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Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Extracts from Flammulina velutipes (Curtis) Singer (팽이버섯 추출물의 항산화 및 항염증 활성)

  • Kang, Hyun-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.8
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    • pp.1072-1078
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    • 2012
  • The potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of water and ethanol extracts from Flammulina velutipes (Curtis) Singer (FVS) on hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$) and LPS-induced oxidative damage in PC-12 and RAW264.7 cells were investigated. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of the water extract from FVS was the highest, and the 50% inhibitory concentration value was 0.388 mg/mL. Also, the antioxidant activities of water and ethanol extracts were determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethybenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activity. In addition, water extract from FVS showed a strongly inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation by measuring ferric thiocyanate values. The water extract decreased cell apoptosis in PC-12 cells against $H_2O_2$-induced oxidative damage. In addition, FVS extracts exhibited the strongest nitric oxide (NO) inhibition activity. It was also found that FVS extract inhibited LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression in RAW264.7 cells. The findings of the present study suggest that extracts of FVS exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity against oxidative stress and/or stimulated cells.

Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Lentil Extracts from Different Cultivars (품종별 렌틸 추출물의 폴리페놀화합물 함량 및 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, So-Hee;Lee, Syng-Ook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.973-979
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    • 2016
  • Lentils (Lens culinaris) have been gaining increasing attention recently as a top five superfood, as they are high in protein and other essential nutrients, including folate, iron, potassium, and various antioxidants. In the present study, phenolic extracts from four different lentil cultivars (green, red, French, and beluga) were evaluated for their total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant activities. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of four different lentil extracts were 27.30~30.30 mg tannic acid equivalents (TAE)/g and 13.14~16.29 mg quercetin equivalents (QUE)/g, respectively. Beluga and red lentil extracts showed higher polyphenol contents than others (P<0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in flavonoid contents among the four lentil cultivars. $RC_{50}$ values of the lentil extracts for DPPH radical, ABTS radical, and $H_2O_2$ were $57.42{\sim}64.49{\mu}g/mL$, $66.11{\sim}75.69{\mu}g/mL$, and $59.72{\sim}72.86{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. Among the four lentil extracts, beluga lentil extract showed the most potent scavenging effect in all three reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging assays, and thus beluga extract was further tested for its inhibitory effect on early peroxidation of linoleic acid. The results showed that beluga lentil extract significantly inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner (concentration required for 50% reduction=$222.76{\m}g/mL$). In addition, beluga lentil extract showed a significant protective effect against alcohol-induced cytotoxicity in AML-12 cells (normal mouse hepatocyte cell line). Taken together, these results suggest that lentil extracts represent potential sources of natural antioxidants, and further studies will be necessary to determine their protective effects against oxidative stress in vivo.

Market Structure and Pricing Behavior in the Korean Transportation Fuel Market (국내 수송용 석유제품 시장의 시장구조와 가격행태)

  • Moon, Choon-Geol
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.311-342
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    • 2015
  • We evaluate two main rationales of massive policy intervention of Lee Administration in the Korean transportation fuel market: high market share of domestic refineries, perceived by the Administration as the result of high market concentration, and asymmetry in price adjustment, perceived as the result of collusion. Domestic refineries, huge in capacity and located at seaports, maintain international competitiveness in price. Considering market openness offering preferential treatment to importers, they set domestic prices competitively on the basis of MOPS prices. Yet, the price competitiveness of domestic refineries is so high that they are able to sustain high market share. We confirm that the Korean before-tax consumer prices of gasoline and diesel are lower than Japan's and the weighted averages of 27 EU countries by as much as 159KRW and 21KRW per liter in the case of gasoline and 170KRW and 63KRW in the case of diesel. Price asymmetry is caused by diverse economic and managerial reasons and, as FTC (2005) states, price asymmetry does not immediately imply exercise of market power or collusion. We analyzed price asymmetry in Korea, Japan and 14 EU countries, and found asymmetry in Korea and 11 EU countries in the case of gasoline and in Korea and 8 EU countries in the case of diesel.

Components and Their Antioxidative Activities of Methanol Extracts from Sarcocarp and Seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis Rehder (생대추(풋대추) 과육 및 씨 추출물의 항산화 효과 및 항산화 성분)

  • Yu, Mi-Hee;Im, Hyo-Gwon;Lee, Hyo-Jung;Ji, Young-Ju;Lee, In-Seon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.128-134
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    • 2006
  • Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from sarcocarp and seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis Rehder were investigated in vitro. Contents of total polyphenols in methanol extracts from sarcocarp and seed were 98.83, $138.99\;{\mu}g/mg$, respectively. Radical-scavenging activities of methanol extracts were examined using ${\alpha},{\alpha}-diphenyl-{\beta}-picrylhydrazyl$ and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals, and hydrogen peroxide assay. Inhibition effects of methanol extracts on peroxidation of linoleic acid were examined by ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid methods. Both sarcocarp and seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis Rehder showed relatively high antioxidant activities in various systems.

Total Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts from Vegetables produced in Ullung Island (울릉도산 산채류 추출물의 총 폴리페놀 함량 및 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, Syng-Ook;Lee, Hyo-Jung;Yu, Mi-Hee;Im, Hyo-Gwon;Lee, In-Seon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 2005
  • To discover new functional materials using edible plants, antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from various parts of seven wild vegetables were investigated in vitro. Total polyphenol contents, determined by Folin-Denis method, varied from 16.74 to $130.22{\mu}g/mg$. Radical-scavenging activities of methanol extracts were examined using ${\alpha},\;{\alpha}-diphenyl-{\beta}-pirrylhydrazyl$ (DPPH) radicals and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay. Inhibition effects on peroxidation of linoleic acid determined by ferric thiocyanate (FTC) method and on oxidative degradation of 2-deoxy-D-ribose in Fenton-type reaction system were dose-dependent. Athyrium acutipinulum Kodama (leaf and rood), Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai (seed), and Solidago virga-aurea var. gigantea Nakai (root) showed relatively high antioxidant activities in various systems.