforts to overcome obstacles in providing genetic counseling service in korean health care system. Only concerted efforts from health care policy makers of government on clinical genetics service and genetic counseling for establishing adequate reimbursement coverage and professional communities for developing educational program and certification process for professional genetic counselors, are necessary for the delivery of much needed clinical genetic counseling service in Korea.

Eating Traits and General Psychopathology of Korean Males Who Show High Score on the Korean Version of Eating Attitudes Test-26 (한국판(韓國版) 식사태도(食事態度) 검사(檢査)-26에서 고득점(高得點)을 보인 한국(韓國) 일반(一般) 남성군(男性群)의 식사특성(食事特性)과 일반정신병리(一般精神病理))

  • Han, Ki-Seok;Lee, Young-Ho;Rhee, Min-Kyu;Park, Se-Hyun;Sohn, Chang-Ho;Chung, Young-Cho;Hong, Sung-Kook;Lee, Byung-Kwan;Chang, Phi-Lip;Yoon, A-Rhee
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.87-102
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    • 1999
  • Objectives : The purposes of this study were to estimate the prevalence rate of eating disorders in Korean males and to clarify their characteristics in sociodemograhic data, the eating traits, and general psychopathology through the comparison with those of female high scored group on the Korean version of Eating Attitudes Test-26(KEAT-26). Methods : Using a multi-stage questionnaire sampling method including area sampling, proportionated stratified sampling, and quota sampling, we surveyed a total of 4,400 Korean adults over 18 in a nationwide area(9 kus, 10 middle or small cities, and 17 kuns), obtaining usable responses on 3,896. Of the 3,062 subjects(1249 males and 1813 females) who were available for analysis, we ascertained 52 males and 208 females who had high score($\geq$ cutoff point 21) on the KEAT-26. Results : 1) The proportion of this high score group was 1.7% in male and 6.8% in female with a sex ratio(male versus female) of 1 : 4. 2) The mean age was higher in the male group than in the female group, although it was not statistically significant(p=0.0514). Mean Body Mass Index(BMI) of the male group was significantly higher than that of female group, and the number of male subjects with below 20 of BMI was also significantly lower than in the female group. 3) There were no significant difference in past history of physical illness between two groups. However, frequency of smoking and alcohol use, and mean amount of alcohol consumption per month were significantly higher in the male group than in the female group. There were no significant differences between the two groups on various socio-demographic correlates such as economic status, total duration of education, number of family, marital status, religious status, and area of residence, but the exception of being occupational status. 4) The 'Eating Habits Scale' score and score of 'preference for vegetables and fish, and dislike for sweet-tasting food' of the male group were significantly lower than those of the female group. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups in total scores of the KEAT-26, the mean score on 'pursuit of thinness' subscale was higher in the female group than in the male group, while scores of 'food preoccupation' and 'self-control' subscales were higher in the male group than in the female group. 5) Scores on 'psychoticism' was significantly higher in the male group than in the female group, although there were no significant differences between the two groups on 'locus of control for weight', 'depression' and 'hypochondriasis'. Conclusion : These results support a possibility of a high prevalence of eating disorders in Korean males. These results suggest that eating related characteristics of high scorer on the EAT are different by sex in spite of the same high score on the EAT, and also suggest that male patients with eating disorders have more serious personality pathology than female patients with eating disorders.

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Mediating Roles of Attachment for Information Sharing in Social Media: Social Capital Theory Perspective (소셜 미디어에서 정보공유를 위한 애착의 매개역할: 사회적 자본이론 관점)

  • Chung, Namho;Han, Hee Jeong;Koo, Chulmo
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.101-123
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    • 2012
  • Currently, Social Media, it has widely a renown keyword and its related social trends and businesses have been fastly applied into various contexts. Social media has become an important research area for scholars interested in online technologies and cyber space and their social impacts. Social media is not only including web-based services but also mobile-based application services that allow people to share various style information and knowledge through online connection. Social media users have tendency to common identity- and bond-attachment through interactions such as 'thumbs up', 'reply note', 'forwarding', which may have driven from various factors and may result in delivering information, sharing knowledge, and specific experiences et al. Even further, almost of all social media sites provide and connect unknown strangers depending on shared interests, political views, or enjoyable activities, and other stuffs incorporating the creation of contents, which provides benefits to users. As fast developing digital devices including smartphone, tablet PC, internet based blogging, and photo and video clips, scholars desperately have began to study regarding diverse issues connecting human beings' motivations and the behavioral results which may be articulated by the format of antecedents as well as consequences related to contents that people create via social media. Social media such as Facebook, Twitter, or Cyworld users are more and more getting close each other and build up their relationships by a different style. In this sense, people use social media as tools for maintain pre-existing network, creating new people socially, and at the same time, explicitly find some business opportunities using personal and unlimited public networks. In terms of theory in explaining this phenomenon, social capital is a concept that describes the benefits one receives from one's relationship with others. Thereby, social media use is closely related to the form and connected of people, which is a bridge that can be able to achieve informational benefits of a heterogeneous network of people and common identity- and bonding-attachment which emphasizes emotional benefits from community members or friend group. Social capital would be resources accumulated through the relationships among people, which can be considered as an investment in social relations with expected returns and may achieve benefits from the greater access to and use of resources embedded in social networks. Social media using for their social capital has vastly been adopted in a cyber world, however, there has been little explaining the phenomenon theoretically how people may take advantages or opportunities through interaction among people, why people may interactively give willingness to help or their answers. The individual consciously express themselves in an online space, so called, common identity- or bonding-attachments. Common-identity attachment is the focus of the weak ties, which are loose connections between individuals who may provide useful information or new perspectives for one another but typically not emotional support, whereas common-bonding attachment is explained that between individuals in tightly-knit, emotionally close relationship such as family and close friends. The common identify- and bonding-attachment are mainly studying on-offline setting, which individual convey an impression to others that are expressed to own interest to others. Thus, individuals expect to meet other people and are trying to behave self-presentation engaging in opposite partners accordingly. As developing social media, individuals are motivated to disclose self-disclosures of open and honest using diverse cues such as verbal and nonverbal and pictorial and video files to their friends as well as passing strangers. Social media context, common identity- and bond-attachment for self-presentation seems different compared with face-to-face context. In the realm of social media, social users look for self-impression by posting text messages, pictures, video files. Under the digital environments, people interact to work, shop, learn, entertain, and be played. Social media provides increasingly the kinds of intention and behavior in online. Typically, identity and bond social capital through self-presentation is the intentional and tangible component of identity. At social media, people try to engage in others via a desired impression, which can maintain through performing coherent and complementary communications including displaying signs, symbols, brands made of digital stuffs(information, interest, pictures, etc,). In marketing area, consumers traditionally show common-identity as they select clothes, hairstyles, automobiles, logos, and so on, to impress others in any given context in a shopping mall or opera. To examine these social capital and attachment, we combined a social capital theory with an attachment theory into our research model. Our research model focuses on the common identity- and bond-attachment how they are formulated through social capitals: cognitive capital, structural capital, relational capital, and individual characteristics. Thus, we examined that individual online kindness, self-rated expertise, and social relation influence to build common identity- and bond-attachment, and the attachment effects make an impact on both the willingness to help, however, common bond seems not to show directly impact on information sharing. As a result, we discover that the social capital and attachment theories are mainly applicable to the context of social media and usage in the individual networks. We collected sample data of 256 who are using social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and Cyworld and analyzed the suggested hypotheses through the Structural Equation Model by AMOS. This study analyzes the direct and indirect relationship between the social network service usage and outcomes. Antecedents of kindness, confidence of knowledge, social relations are significantly affected to the mediators common identity-and bond attachments, however, interestingly, network externality does not impact, which we assumed that a size of network was a negative because group members would not significantly contribute if the members do not intend to actively interact with each other. The mediating variables had a positive effect on toward willingness to help. Further, common identity attachment has stronger significant on shared information.

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Development and evaluation of Pre-Parenthood Education Program for high school students based on Home Economics subject (고등학생을 위한 가정교과 기반 예비부모교육 프로그램 개발 및 평가)

  • Noh, Heui-Yeon;Cho, Jae Soon;Chae, Jung Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.161-193
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate pre-parenthood education program(PPEP) based on Home Economics(HE) subject for high school students. The development and evaluation of PPEP based on HE subject in this study followed ADDIE model except implementation through 4 processes such as analysis, design, development, and evaluation. First, program development directions were set in three aspects such as 'general development', 'contents', and 'teaching and learning methods'. Themes of the program are 11 in total such as '1. Parenting, what is being a parent', '2. Choosing your spouse, happy marital relationship, the best gift to your children', '3. Pregnancy and birth, a moving meeting with a new life', '4. Taking care of a new born infant for 24 hours', '5. Taking care of infants, relationship with my lovely baby, attachment', '6. Taking care of young children, my child from another planet', '7. Parents and children in healthy family', '8. Parent-child relationship, wise parents to make effective interaction with their children', '9. Parents safety manager at home,', '10. Practice to take care of infants', and '11. Practice of community nurturing support service development'. In particular, learning activities of the program have major characteristics such as 1) utilization of cases including practice problems related to parenting, 2) community exchange activities utilizing learned knowledge and techniques, 3) actual life project activities utilizing learning contents related with parenting, 4) activities inducing positive changes in current life of high school students, and 5) practice activities for the necessities of life such as food, clothing and shelter supporting development of children. Second, the program was developed according to the design. Teaching-learning plans and materials for 17 classes were developed according to 11 themes. The developed plans include class flow and teacher's reference. It starts with receiving a class-related message from a virtual child at the introduction stage and ended with replying to the message by summarizing contents of the class and making a promise as a parent-to-be. That is the basic frame of class flow. Learning materials included various plans and reports necessary for learning activities and they are prepared in details so that they can be play the role of textbooks in regular curriculum. Third, evaluation of developed program was executed by a 5 point Likert scale survey on 13 HE experts on two aspects of program development process and program development results. In the evaluation of development process, mean value was 4.61 and index of content validity was 97.4%. For development results, mean value was 4.37 and index of content validity was 86.9%. These values showed that validity in the development process and results in this study was highly secured and confirmed that PPEP based on HE was appropriate and valid to enhance parent qualifications of high school learners.