• Title/Summary/Keyword: Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence

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Heaviness of Smoking Index, Number of Cigarettes Smoked and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence Among Adult Male Malaysians

  • Lim, K.H.;Idzwan, M. Feisul;Sumarni, M.G.;Kee, C.C.;Amal, N.M.;Lim, K.K.;Gurpreet, K.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.343-346
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    • 2012
  • Two methods of identifying smokers with high nicotine dependence, the heaviness of smoking index (HSI) and number of cigarettes per day (CPD) were compared with the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND). The HSI, CPD and the FTND were administered to 316 adult Malaysian male, daily smokers aged between 25-64 years old in the Malaysian NCD Surveillance-1 Survey using a two-stage stratified random sampling of enumeration blocks and living quarters, via an interview based on a validated questionnaire. The cut-off point for classification of high nicotine dependence on the HSI was a score of four or higher, and for the heavy smoking category, smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day. Classification using each method was compared with classification by the FTND (score of six or more) as the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa statistics for concordance between both measures and the FTND were evaluated. The HSI gave a similar prevalence rate of high nicotine dependence as the FTND. There was substantial agreement between the HSI and the FTND (kappa=0.63.), with moderate sensitivity (69.8%) and high specificity (92.5%). However, prevalence of high nicotine dependence using the CPD was 7% lower than the FTND. The heavy smoking category also showed fair agreement with the FTND (kappa=0.45) and moderate sensitivity (67.0%), but specificity was high (86.9%). The findings indicate that the HSI can be used as an alternative to the FTND in screening for high nicotine dependence among daily smokers in large population-based studies, while CPD may not be a suitable alternative to the FTND.

Frequency of Cigarette Smoking Among Psychiatric Inpatients Evaluated by the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence

  • Tanriover, Ozlem;Karamustafalioglu, Nesrin;Tezvaran, Zehra;Kaplan, Asli;Tomruk, Nesrin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.579-582
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    • 2013
  • Background: In this study our aim was to determine the rate of smoking in a sample of psychiatric in-patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression and to examine factors related to smoking status and the level of dependence in this population. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 people were included in this descriptive study. 80 were inpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression and 80 people without any psychiatric diagnoses were included as a control group. The participants were interviewed face-to face using a semi-structured questionnaire and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence was used to define smoking habits. Results: The mean age of the participants was $37.24{\pm}12.19$ years ranging from 18 to 81 years, 54.4% of the participants were (n=87) female, and 45.6% cases (n=73) were male. 70% (n=56) of the patients and 55% of the control group were smoking and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). Total score of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence in the patient group was statistically significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.01). Conclusions: In our sample, the frequency of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence among psychiatric inpatients was high, posing a high risk for smoking related diseases including cancers; therefore there should be counseling on tobacco control and smoking cessation programming targeting this population.

Work-Associated Stress and Nicotine Dependence among Law Enforcement Personnel in Mangalore, India

  • Priyanka, R;Rao, Ashwini;Rajesh, Gururaghavendran;Shenoy, Ramya;Pai, BH Mithun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.829-833
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To investigate the work associated stress and nicotine dependence among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore, India. Demographic details, stress factors experienced at work and nicotine dependency were the variables studied. The extent of stress factors experienced at work was assessed using the Effort-Reward Imbalance scale (ERI). Nicotine dependence was measured using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence-Smokeless Tobacco (FTND-ST). Logistic regression was used for the statistical analysis. Results: Three hundred and four law enforcement personnel participated in the study, among whom 68 had the presence of one or more habits like tobacco smoking, tobacco chewing and alcohol use. The mean effort score was $15.8{\pm}4.10$ and the mean reward and mean overcommitment scores were $36.4{\pm}7.09$ and $17.8{\pm}5.32$ respectively. Effort/Reward ratio for the total participants was 1.0073 and for those with nicotine habit was 1.0850. Results of our study demonstrated no significant association between domains of ERI scale and presence of habits but work associated stress was associated with the presence of one or more habits. Compared to constables, head constables had 1.12 times higher risk of having a nicotine habit. Conclusions: Our study implies job designation is associated with nicotine habits. However, there was no association between work associated stress and nicotine dependence among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore.

Assessment of Nicotine Dependence among Smokers in a Selected Rural Population in Kerala, India

  • Jayakrishnan, R.;Mathew, Aleyamma;Lekshmi, Kamala;Sebastian, Paul;Finne, Patrik;Uutela, Antti
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2663-2667
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: An attempt was made to understand the nicotine dependence of smokers selected for an ongoing smoking cessation intervention programme in rural Kerala, India. Methods: Data were collected from resident males in the age group of 18 to 60 years from 4 randomly allocated community development blocks of rural Thiruvananthapuram district (2 intervention and 2 control groups). Trained accredited social health activist workers were utilised to collect data from all groups through face to face interview. Nicotine dependence among participants was assessed by means of the six-item Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) translated into the local language. The internal consistency of FTND was computed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Criterion validity (concurrent) was assessed by correlations of nicotine dependence scores with age at initiation of smoking and cumulative smoking volume in pack-years. Results: Among the 928 smokers identified, 474 subjects were in the intervention area (mean age = 44.6 years, SD = 9.66 years) and 454 in the control area (mean age = 44.5 years, SD = 10.30 years). The overall FTND score among current daily smokers was 5.04 (SD: 5.05). FTND scores in the control and intervention areas were 4.75 (SD: 2.57) and 4.92 (SD: 2.51) respectively. The FTND scores increased with age and decreased with higher literacy and socioeconomic status. The average FTND score was high among smokers using both bidi and cigarettes (mean 6.10, SD 2.17). Internal consistency analysis yielded a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.70 in a subsample of 150 subjects, a moderate result. The association of the scale was strongest, with the number of pack-years smoked (rho = 0.677, p < 0.001). Conclusion: A moderate level of nicotine dependence was observed among smokers in the current study. Tobacco cessation strategies could be made more cost effective and productive if a baseline assessment of nicotine dependence is completed before any intervention.

Relationship of Thickness of Carotid Artery according to Smoking and Drinking in University Students (대학생들의 흡연 및 음주에 따른 목동맥 두께의 상관성)

  • Kim, Dae-Sik;Sung, Hyun-Ho;Cho, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Jong-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.345-353
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    • 2018
  • This study examined the associations of smoking, alcohol drinking habits and both with the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in university students. This study was performed using a CAGE (test for alcohol: cutting down, annoyance by criticism, guilty feeling, and eye-openers) questionnaire, FTND (the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence) questionnaire, and CIMT of university students. No statistically significant differences were observed among the CIMT results according to each CAGE level classified into 3 groups. The results of CIMT according to the FTND smoking categorization showed that the smoking group was higher than nonsmoking group (P<0.01). A statistically significant difference was observed between the left and right CIMT regarding smoking and drinking (P<0.01). In the only drink risk group, the left CIMT (19.84 rank) showed a low-ranking. The CIMT on the left (42.38 rank) and right (42.81 rank) showed high scores in the group with only the risk of smoking (P<0.01). These results suggested that there are distinct differences in CIMT and relevant risk factors between smokers and drinkers, particularly among those with a high smoking status. This study had several limitations: the study population was small; the relatively young age of the study subjects; and limited of focus on smoking, drinking and CIMT. In conclusion, cigarette smoking significantly exacerbates the adverse effects and higher CIMT on the subclinical atherosclerosis risk in young adults, which underscores the importance of prevention and cessation of cigarette smoking in young adults.

A Preliminary Comparison of the Efficacy of Auricular Acupuncture, Transdermal Nicotine Patch and Combination Therapy for Smoking Cessation (금연 이침과 경피적 니코틴 패치 및 병용 요법 간의 금연 효과에 대한 예비적 비교 연구)

  • Kang, Hee-Chul
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare three therapies - auricular acupuncture, transdermal nicotine patch and therapy - in combination with auricular acupuncture and nicotine patch. Methods : The subjects of this study included 188 male smokers in their 20s, 30s, 40s and 50s, who visited Wonmi Public Health Center. They were evaluated with the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence, amounts of daily smoking and success rate of smoking cessation. The subjects decided on a therapy method strictly of their own choice. They were divided into three groups according to the therapy; auricular acupuncture group (62 persons), nicotine patch group (69 persons) and combination therapy group (57 persons). Results : All three groups resulted in statistically significant reducing effects of nicotine dependence and amounts of daily smoking. In the combination therapy group, nicotine dependence was significantly decreased by more than those of the other groups. There were no statistically significant differences in decrements of daily smoking and success rate of smoking cessation among the three groups. Conclusions : The above results suggest that auricular acupuncture and transdermal nicotine patch have significant effects of smoking cessation. If they are combined, it is expected that therapies for smoking cessation would be developed.

Oral health-related quality of life (OHIP-14) according to smoking (흡연 유무에 따른 구강건강 관련 삶의 질의 관련요인)

  • Jeon, Ki-Ha;Lee, Ju-Yul;Lee, Ji-Eun
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.889-898
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the oral health-related quality of life (OHIP-14) according to smoking in the male workers in Gunsan. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 460 male workers in Gunsan from April 13 to 30, 2015. Among 460 workers, smokers were 205 and nonsmokers were 255. The questionnaire included three questions of general characteristics of the subjects, four questions of subjective oral health, fourteen questions of OHIP, ten questions of sobriety test (AUDIT), and eight questions of smoking (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, FTND). Data were analyzed by frequency analysis, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression analysis using IBM SPSS(Statistical Package for the Social Science) for Windows 20.0 program. Results: In the nonsmokers, there was a negative correlation between the alcohol consumption, dental health condition, tooth pain, gum bleeding, and halitosis. The higher OHIP in the smokers had the negative correlation with nicotine dependence, alcohol consumption, tooth pain, gum bleeding, and halitosis. In order to improve OHIP, smokers are encouraged to manage gum bleeding, and non-smokers to halitosis. Conclusions: In order to improve OHIP, cessation of smoking and alcohol consumption is very important and it can lead to improve the quality of life in the workers.

Trends in Smoking among University Students between 2005-2012 in Sakarya, Turkey

  • Alvur, Tuncay Muge;Cinar, Nursan;Oncel, Selim;Akduran, Funda;Dede, Cemile
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4575-4581
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    • 2014
  • Turkey protects its entire population of 75 million people with all the MPOWER measures at the highest level. The aim of this study is to make a comparison of smoking and addiction data obtained from Sakarya University students in 2005-6 and 2012-13. A total of 4,200 (2,500 and 1,700 for each academic year) students at Sakarya University in Sakarya, Turkey, were randomly selected for sampling purposes. The selected participants represented Sakarya University students. Data were collected using a pretested anonymous and confidential, self-completed questionnaire which took 15-20 minutes to complete and Fagerstrom Test for nicotine dependence. Chi-squared, Spearman correlation, and binary logistic regression tests were used to define associations, if any. The level of significance was kept at alpha=0.05. Smoking prevalance dropped by 8.5% (from 26.9% to 18.5%). Male gender, older age, high family smoking index, low self-rated school success, and high peer smoker proportion were common variables that have correlation with smoking status. In the binary logistic regression test the highest contributor to "being a smoker" was found to be the rate of peer smokers. Having all friends smoking puts the student a a 47.5 and 58.0 times higher risk for smoking for males and females, respectively. Our results suggest an admirable diminution of smoking prevalance among Sakarya University students, which can be attributed to MPOWER protection.

Psychological Factors Associated with Short-tenn and Long-tenn Abstention Following a Smoking Cessation Program (금연 프로그램 참여자들의 장$\cdot$단기 금연 성공과 관련된 심리적 요인 탐색)

  • 서경현;이석민
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.137-151
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    • 2004
  • Objectives: This study aims to investigate the psychological factors associated with abstention following a smoking cessation program, and to suggest useful information for those who want to stop . smoking and health practitioners who help them Methods: Participants were 73 smokers (65 males, 8 females) that participated in a hospitalized smoking cessation program, whose mean age was 44.89 (SD=9.61). Participants completed questionnaires and psychological tests including: Demographic sheet, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire, Multidimensional Coping Scale, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, and Jerusalem and Schwarzer's Self-Efficacy Scale. To identify whether the subjects abstained or not and to encourage them to abstain, the researcher called them on the telephone once a week for three months. After three months, they were contacted every other week till six months passed since they had left the smoking cessation program Tthey were THEN contacted once a month for another six months. The data was analyzed by using ANCOVAs with SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Results: 42 (57.5%) out of 73 abstained for one month and 26 (35.6%) abstained for one year. People who failed to abstain within a month showed a higher psychoticism and introversion personality trait than those who abstained for one month, while people who abstained for one month were coping actively in most situations, showed a higher self-efficacy and lower nicotine dependence than those who failed to abstain within a month, and people who failed to abstain within a year showed a higher psychoticism than those who abstained for one year. While people who abstained for one year were coping actively, obstinate, and interpreting positively most situations, they showed a higher self-efficacy than those who failed to abstain within a year. Conclusion: These findings reiterate the roles of personality, self-esteem, nicotine dependence in smoking and suggest the roles for smoking cessation. And it was found the roles of coping styles ,in smoking cessation. It might help smokers who want to stop smoking and health practitioners who help them

Factors affecting Problematic Drinking of Male College Students in the Gyeongnam Area (경남지역 일부 남자대학생의 문제음주에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Seo, Eunhee
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.867-879
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the factors affecting problematic drinking amongst the male university students of the Changwon area (n=367). The participants were divided into 3 groups, and undertook the self-report questionnaire survey. Based on the AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) guidelines, problematic drinking were rated as 'no problem' (28.8%), 'at-risk drinking' (41.7%), and 'alcohol abuse' (29.5%). Our study revealed that students living alone, indulged in more club activities, and drank more than 3 cans of carbonated drinks a day; this was significantly high on the AUDIT score (p<0.05). Participation in education was significantly higher (p<0.05), but intention to reduce the monthly alcohol consumption was significantly lower (p<0.001) in the alcohol abuse group. Recognition level of drinking cultures, drinking habits, AUDIT, and nicotine dependence were significantly higher in the alcohol abuse group (p<0.001). Recognition level of drinking cultures and nicotine dependence by the FTND (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence) positively correlated with problematic drinking, whereas dietary guidelines and self-esteem showed a negative correlation with problematic drinking (p<0.05). Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis, the factors affecting problematic drinking were recognition level of drinking cultures (${\beta}=0.47$, p<0.001) and nicotine dependence (${\beta}=0.23$, p<0.001). We conclude that implementation of health education for university students, would aid in rectifying the incorrect perception of drinking. Furthermore, both drinking and smoking should be considered simultaneously.