• Title, Summary, Keyword: FTC

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EValuation of the Outcome and Program of the Field Trip Contest (자연보호 답사대회 프로그램과 성과의 평가)

  • 구수정;박승재
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.81-97
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    • 1995
  • This study is to consider the result of the Field Trip Contest(FTC) and get a suggestion as a way of environmental education at school level in field. FTC was executed with selected students(3/1team) of 5th grade nationwide at Nam-Han mountain fortress in the suburbs of Seoul in Oct., 1994. The outcome of FTC was very high with the score of 1.38/2.0, and the quality of the program was generally high with the score of 1.09/2.0. Among areas of the outcome domain, accomplishment of the objectives of FTC was very high(1.55), execution of the policy of FTC was generally high(1.27), and operation and promotion of FTC was generally high(1.16). And in the Program of FTC domain, meaning of execution was very high(1.57), possibility of accomplishment was not high(0.03), validity of the content was generally high(1.18), appropriateness of activity scope was generally high(1.15), possibility of application into school system was generally high(1.22), and extending effect to education was generally high(0.9). Participants responded they got a great experience of inquiry for protecting nature during the activity of FTC and teachers accompanying found a good possibility to do in own school province.

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Threshold Primary Tumour Sizes for Nodal and Distant Metastases in Papillary and Follicular Thyroid Cancers

  • Zaman, Maseeh Uz;Fatima, Nosheen;Sajjad, Zafar;Akhtar, Jaweed;Islam, Najmul;Masood, Qamar;Ahmed, Asma
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2473-2476
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    • 2012
  • Background: In papillary and follicular thyroid cancers (PTC, FTC), nodal and distant metastasis are generally considered important determinants of recurrence and survival, respectively. However, there is no consensus about the threshold primary tumour size (PTS) for these determinants. The aim of this study was to assess size relationships for developing nodal, pulmonary, bone and overall distant metastases. Methods: This prospective study covered 139 (93 females and 46 males) consecutive biopsy proven patients with PTC (114/139, mean age $41.0{\pm}15.7$ years, M: F, 35%:65%) and FTC (25/139, mean age $39.2{\pm}14.3$ years, M: F: 24%:76%). Results: Average primary tumor size was $23.4{\pm}11.1$ mm and $26.5{\pm}13.1$ mm for PTC and FTC respectively (p value=0.223). Nodal metastasis was found more common in PTC than FTC (49% vs 28%, p value <0.05), whereas overall distant metastasis was approximately the same (13% and 24%, p value=0.277); however, bone metastasis was significantly higher in FTC than PTC (24% vs 5%, p value <0.05). Cumulative risk for nodal and distant metastases for FTC and PTC starts at PTS <20 mm and may indicate an unusual aggressive tumor behavior in the studied population. Highest cumulative risk for nodal and pulmonary metastases in PTC and for bone metastasis in FTC was found to be ${\geq}50$ mm PTS. Conclusion: We conclude that a PTS of <20 mm may indicate an unusual aggressive tumor behavior with highest cumulative risk for nodal and pulmonary metastases in PTC and for bone metastasis in FTC with a cutoff of ${\geq}50$ mm.

Design of Dissolution Apparatus for the Flow-through Cell Method Based on the Low Pulsation Peristaltic Pump (저 맥동 연동 펌프 기반 플로우 스루 셀 방식 용출 장치 설계)

  • Zhao, Jun Cheng;Cheng, Shuo;Piao, Xiang Fan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 2020
  • The emergence of the flow-through cell (FTC) method has made up for the limitations of previous dissolution test methods, but the high cost of the FTC dissolution devices have seriously hindered the progression of research and application of the FTC. This new design uses a peristaltic pump to simulate the sinusoidal flow rate of a piston pump. The flow profile of each peristaltic pump was sinusoidal with a pulsation of 120 ± 1 pulses per minute, and the flow rate ranged from 1.0 - 36.0 mL/min. The flow control of each channel was adjusted independently so the flow errors of the seven channels were close to 2%. The structure of the system was simplified, and the cost was reduced through manual sampling and immersing the FTC in a water bath. The dissolution rate of the theophylline and aminophylline films was determined, and good experimental results were obtained.

Integrating Fuzzy based Fault diagnosis with Constrained Model Predictive Control for Industrial Applications

  • Mani, Geetha;Sivaraman, Natarajan
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.886-889
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    • 2017
  • An active Fault Tolerant Model Predictive Control (FTMPC) using Fuzzy scheduler is developed. Fault tolerant Control (FTC) system stages are broadly classified into two namely Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) and fault accommodation. Basically, the faults are identified by means of state estimation techniques. Then using the decision based approach it is isolated. This is usually performed using soft computing techniques. Fuzzy Decision Making (FDM) system classifies the faults. After identification and classification of the faults, the model is selected by using the information obtained from FDI. Then this model is fed into FTC in the form of MPC scheme by Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy scheduler. The Fault tolerance is performed by switching the appropriate model for each identified faults. Thus by incorporating the fuzzy scheduled based FTC it becomes more efficient. The system will be thereafter able to detect the faults, isolate it and also able to accommodate the faults in the sensors and actuators of the Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) process while the conventional MPC does not have the ability to perform it.

The Effect of Electroacupuncture at the ST36 on the Electroencephalogram (족삼리(ST36) 전침 자극이 뇌파에 미치는 영향)

  • Gwon, Sun-Cheol;Youn, Dae-Sik;Lee, Sang-Ryong
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.15-36
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    • 2006
  • Objectives . The aim of this study was to examine the effect of electroacupuncture(EA) at the ST36 on normal humans by using power spectral analysis. Methods : EEG(Electroencephalogram) power spectral exhibits site-specific and state-related differences in specific frequency bands. In this study, power spectrum was used as a measure of complexity. 32 channel EEG study was carried out in 12 subjects (10 males; age=26.7 years old, 2females; age=28 years old). Results ; In ${\alpha}$ (alpha) band, the power values at Fp2, F7, F3, Fz, FTC1, FTC2, T3, C3, Cz, C4, TT1, TCP1, CP1, CP2,T5, P3, Pz, P4, Po1, Po2, O1, Oz,O2 channels(p<0.05) during the ST36-acupoint treatment were significantly increased. In ${\beta}$ (beta) band, the power values at Fp2, F7, F3, Fz, F4, F8, FTC1, FTC2, T3, C3, Cz, C4, TT1, TCP1, CP1, CP2, T5, P3, Pz, P4, Po1, Po2, O1, Oz, O2 channels(p<0.05) during the ST36-acupoint treatment were significantly decreased. In ${\delta}$ (delta) band, the power values at F7, Fz, T3, C3, TT1, TCP1, CP1, CP2, T5, P3, Pz,T6, Po1, PO2,O1, Oz, O2 channels(p<0.05) during the ST36-acupoint treatment were significantly decreased. In ${\theta}$(theta) band, the power values at F7, Fz, FTC1, T3, TCP1, CP2, TCP2, Po1, Po2 channels(p<0.05) during the ST36-acupoint treatment were significantly decreased. ${\alpha}$/${\beta}$ values at Cz, T5, O1, Oz, O2 channels during the ST36-acupoint treatment were increased. ${\beta}$/${\theta}$ values at Fpl, F7, F3, Fz, F4, F8, FTC1, FTC2, T3, C3, C4, T4, TT1, TCP1, TCP2, TT2, P3, P4, T6, Pol channels during the ST36-acupoint treatment were increased. Conclusions : This results suggest that Electroacupuncture at the ST36 mostly affects the charge on alpha(23 channels), beta(25 channels) bands.

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Measurement of Antioxidation Substances in Basil (바질의 항산화 물질 측정에 관한 연구)

  • Suh, Bong-Soon;Park, Myung-Hee
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.54-59
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    • 2010
  • Basil is known to contain six types of polyphenols that engage in physiological activation; protocateuic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, courmaric acid, rosmarinic acid and quercetin. In this study, the antioxidants in eight types of basil were evaluated. Specifically, the antioxidative activation of basil was evaluated based on the relationship between active oxygen scavenging (DPPH radical-scavenging), which was used as an index showing the content and functionality of the polyphenol compounds in basil, and $Fe^{2+}$/ascorbate (FTC) and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA). The total polyphenol content of the different types basil occurred in the following order: Dark-opal> Lettuce> Bush> Greek> Lemon> Sweet> Geno> Holy. The highest content Dark-opal was 173.3 mg, which was about three times greater than the lowest content Holy, which was 49.85 mg. In addition, DPPH radical-scavenging by Dark-opal 51%, which was the highest scavenging activity occurred in the folling order: Dark-opal> Lettuce> Bush> Greek> Lemon> Sweet> Geno> Holy. The antioxidative activation values measured using the FTC and TBA were the same as the value obtained using the DPPH method. Finally, the level of antioxidative activation measured using FTC, TBA and DPPH methods showed that the higher the content of polyphenol substance was, the stronger the antioxidative activation became.

Analyses and improvement of fuel temperature coefficient of rock-like oxide fuel in LWRs from neutronic aspect

  • Shelley, Afroza
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.1156-1163
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    • 2020
  • Fuel temperature coefficient (FTC) of PuO2+ZrO2 (ROX) fueled LWR cell is analyzed neutronically with reactor- and weapons-grade plutonium fuels in comparison with a U-free PuO2+ThO2 (TOX), and a conventional MOX fuel cells. The FTC value of a ROX fueled LWR is smaller compared to a TOX or a MOX fueled LWRs and becomes extremely positive especially, at EOL. This is because when fuel temperature is increased, thermal neutron spectrum is shifted to harder, which is extreme at EOL in ROX fuel than that in TOX and MOX fuels. Consequently at EOL, 239Pu and 241Pu contributes to positive fuel temperature reactivity (FTR) in ROX fuel, while they have negative contribution in TOX and MOX fuels. The FTC problem of ROX fuel is mitigated by additive ThO2, UO2 or Er2O3. In ROX-additive fuel, the atomic density of fissile Pu becomes more than additive free ROX fuel especially at EOL, which is the main cause to improve the FTC problem. The density of fissile Pu is more effective to decrease the thermal spectrum shifts with increase the fuel temperature than additive ThO2, UO2 or Er2O3 in ROX fuel.

Implication of Angiogenesis and Expression of VEGF in Follicular Thyroid Tumor (여포상 갑상선종양에서 신생혈관형성 및 혈관내피성장인자(VEGF)의 발현의 의의)

  • Ryu Ki-Sun;Soh Euy-Young;Yim Hyun-Ee;Kim Myung-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.70-75
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    • 1998
  • Tumor growth and metastasis depends on angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogen for vascular endothelial cells in vitro and promotes neoangiogenesis in vivo. Objective: Follicular thyroid cancers(FTC) are a vascular tumor and traditionally metastasize via blood vessels. Likely other cancers, angiogenesis may playa important role in FTC. We, therefore, investigated the expression of VEGF and microvascular density by immunohistochemistry in FTC and follicular adenoma(FA). Materials and Methods: Findings of immunohistochemical stainings for VEGF and CD31 were measured by grading scale from +1 to 4+(strongest) and by counting the stained microvessels in 14 FTCs and 14 FAs. Results: 1) Expression of VEGF. a) FTCs have stronger expression than FAs in areas of tumor adjacent to capsule($mean{\pm}SD\:\;3.2{\pm}0.9\;vs\;2.0{\pm}0.9$, p<0.01) and in central area($2.3{\pm}0.7\;vs\;1.3{\pm}0.6$, p<0.01). b) The VEGF expression of capsular area in FTCs are higher than that of central area(p<0.05). 2) Microvascular density by CD31. a) FTCs have more microvessels than FAs in areas of adjacent to capsule($78.9{\pm}27.3\;vs\;38.7{\pm}15.6$, p<0.01) and in central area($75.5{\pm}23.3\;vs\;27.8{\pm}10.7$, p<0.01). b) In FTCs, the number of microvessels of capsular area are more than that of central tumor area, but not significant statistically(p>0.05). Conclusion: The higher expression of VEGF and microvascular density in FTC suggests angiogenesis plays an important role in progression of FTC.

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Fault Tolerant Channel Allocation Scheme considering Multimedia Service in IMT-2000 (차세대 이동망에서 멀티미디어 서비스를 고려한 FTC 방식)

  • 박상준;이효준;조인숙;김관중;김병기
    • Journal of the Korea Society for Simulation
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 2001
  • In the IMT-2000 networks, the model of micro/pico cell is suggested for transmission of multimedia service. Hence, the efficient method is required for processing of mobile calls in micro/pico cell. In the central urban area, mobile calls may be dynamically increased because of many mobile users. And microcel]/picocell size has small size, handover calls will be more increased. Therefore, many of mobile calls is occurred at a cell in the central urban area, so channel requests for these calls will be increased in the call. In this paper, we propose a scheme, FTC(Fault Tolerant Channel allocation) which is the channel management method for hard handover and new call in a mobile cell of central urban area. When available channels in the cell are consumed, the FTC investigates channel states of neighbor cells in the RNC(Radio Network Controller) or BSC (Base Station Center), and provide available channel for mobile call. The ]no scheme is analyzed and compared with existing channel management method by simulation.

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