• Title, Summary, Keyword: Faeces

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Quality Characteristics of Livestock Faeces Composts Commercially Produced in Gyeonggi Province in 2008

  • Kang, C.S.;Roh, A.S.;Kim, S.K.
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.186-189
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    • 2011
  • By surveying the 70 composting plants in Gyeonggi Province, the total commercial production of livestock faeces composts (LFCs) in 2008 was estimated to be about 480,000 Mg year-1 and they were manufactured mainly by using both mechanical mixer and bottom air blower. LFCs were composed mainly of chicken faeces 29.2%, pig+chicken faeces 23.1%, pig faeces 20.0%, livestock faeces+oil cake 12.3%, pig+chicken+cattle faeces 10.8% and pig+cattle faeces 4.6%. On the basis of the current official standard which was revised on March 2010, 11 composts out of surveyed 76 ones did not meet the LFCs quality standard (LQS) due to inadequate content of water (5), OM/N (1), NaCl (2) and Zn (3). The OM/N declined by adding chicken faeces and oil cake, while Ca content increased by the addition of chicken faeces and NaCl increased by adding cattle faeces.

USE OF COW FAECES AT DIFFERENT TIMES AFTER BEING VOIDED AS A SOURCE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS IN IN VITRO DIGESTIBILITY ASSAYS OF FORAGES

  • Akhter, S.;Owen, E.;Hossain, M.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.371-374
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    • 1996
  • Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of time intervals between collecting and use of cattle faeces as a source of micro-organisms in in vitro digestibility assays of forages. The results suggested that temperature conservation capacity by faeces depended on the size of the sample. There was no significant difference(p>0.05) between the first (T1 or 08:30 h) and second using time (T2 or 10:30 h). In vitro organic matter digestibility was significantly lower when faeces was used 5 h (T3 or 13:30 h) after collection. However, the organic matter digestibility determined at the second using time (T2) and third using time (T3) were highly correlated ($R^2=0.99$) with the first using time. It was concluded that faeces can be used as a source of microorganisms for in vitro digestibility assays of forages even 5 h after being voided.

Unsafe Disposal of Child Faeces: A Community-based Study in a Rural Block in West Bengal, India

  • PS, Preeti;Sahoo, Sanjaya Kumar;Biswas, Dhiraj;Dasgupta, Aparajita
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.323-328
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: A clean India is the responsibility of all Indians. One of the objectives of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Initiative) is to bring about behavioural changes regarding healthy sanitation practices. While large-scale programs in India have increased latrine coverage, they have to some extent failed to bring behavioural changes ensuring optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child faeces, which is a significant source of exposure to faecal pathogens. Hence, this study was done to explore child faeces disposal practices in rural West Bengal and to elicit the determinants of unhygienic faeces disposal. Methods: Data collection was done using an interview method among the mothers of 502 under-5 children, following a pre-designed, semi-structured schedule during house-to-house visits in a set of villages in the Hooghly district of West Bengal. Results: The prevalence of unsafe disposal of child faeces was 72.4%, and maternal education, per capita income, and water source were found to be significantly associated with unsafe child faeces disposal. Conclusions: This study draws attention to the unsafe disposal of child faeces in this area of India and raises questions about the efficiency of sanitation campaigns in rural India that focus on expanding coverage rather than emphasizing behavioural changes, which are crucial to ensure the safe disposal of child faeces. Thus, it is urgently necessary to strengthen efforts focusing on behavioural changes regarding the safe disposal of child faeces in order to minimise adverse health outcomes.

Effects of Trogopterorum Faeces on the Apoptostic Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells (오령지(五靈脂)가 유방암세포의 사멸에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Yu-Rim;Kim, Ji-Eun;Yang, Seung-Jeong;Park, Kyung-Mi;Jung, Su-Jung;Cho, Seong-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.46-57
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Trogopterorum Faeces on the apoptostic cell death in breast cancer cells. Methods: In the experiment, the effects of Trogopterorum Faeces on proliferation rates and type of cell death were investigated using MCF-7 cells in vitro. The effects on expression levels of caspase 3 and caspase 9 were also investigated. Results: The effects on expression levels of caspase 3 and caspase 9 were also investigated. In the present results, treatment with Trogopterorum Faeces decreased proliferation rates in a dose dependent manner. $ID_{50}$ (50 % inhibitory dosage) was $177.2{\mu}g/ml$. In addition, treatment with Trogopterorum Faeces increased percentage of apoptotic cells. Finally the expression level of caspase 3 and caspase 9 were elevated by treatment with Trogopterorum Faeces respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that Trogopterorum Faeces can trigger caspase dependent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

EFFLUENT FROM RUSITEC INOCULATED WITH RUMEN LIQUOR OR COW FAECES AS SOURCES OF MICRO-ORGANISMS FOR IN VITRO DIGESTION OF FORAGES

  • Akhter, S.;Owen, E.;Hossain, M.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.375-379
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    • 1996
  • The experiment investigated the possibility of using effluent from RUSITEC (rumen simulation technique) inoculated with rumen liquor or cow faeces as sources of micro-organisms for in vitro digestion of forages. Nine forages ${\times}3$ sources of inoculum were used in a factorial arrangement of treatments. Rumen liquor was collected from fistulated sheep and faeces was collected from cows. The RUSITEC apparatus consisted of 4 vessels, 2 vessels were charged with faecal liquor and 2 with rumen liquor. On the 8th day of the experiment RUSITEC effluent were collected to use in in vitro studies. In vitro OMD (g/kg) values using three sources of inoculum (fresh rumen liquor, RUSITEC effluent from rumen liquor or cow faeces) were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The regression relationships between OMD using fresh rumen liquor and RUSITEC effluent were highly significant ($R^2>0.90$). The results suggest that RUSITEC effluent either from rumen liquor or cow faeces can be used as a source of micro-organisms for in vitro digestion of forages.

Fertilization Efficiency of Livestock Faeces Composts as Compared to Chemical Fertilizers for Paddy Rice Cultivation

  • Kang, C.S.;Roh, A.S.;Kim, S.K.
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.182-185
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    • 2011
  • Soil $NH_4$-N content became higher in proportion to the increase in the urea application rate, while in livestock faeces compost (LFC) plots, it became lower than in urea plots and had no significant difference statistically among LFC plots. There was a close relationship between phosphate fertilization rate and the increment of soil available phosphate content after experiment resulting y=0.1788x-6.169 ($R^2=0.9425$) when applied fused superphosphate fertilizer, and y=0.0662x-2.689 ($R^2=0.9315$) when applied LFCs by the same amounts of phosphate (x: phosphate application, kg $ha^{-1}$, y: increment in soil available phosphate content, mg $kg^{-1}$. Plant height, number of stems, nutrients uptake by rice and rice yield showed higher levels in N 100, 150% application plots of chemical fertilizers, while every LFC plots exhibited lower values and no significant difference among them. Relative nitrogen fertilization efficiencies of LFCs compared to urea was 12.3% for cattle faeces compost (CaFC), 8.8 for swine faeces compost (SwFC) and 24.6 for chicken faeces compost (ChFC), respectively.

Fermentation enhances the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Bat Faeces (Ye Ming Sha) via the ERK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 cells

  • Lee, Han-Saem;Chon, So-Hyun;Kim, Min-A;Park, Jeong-Eun;Lim, Yu-Mi;Kim, Eun-Jeong;Son, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Sang-Jun;So, Jai-Hyun
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.62 no.1
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    • pp.57-66
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    • 2019
  • The ethyl acetate fraction of Bat Faeces (Ye Ming Sha: natural products used in Chinese Medicine) after fermentation (EFBF-AF) showed enhanced anti-oxidative effects in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt assays. Fermentation of the Bat Faeces by using the crude enzyme extract from Aspergillus kawachii, significantly increased the anti-inflammatory effects. Fermented Bat Faeces markedly inhibited nitric oxide production, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The EFBF-AF reduced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B ($NF-{\kappa}B$) via $IKK{\alpha}$ and $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ phosphorylation, and decreased the phosphorylated the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and p38 expression in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, the EFBF-AF suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, such as interleukin-$1{\beta}$, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$. These results suggest that fermented Bat Faeces may suppress pro-inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages cells via ERK, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and $NF-{\kappa}B$ signaling pathways.

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF FAECES BY CATTLE IN A DAYTIME GRAZING SYSTEM

  • Hirata, M.;Higashiyama, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.603-610
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    • 1996
  • Spatial distribution of faeces by Japanese Black heifers and steers was investigated. The animals grazed a bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum $Fl\ddot{u}gge$) pasture in the daytime from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., and spent the rest of the day in a barn. The pasture consisted of three paddocks, an alley and a resting area, and the paddocks were grazed rotationally. The number of defecations and the faecal weight excreted in the pasture were greater than those expected from the proportion of time that the animals spent in the pasture. These values were correspondingly smaller in the barn. The distribution of faeces to the paddock, alley and resting area of the pasture was usually not proportional to the area of the respective places. The number of defeations and the faecal weight were usually distributed less densely in the paddock than in the resting area. The degree of aggregation of defecation in the paddock, alley and resting area varied with the meteorological factors such as the air temperature, solar radiation and rainfall during the grazing, and the intake of hay supplement of the previous day.

Serum Antibody Ig G and Ig M Titers for Opisthorchis felineus Correlate with Eggs in Faeces - a Comprehensive Study in Chuvash Republic, Russia

  • Emelianov, Vladimir U;Skvortsova, Tatiana;Mikhailova, Lilia V;Shamitova, Elena N
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.281-283
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    • 2016
  • The Cholangiocarcinoma is a. The risk of development of cholangiocarcinoma, generally a rare type of a liver tumor, increases during infection of Opisthorchiasis. For this reason the timely detection of Opisthorchiasis is important for Cholangiocarcinoma prevention. There are many studies which concern the detection of pathogenesis of Opisthorchis viverrini infection but a little known about Opisthorchis felineus. In this study we investigate a correlation of the eggs which are found in a faeces and are comparable with a serum Ig G and Ig M antibody level that were detected with ELISA test in a large group of patients. The result is showing positive correlation between evidence of the Opisthorchis felineus eggs that were found in a faeces and antibody Ig G and Ig M level in a serum. Moreover the combination of two methods can improve the Opisthorchiasis diagnostic: the serum antibody and faeces investigation of eggs.

Isolation and Identification of Acid- and Bile-Tolerant Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius from Human Faeces

  • Bae, Hyoung Churl;Choi, Seong Hyun;Nam, Myoung Soo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.1170-1178
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to isolate lactobacilli having characteristics to be used as health adjuncts with fermented milk products. Acid tolerant strains were selected in Lactobacilli MRS broth adjusted to pH 4.0 from human faeces. Bile tolerant strains were examined in Lactobacilli MRS broth in which 1.0% bile salt was added. Microhemagglutination tests using swine erythrocytes were performed to select lactobacilli having adherence properties to survive in the intestinal tract. By examination of these characteristics the strain Nam 27, which was isolated from adult faeces, was selected and identified as Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius based on carbohydrate fermentation and 16S rDNA sequencing.