• Title, Summary, Keyword: FOXP3

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The Regulation of FOXP3 Expression by the Treatment of TGF-${\beta}$ and the Modification of DNA Methylation in Lung Cancer Cell Lines

  • Um, Sang-Won;Lee, Sang-Hee;Kim, Ho-Joong;Kwon, O-Jung;Kim, Hang-Rae;Kang, Jae-Seung;Lee, Wang-Jae
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.70 no.3
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    • pp.206-217
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    • 2011
  • Background: Transcription factor FOXP3 characterizes the thymically derived regulatory T cells. FOXP3 is expressed by cancer cell itself and FOXP3 expression was induced by TGF-${\beta}$ treatment in pancreatic cancer cell line. However, the expression of FOXP3 expression is not well known in patients with lung cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the expression of FOXP3 in patients with lung cancer and to investigate the regulation of FOXP3 expression by the treatment of TGF-${\beta}$ and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in lung cancer cell lines. Methods: FOXP3 expression in the tissue of patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The regulation of FOXP3 expression was investigated by Western blot and RT-PCR after lung cancer cell lines were stimulated with TGF-${\beta}1$ and TGF-${\beta}2$. The regulation of FOXP3 expression was also investigated by RT-PCR and flow cytometry after lung cancer cell lines were treated with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (5-AZA-dC). Results: FOXP3 expression was confirmed in 27% of patients with NSCLC. In NCI-H460 cell line, TGF-${\beta}2$ decreased FOXP3 mRNA and protein expressions. In A549 cell line, both TGF-${\beta}1$ and TGF-${\beta}2$ decreased FOXP3 mRNA and protein expressions. 5-AZA-dC increased FOXP3 mRNA expression in NCI-H460 and A549 cell lines. Moreover, 5-AZA-dC increased intracellular FOXP3 protein expression in A549 cell lines. Conclusion: It was shown that FOXP3 is expressed by cancer cell itself in patients with NSCLC. Treatment of TGF-${\beta}2$ and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor seems to be associated with the regulation of FOXP3 expression in lung cancer cell lines.

Presence of Foxp3-expressing CD19(+)CD5(+) B Cells in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Human CD19(+)CD5(+)Foxp3(+) Regulatory B Cell (Breg)

  • Noh, Joon-Yong;Choi, Wahn-Soo;Noh, Geun-Woong;Lee, Jae-Ho
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.247-249
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    • 2010
  • Foxp3 is a transcript factor for regulatory T cell development. Interestingly, Foxp3-expressing cells were identified in B cells, especially in CD19(+)CD5(+) B cells, while those were not examined in CD19(+)CD5(-) B cells. Foxp3-expressing CD5(+) B cells in this study were identified in human PBMCs and were found to consist of $8.5{\pm}3.5%$ of CD19(+)CD5(+) B cells. CD19(+)CD5(+)Foxp3(+) B cells showed spontaneous apoptosis. Rare CD19(+)CD5(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory B cell (Breg) population was unveiled in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and suggested as possible regulatory B cells (Breg) as regulatory T cells (Treg). The immunologic and the clinical relevant of Breg needs to be further investigated.

The Distribution of CD8- and Foxp3-positive T Cells in Skin Squamous Cell Tumors and Basal Cell Carcinomas (피부에 발생하는 편평세포종양 및 기저세포암종 조직에서 CD8 양성 T 림프구와 Foxp3 양성 T 림프구의 분포에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Tae Jung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.686-692
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    • 2015
  • Cancer is subject to dynamic interactions between contrary immune reactions that drive both tumor growth and suppression. Forkhead box p3 positive T cells (Foxp3 positive T cells) might support tumor promotion, while CD8 positive T cells might protect the host. The present study examined the distributions of CD8- and Foxp3-positive T cells and CD8 positive T cells/ Foxp3 positive T cells ratio in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its precancerous lesions; it also compared this with data for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Iimmunohistochemical staining for CD8 and Foxp3 was conducted in 20 cases of SCC, Bowen's disease (BD), actinic keratosis (AK) and BCC. The BD and SCC cases exhibited significantly increased numbers of both CD8- and Foxp3-positive T cells in their advancing regions compared with the AK and BCC cases, and the BD cases exhibited significantly lower CD8 positive T cells / Foxp3 positive T cells ratio in these regions than did the AK and BCC cases. There was no significant difference in both T cells and the ratio between BD and SCC. The degree of both T cells infiltration differed between the advancing and central areas in SCC and BCC. Immune micro-environments differ between cutaneous squamous cell tumors and BCC and differ as well among tumor compartments.

The expression of Foxp3 protein by retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer of Foxp3 in C57BL/6 mice (C57BL/6 마우스에서 Retroviral 벡터를 이용한 Foxp3 유전자의 도입에 의한 Foxp3 단백의 발현 양상)

  • Hwang, Insun;Ha, Danbee;Bing, So Jin;Jeon, Kyong-Leek;Ahn, Ginnae;Kim, Dae Seung;Cho, Jinhee;Lim, Jaehak;Im, Sin-Hyeog;Hwang, Kyu-Kye;Jee, Youngheun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.183-191
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    • 2012
  • The maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance and prevention of chronic inflammation and autoimmune disease require $CD4^{+}CD25^{+}$ T cells (regulatory T cells). The transcription factor Foxp3 is essential for the development of functional, regulatory T cells, which plays a prominent role in self-tolerance. Retroviral vectors can confer high level of gene transfer and transgene expression in a variety of cell types. Here we observed that following retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer of Foxp3, transductional Foxp3 expression was increased in the liver, lung, brain, heart, muscle, spinal cord, kidney and spleen. One day after vector administration, high levels of transgene and gene expression were observed in liver and lung. At 2 days after injection, transductional Foxp3 expression level was increased in brain, heart, muscle and spinal cord, but kidney and spleen exhibited a consistent low level. This finding was inconsistent with the increase in both $CD4^{+}CD25^{+}$ T cell and $CD4^{+}Foxp3^{+}$ T cell frequencies observed in peripheral immune cells by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS) analysis. Retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer of Foxp3 did not lead to increased numbers of $CD4^{+}CD25^{+}$ T cell and $CD4^{+}Foxp3^{+}$ T cell. These results demonstrate the level and duration of transductional Foxp3 gene expression in various tissues. A better understanding of Foxp3 regulation can be useful in dissecting the cause of regulatory T cells dysfunction in several autoimmune diseases and raise the possibility of enhancing suppressive functions of regulatory T cells for therapeutic purposes.

Detection of Foreign Antigen-specific $CD4^+Foxp3^+$ Regulatory T Cells by MHC Class II Tetramer and Intracellular CD154 Staining

  • Choi, Jin Young;Eo, Seong Kug
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.264-274
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    • 2013
  • The unrestricted population of $CD4^+Foxp3^+$ regulatory T (Treg) cells, which have been known to control the expression of autoimmune diseases and protective immunity to inflammatory reactions, has led to greater appreciation of functional plasticity. Detecting and/or isolating Ag-specific $CD4^+Foxp3^+$ Tregs at the single cell level are required to study their function and plasticity. In this study, we established and compared both MHC class II tetramer and intracellular CD154 staining, in order to detect $CD4^+Foxp3^+$ Treg specific for foreign Ag in acute and chronic infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Our results revealed that MHC class II tetramer staining showed a lower detection rate of LCMV $GP_{66-77}$-specific $CD4^+$ T cells because most of MHC class II tetramers were unbound and unstable when combined staining was performed with intracellular cytokines. In contrast, intracellular CD154 staining was revealed to be easier and simple for detecting LCMV $GP_{66-77}$-specific $CD4^+$ T cells, compared to MHC class II tetramer staining. Subsequently, we employed intracellular CD154 staining to detect LCMV $GP_{66-77}$-specific $CD4^+Foxp3^+$ Tregs using $Foxp3^{GFP}$ knock-in mouse, and found that LCMV $GP_{66-77}$-specific $CD4^+Foxp3^+$ Tregs and polyclonal $CD4^+Foxp3^+$ Tregs showed differential expansion in mice infected with LCMV Arms or Cl13 at acute (8 and 13 days pi) and chronic phases (35 days pi). Therefore, our results provide insight into the valuable use of intracellular CD154 staining to detect and characterize foreign Ag-specific $CD4^+Foxp3^+$ Treg in various models.

Alteration of $CD4^+CD25^+Foxp3^+$ T cell level In Kawasaki disease

  • Sohn, Su-Ye;Song, Young-Wooh;Yeo, Yun-Ku;Kim, Yun-Kyung;Jang, Gi-Young;Woo, Chan-Wook;Lee, Jung-Hwa;Lee, Kwang-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.157-162
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: Exaggerated pro-inflammatory reactions during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD) suggest the role of immune dysregulation in the pathogenesis of KD. We investigated the profiles of T regulatory cells and their correlation with the clinical course of KD. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from 17 KD patients during acute febrile and subacute afebrile phases. T cells expressing CD4, CD25, and Foxp3 were analyzed using flow cytometry, and the results were correlated with the clinical course of KD. Results: The percentage of circulating $CD4^+CD25^{high}Foxp3^+$ T cells among $CD4^+$ T cells was Significantly higher during the subacute afebrile phase than during the acute febrile phase ($1.10%{\pm}1.22%$ vs. $0.55%{\pm}0.53%$, P=0.049). Although levels of $CD4^+CD25^{low}Foxp3^+$ T cells and $CD4^+CD25^-Foxp3^+$ T cells were only slightly altered, the percentage of $CD4^+CD25^+Foxp3^-$ T cells among $CD4^+$ T cells was significantly lower during the subacute afebrile phase than during the acute febrile phase ($2.96%{\pm}1.95%$ vs. $5.64%{\pm}5.69%$, P=0.036). Consequently, the ratio of $CD25^{high}Foxp3^+$ T cells to $CD25^+Foxp3^-$ T cells was higher during the subacute afebrile phase than during the acute febrile phase ($0.45%{\pm}0.57%$ vs. $0.13%{\pm}0.13%$, P=0.038). Conclusion: Decreased $CD4^+CD25^{high}Foxp3^+$ T cells and/or an imbalanced ratio of $CD4^+CD25^{high}Foxp3^+$ T cells to $CD4^+CD25^+Foxp3^-$ T cells might playa role in KD development. Considering that all KD patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), recovery of $CD4^+CD25^{high}Foxp3^+$ T cells during the subacute afebrile phase could be a mechanism of IVIG.

Presence of Tumour-infiltrating FOXP3+ Lymphocytes Correlates with Immature Tumour Angiogenesis in Renal Cell Carcinomas

  • Zhan, Hai-Lun;Gao, Xin;Zhou, Xiang-Fu;Pu, Xiao-Yong;Wang, De-Juan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.867-872
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    • 2012
  • Background: $FOXP3^+$ regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibit effector T cell functions and are implicated in tumour progression. However, together with microvessel density (MVD) they remain controversial prognostic predictors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and potential associations have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of Tregs and MVD and their potential relationship in RCCs. Design: Paraffin-embedded tissues from 62 RCC patients were analysed using immunohistochemistry to detect $FOXP3^+$ lymphocytes, and double immunohistochemistry to detect different microvessel types in the tumour interior, rim and normal kidney tissue, and their correlation with clinicopathological characteristics. Survival analysis was also performed. Results: The presence of $FOXP3^+$ cells in the tumour interior or the rim showed no correlation with death from RCC and other pathological characteristics. Negative correlations were noted between the immature MVD in the tumour interior or the rim and tumour size, tumour stage and overall survival; however, there was no correlation with the nuclear grade or pathological type. A positive correlation between $FOXP3^+$ Tregs and immature MVD (r=0.363, P=0.014) and mature MVD (r=0.383, P=0.009) was confirmed in the tumour interior. However, there was no correlation between $FOXP3^+$ Tregs and mature MVD (r=0.281, P=0.076) or immature MVD (r=0.064, P=0.692) in the tumour rim. Conclusions: In this study, a positive correlation between the presence of $FOXP3^+$ Tregs and immature and mature MVD in RCC was confirmed, which suggests a link between suppression of immunity, tumour angiogenesis and poor prognosis.

CD4+, IL17 and Foxp3 Expression in Different pTNM Stages of Operable Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Effects on Disease Prognosis

  • Zhang, Guo-Qing;Han, Feng;Fang, Xin-Zhi;Ma, Xiao-Mei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3955-3960
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    • 2012
  • Objective: To investigate the effects of $CD4^+$, IL17 and Foxp3 expression on prognosis of operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with different pTNM stages. Methods: Expression of $CD4^+$, IL17 and Foxp3 in 102 cases of NSCLC tissues and adjacent cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and associations with prognosis with different pTNM stages were analyzed. The Chi-square test was used to compare count data. Survival differences were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier single factor analysis and the COX regression model was used to analyze the relationship between influential factors and the disease prognosis. The significance level was ${\alpha}$=0.05. Results: Expression of CD4, IL-17 and Foxp3 significantly varied in different pTNM stages of NSCLC tissues (P < 0.05). The same was true for CD4 expression (P < 0.05). The median survival time (MST) in the positive CD4 expression group was evidently higher than that in the negative group (25.8/23.9 months). Compared with stage III, the MST difference of stages I and II in the positive CD4 expression group were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The MST in positive IL-17 and Foxp3 expression groups was obviously lower than that in the corresponding negative group (P < 0.05) (25.6/35.1 months and 24/35.3 months, respectively). There was a significant difference of MST between any two of three stages of positive IL-17 expression group (P < 0.05), and it was the same with positive Foxp3 expression group. TNM stage, negative CD4 expression, and positive IL-17 and Foxp3 expression were the main risk factors for the prognosis of NSCLC. Conclusion: Surgical prognosis of NSCLC can be better assessed by the combination of clinical staging and expression of IL17 and Foxp3.

Expression of Granulysin and FOXP3 in Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma and Sézary Syndrome

  • Shareef, Mohamed Moustafa;Elgarhy, Lamia Hamouda;Wasfy, Rania El-Said
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.13
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    • pp.5359-5364
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    • 2015
  • Background: Multiple complex pathways are operable in the evolution of cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCLs). These pathways involve interaction between neoplastic T cells and cells of the immune system (especially dendritic cells and the non-malignant T cells). Granulysin is a proinflammatory antimicrobial peptide which has an immune alarmin function, activating dendritic cells, as well as an active role in tumor immunology and prognosis. FOXP3+ regulatory T cells Tregs are an important player in the immune system. Much controversy is found in the literature about the role of Tregs in CTCL. Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the expression of granulysin and FOXP3 in mycosis fungoides (MF), its precursor lesion large plaque parapsoriasis and its leukemic form ;$s\acute{e}ezary$ syndrome (SS). Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of granulysin and FOXP3 were assessed in lesional skin biopsies taken from 58 patients (4 large plaque parapsoriasis, 48 MF and 6 SS). Results: Granulysin positivity was cytoplasmic and higher in MF than in parapsoriasis en plaque and higher in the more advanced stages of MF (p<0.001). All groups showed significant differences between each other except between MF tumor stage and SS. FOXP3 positivity was nuclear and higher in early stage MF (plaque and patch stages) than in tumor stages and SS (p<0.001). However the FOXP3 count was lower in parapsoriasis en plaque than in other stages of MF. All the groups showed significant differences between each other except between parapsoriasis and SS and between patch and plaque stages of MF. Conclusions: The present study supports a role for granulysin in MF progression and proposes a novel hypothesis about the effect of FOXP3 +veTregs in the suppression of the activity of the neoplastic cells in MF.

DNA Demethylation of the Foxp3 Enhancer Is Maintained through Modulation of Ten-Eleven-Translocation and DNA Methyltransferases

  • Nair, Varun Sasidharan;Song, Mi Hye;Ko, Myunggon;Oh, Kwon Ik
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.12
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    • pp.888-897
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    • 2016
  • Stable expression of Foxp3 is ensured by demethylation of CpG motifs in the Foxp3 intronic element, the conserved non-coding sequence 2 (CNS2), which persists throughout the lifespan of regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, little is known about the mechanisms on how CNS2 demethylation is sustained. In this study, we found that Ten-Eleven-Translocation (Tet) DNA dioxygenase protects the CpG motifs of CNS2 from re-methylation by DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) and prevents Tregs from losing Foxp3 expression under inflammatory conditions. Upon stimulation of Tregs by interleukin-6 (IL6), Dnmt1 was recruited to CNS2 and induced methylation, which was inhibited by Tet2 recruited by IL2. Tet2 prevented CNS2 re-methylation by not only the occupancy of the CNS2 locus but also by its enzymatic activity. These results show that the CNS2 methylation status is dynamically regulated by a balance between Tets and Dnmts which influences the expression of Foxp3 in Tregs.