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Advanced Water Treatment of High Turbidity Source by Hybrid Process of Ceramic Ultrafiltration and Photocatalyst: 1. Effects of Photocatalyst and Water-back-flushing Condition (세라믹 한외여과 및 광촉매 혼성공정에 의한 고탁도 원수의 고도정수처리: 1. 광촉매 및 물역세척 조건의 영향)

  • Cong, Gao-Si;Park, Jin-Yong
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.127-140
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    • 2011
  • The effects of $TiO_2$ photocatalyst coating bead concentration, water-back-flushing period (FT), and back-flushing time (BT) were investigated in hybrid process of ceramic ultrafiltration and photocatalyst for advanced drinking water treatment in this study. Photocatalyst coating bead concentration was changed in the range of 10~40 g/L, FT in 2~10 min and BT in 6~30 sec. Then, we observed the effects on resistance of membrane fouling $(R_f)$, permeate flux (J) and total permeate volume $(V_{\Upsilon})$ during total filtration time of 180 min. As decreasing photocatalyst coating bead concentration, $R_f$ increased and J decreased. $V_{\Upsilon}$ was the highest value of 8.85 L at 40 g/L of photocatalyst coating bead concentration. At FT change experiment, $R_f$ decreased and J increased as decreasing FT. Then $R_f$ decreased and J increased according to increasing BT at BT change experiment. Because at NBF (no back-flushing) dramatic membrane fouling reduced membrane pore size, turbid and dissolved organic matters ($UV_{254}$ absorbance) could be removed efficiently. Therefore, treatment efficiencies of turbidity and dissolved organic matters were the highest at NBF. Then by cleaning effect of photocatalyst coating bead, the treatment efficiencies of turbidity and dissolved organic matters increased as decreasing FT and increasing BT.

Water Treatment of High Turbid Source by Tubular Ceramic Microfiltration with Periodic Water-back-flushing System

  • Lee, Hyuk-Chan;Park, Jin-Yong
    • Korean Membrane Journal
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.12-17
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    • 2007
  • We performed periodic water-back-flushing using permeate water to minimize membrane fouling to enhance permeate flux in tubular ceramic microfiltration system for water treatment of high turbid source. The filtration time (FT) = 2 min with periodic 6 sec water-back-flushing showed the highest value of dimensionless permeate flux ($J/J_o$), and the lowest value of resistance of membrane fouling ($R_f$), and we acquired the highest total permeate volume $(V_T)\;=\;6.805L$. Also in the result of BT effect at fixed FT = 10 min and BT (back-flushing time) = 20 sec showed the lowest value of $R_f$ and the highest value of $J/J_o$, and we could obtain the highest $V_T\;=\;6.660\;L$. Consequently, FT = 2 min and BT = 6 sec could be the optimal condition in water treatment of high turbid source above 10 NTU. However, FT = 10 min and BT = 20 sec was superior to reduce operating costs because of lower back-flushing frequency. Then the average quality of water treated by our tubular ceramic MF system was turbidity of 0.07 NTU, $COD_{Mn}$ of 1.86 mg/L and $NH_3-N$ of 0.007 mg/L.

Interfacial Breakdown Phenomena in XLPE/EPDM Laminates (XLPE/EPDM laminate의 계면절연파괴괴현상)

  • 남진호;서광석
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.540-543
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    • 1999
  • In order to determine what indluences the interfacial breakdown in EPDM/XLPE laminates. We studied the interfacial breakdown phenomena at several interfacial conditions. Breakdown strength in laminates pasted with silicone oil was higher than that with silicone grease. As a function of heat treatment time in a vacuum, interfacial breakdown strength increased much in XLPE/EPDM laminates pasted with silicone grease but increased a little in that with silcone oil. FT-IR spectrum of silicone oil was similar to that is silicone grease. FT-lR spectrum of silicone oil was not changed by the heat treatment in a vacuum, but in silicone grease another peak appeared.

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Solid-state Chracterization of the HIV Protease Inhibitor

  • Kim, Yong-Ae;Kim, Ae-Ri
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.1729-1732
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    • 2002
  • The LB71350,(3S, 4R)-Epoxy-(5S)-[[N-(1-methylethoxy)carbonyl]-3-(methylsulfonyl)-L-valinyl]amino]-N-[2-methyl-(1R)-[(phenyl)carbonylpropyl-6-phenylhexanamide, is a novel HIV protease inhibitor. Its equilibrium solubility at room temperature was less than $40{\mu}g/mL.$ It was speculated that the low aqueous solubility might be due to the high crystalline lattice energy resulting from intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The present study was carried out to learn the solid-state characteristics of LB71350 using analytical methods such as NMR, FT-IR and XRD. $^{13}C$ Solid-state NMR, solution NMR, and FT-IR spectra of the various solid forms of LB71350 were used to identify the conformation and structure of the solid forms. The chemical shifts of $^{13}C$ solid-state NMR spectra suggest that the crystalline form might have 3 intermolecular hydrogen bondings between monomers.

Utility Evaluation of Two-point Calibration Curve applied for TSH, FT4 Tests (TSH, FT4 검사의 Two-point Calibration Curve 적용의 유용성 평가)

  • Park, Hye-Mi;Yoo, Seon-Hee;Lee, Seon-Ho;Kim, Nyun-Ok
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.75-79
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    • 2016
  • Purpose The ASAN Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine performs TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone) and FT4 (Free Thyroxine) tests 8 times per day. Accordingly, 70 ~ 80 kit tubes are consumed every day for the measurements and the time consumed for reagent dispensing averages over 170 seconds, where the TAT (turnaround time) may be effected when the number of test samples is larger than expected. Therefore, the following test was conducted with the purpose to reduce the number of kit tubes consumed, and reduce the time for reagent dispensing. Materials and Methods The test is based on applying the same reagent for tests where the number of samples is 30 or less. The test for TSH was conducted 9 times from July $1^{st}$ 2015 to July $10^{th}$ 2015. The test for FT4 was conducted 4 times from June $18^{th}$ 2015 to June $22^{nd}$, 2015. Standard Solution No.2 (0.153 uU/mL) and No.5 (4.96 uU/mL) was selected as the two-point standards for the TSH test, and Standard Solution No.3 (0.777 ng/dL) and No.4 (2.044 ng/dL) was selected as the two-point standards for the FT4 test. 38 test samples were subject to correlation analysis. Results For TSH, the result of the normal test shows ranges of 0.20 ~ 0.37 uU/mL for Control1, 0.53 ~ 0.71 uU/mL for Control2, and 6.77 ~ 7.94uU/mL for Control3, while the result of two-point calibration curve test shows ranges of 0.18 ~ 0.27 uU/mL for Control1, 0.53 ~ 0.71 uU/mL for Control2, and 7.30 ~ 8.52 uU/mL for Control3. For FT4, the result of the normal test shows ranges of 0.85 ~ 0.94 ng/dL for Control1 and 4.23 ~ 4.57 ng/dL for Control2, while the result of two-point calibration curve test shows ranges of 0.61 ~ 0.75 ng/dL for Control1 and 3.88 ~ 5.71 ng/dL for Control2. For TSH, the CV% of the normal test for Control1, Control2 and Control3 are 10.5, 3.3 and 3.6 respectively, while the CV% of the two-point calibration curve test for Control1 and Control1 are 12.4, 8.2 and 5.1 respectively. The result shows an outstanding correlation of TSH: y = 0.9985x - 0.0459 $R^2=0.9986$. For FT4, the CV% of the normal test for Control1 and Control2 are 0.70 and 0.71 respectively, while the CV% of the two-point calibration curve test for Control1 and Control1 are 8.7 and 16.2 respectively. The result shows an outstanding correlation of FT4: y = 1.2674x - 0.1133 $R^2=0.9824$. Conclusion The two-point calibration curve can be efficiently applied for TSH in cases where the number of test samples is not large, since the number of samples to be re-tested increases when the result is abnormal from the calibration curve. The two-point calibration curve test should not be applied for FT4 where the results do not consistently comply with the quality assessment range. Depending on how the two-point calibration curve is applied, up to 5 test tubes can be conserved per test, and the reduced time for reagent dispensing is anticipated to have a positive effect on the TAT (turnaround time).

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Effect of Water-back-flushing Time and Period in Advanced Water Treatment System by Ceramic Microfiltration (세라믹 정밀여과에 의한 고도정수처리 시스템에서 물 역세척 시간 및 주기의 영향)

  • Park, Jin-Yong;Lee, Hyuk-Chan;Cho, Jae-Hyeong
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.26-34
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    • 2008
  • In this study, periodic water-back-flushing using permeate water was performed to minimize membrane fouling and to enhance permeate flux in advanced water treatment system by ceramic microfiltration. We investigated effect of water-back-flushing period (FT) and time (BT), and tried to find the optimal operating conditions. BT was fixed at 3 sec and FT was changed in $30{\sim}120$ sec to inspect effect of FT. Also, FT was fixed at 120 sec and BT was changed as $3{\sim}12$ sec at experiment of BT effect. At both two experiments, TMP was fixed at 1.52 bar, water-back-flushing pressure at 0.98 bar, feed flow rate at 0.5 L/min, and feed water temperature at $20^{\circ}C$. As the result, optimal FT was 30 sec at fixed BT 3 sec in our experimental range. It means that the more frequent back-flushing was the more effective to reduce membrane fouling. However, there were not large effects of FT due to a short BT. Then, increasing BT at fixed FT 120 sec could decrease resistance of membrane fouling ($R_f$) and increase permeate flux (J) and dimensionless permeate flux ($J/J_o$), and the most total permeate volume ($V_T$) could be produced at the maximum BT 12 sec.

The Antioxidant and Skin-whitening Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae FT4-4 Isolated from Berries Grown in Sunchang (화장품 소재로서 순창 베리류 유래 Sacchromyces cerevisiae FT4-4의 항산화 활성 및 미백 효과)

  • Seo, Ji won;Ryu, Myeong Seon;Yang, Hee-Jong;Jeong, Su-Ji;Jeong, Do-Youn
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.175-182
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    • 2021
  • Saccharomyces lysate has the well-known function of soothing the skin in various ways: it is an anti-irritant and can treat skin care conditions, such as skin whitening and antioxidative activity. However, data on the safety for use of Saccharomyces lysate in cosmetics and skin care products are still limited. To design a new cosmetic material with antioxidant and skin-whitening effects, 80 yeast strains were isolated from berries grown in Sunchang. Among the isolates, the FT4-4 strain, which exhibited superior biological activities, was selected for further experiments. The FT4-4 strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae by 18S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. S. cerevisiae FT4-4 showed higher DPPH radical-scavenging (51.41%), superoxide dismutase (62.23%), and tyrosinase inhibition (64.75%) activities. The highest yield of biomass (3.16 g/l) and maximum growth rate of S. cerevisiae FT4-4 were observed within 16 h. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity potential of S. cerevisiae FT4-4 on B16F10 melanoma cells was measured by an MTT assay, and the results indicated that S. cerevisiae FT4-4 had a capacity to inhibit melanin up to 72.02% at an initial 10 mg/ml concentration. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae FT4-4 could be a promising candidate as a multi-functional material for application in the cosmetic industry, especially because of its antioxidant and skin-whitening effects.

Effect of Periodic Water-back-flushing Time ad Period in Water Treatment by Tubular Alumina Ceramic Microfiltration

  • Park, Jin-Yong;Lee, A-Reum
    • Korean Membrane Journal
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2008
  • In this study periodic water-back-flushing using permeate water was performed to minimize membrane fouling and to enhance permeate flux in tubular ceramic micro filtration system for Gongji stream water treatment in Chuncheon city. The filtration time (FT) 2 min with periodic 6 sec water-back-flushing showed the highest value of dimensionless permeate flux ($J/J_0$), and the lowest value of resistance of membrane fouling ($R_f$), and we acquired the highest total permeate volume ($V_T$) of 7.44L. Also in the results of BT effect at fixed FT 10 min, BT (back-flushing time) 20 sec showed the lowest value of $R_f$ and the highest value of $J/J_0$, and we could be obtained the highest $V_T$ of 8.04 L. Consequently FT 10 min and BT 20 sec could be the optimal condition in Gongji stream water treatment. Then the average rejection rates of pollutants by our tubular ceramic MF system were 93.8% for Turbidity, 20.7% for $COD_{Mn}$, 39.2% for $NH_3$-N and 31.5% for T-P.

A Study on Si-wafer direct bonding for high pre-bonding strength (큰 초기접합력을 갖는 Si기판 직접접합에 관한 연구)

  • 정연식;김재민;류지구;정귀상
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.447-450
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    • 2001
  • Abstract-Si direct bonding(SDB) technology is very attractive for both Si-on-insulator(SOI) electric devices and MEMS applications because of its stress free structure and stability. This paper presents on pre-bonding according to HF pre-treatment conditions in Si wafer direct bonding. The characteristics of bonded sample were measured under different bonding conditions of HF concentration, and applied pressure. The bonding strength was evaluated by tensile strength method. The bonded interface and the void were analyzed by using SEM and IR camera, respectively. Components existed in the interlayer were analysed by using FT-lR. The bond strength depends on the HF pre-treatment condition before pre-bonding (Min : 2.4kgf/cm$^2$∼Max : 14.9kgf/cm$^2$).

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The Thermal Stability of Teflon AF/FEP Double Layer Film Electret (Teflon AF/FEP 이중 필름 일렉트렛트의 열적 안정성)

  • 김병수;이덕출
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.693-699
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    • 2003
  • To improve thermal stability of Teflon FEP which is the most widely used materials for electret application, Teflon AF film of 1 $\mu\textrm{m}$ thick was spin coated on FEP film and the charge storage properties were investigated. The surface potential depend on aging temperature. Thermal Stimulated Current(TSC), Atomic Force Microscopy(AFM), and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscope(FT-lR) measurements were carried out. It is shown that the AF/FEP dual film have more higher electrical property and thermal stability than that FEP film have caused by charge stored at interface of AF and FEP.