• Title, Summary, Keyword: FLUKA

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A feasibility study of the Iranian Sun mather type plasma focus source for neutron capture therapy using MCNP X2.6, Geant4 and FLUKA codes

  • Nanbedeh, M.;Sadat-Kiai, S.M.;Aghamohamadi, A.;Hassanzadeh, M.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.1002-1007
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a spectrum formulation set employed to modify the neutron spectrum of D-D fusion neutrons in a IS plasma focus device using GEANT4, MCNPX2.6, and FLUKA codes. The set consists of a moderator, reflector, collimator and filters of fast neutron and gamma radiation, which placed on the path of 2.45 MeV neutron energy. The treated neutrons eliminate cancerous tissue with minimal damage to other healthy tissue in a method called neutron therapy. The system optimized for a total neutron yield of 109 (n/s). The numerical results indicate that the GEANT4 code for the cubic geometry in the Beam Shaping Assembly 3 (BSA3) is the best choice for the energy of epithermal neutrons.

Estimation of Dose Delivered to Accelerator Devices from Stripping of 18.5 MeV/n 238U Ions Using the FLUKA Code

  • Oranj, Leila Mokhtari;Lee, Hee-Seock;Leitner, Mario Santana
    • Journal of the Korean Physical Society
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    • v.71 no.11
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    • pp.764-768
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    • 2017
  • In Korea, a heavy ion accelerator facility (RAON) has been designed for production of rare isotopes. The $90^{\circ}$ bending section of this accelerator includes a $1.3-{\mu}m$-carbon stripper followed by two dipole magnets and other devices. An incident beam is 18.5 MeV/n $^{238}U^{33+,34+}$ ions passing through the carbon stripper at the beginning of the section. The two dipoles are tuned to transport $^{238}U$ ions with specific charge states of 77+, 78+, 79+, 80+ and 81+. Then other ions will be deflected at the bends and cause beam losses. These beam losses are a concern to the devices of transport/beam line. The absorbed dose in devices and prompt dose in the tunnel were calculated using the FLUKA code in order to estimate radiation damage of such devices located at the $90^{\circ}$ bending section and for the radiation protection. A novel method to transport multi-charged $^{238}U$ ions beam was applied in the FLUKA code by using charge distribution of $^{238}U$ ions after the stripper obtained from LISE++ code. The calculated results showed that the absorbed dose in the devices is influenced by the geometrical arrangement. The maximum dose was observed at the coils of first, second, fourth and fifth quadruples placed after first dipole magnet. The integrated doses for 30 years of operation with $9.5p{\mu}A$ $^{238}U$ ions were about 2 MGy for those quadrupoles. In conclusion, the protection of devices particularly, quadruples would be necessary to reduce the damage to devices. Moreover, results showed that the prompt radiation penetrated within the first 60 - 120 cm of concrete.

Reliability Verification of FLUKA Transport Code for Double Layered X-ray Protective Sheet Design (이중 구조의 X선 차폐시트 설계를 위한 FLUKA 수송코드의 신뢰성 검증)

  • Kang, Sang Sik;Heo, Seung Wook;Choi, Il Hong;Jun, Jae Hoon;Yang, Sung Woo;Kim, Kyo Tae;Heo, Ye Ji;Park, Ji Koon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.11 no.7
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    • pp.547-553
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    • 2017
  • In the current medical field, lead is widely used as a radiation shield. However, the lead weight is very heavy, so wearing protective clothing such as apron is difficult to wear for long periods of time and there is a problem with the danger of lethal toxicity in humans. Recently, many studies have been conducted to develop substitute materials of lead to resolve these problems. As a substitute materials for lead, barium(Ba) and iodine(I) have excellent shielding ability. But, It has characteristics emitting characteristic X-rays from the energy area near 30 keV. For patients or radiation workers, shielding materials is often made into contact with the human body. Therefore, the characteristic X-rays generated by the shielding material are directly exposured in the human body, which increases the risk of increasing radiation absorbed dose. In this study, we have developed the FLUKA transport code, one of the most suitable elements of radiation transport codes, to remove the characteristic X-rays generated by barium or iodine. We have verified the reliability of the shielding fraction of the structure of the structure shielding by comparing with the MCPDX simulations conducted as a prior study. Using the MCNPX and FLUKA, the double layer shielding structures with the various thickness combination consisting of barium sulphate ($BaSO_4$) and bismuth oxide($Bi_2O_3$) are designed. The accuracy of the type shown in IEC 61331-1 was geometrically identical to the simulation. In addition, the transmission spectrum and absorbed dose of the shielding material for the successive x-rays of 120 kVp spectra were compared with lead. In results, $0.3mm-BaSO_4/0.3mm-Bi_2O_3$ and $0.1mm-BaSO_4/0.5mm-Bi_2O_3$ structures have been absorbed in both 33 keV and 37 keV characteristic X-rays. In addition, for high-energy X-rays greater than 90 keV, the shielding efficiency was shown close to lead. Also, the transport code of the FLUKA's photon transport code was showed cut-off on low-energy X-rays(below 33keV) and is limited to computerized X-rays of the low-energy X-rays. But, In high-energy areas above 40 keV, the relative error with MCNPX was found to be highly reliable within 6 %.

Lead-selective PVC Membrane Electordes Based on Bis(Crown ether)s

  • 오금철;강은철;정규성;팽기정
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.556-558
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    • 1999
  • Lead-selective PVC membrane electrodes based on newly synthesized bis(crown ether)s containing 18-crown-6 moiety was prepared using standard PVC membrane composition. In order to monitor lead in environmental samples by lead sensor, especially good selectivity over alkali and alkaline earth metals has to be obtained. Thus, responses of the PVC membrane prepared with new bis(crown ether)s and Fluka ionophore V (crown ether) base to various cations include lead, alkali and alkaline earth metal ions were investigated for their use as a lead sensor. The polymeric liquid membrane based on trans-1 8-crown-6 ether exhibits the best overall potentiometric performances as a lead-selective electrode in terms of a wide linear dynamic range (between 10-6 and 10-2 M, Pb2+), excellent detection limit (less than 10-6 M) and good durability within limited error. The preferences of lead over other cations, such as Ag+, Hg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and even K+ in the aforementioned electrode are much better than the Fluka ionophore V system.

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Monte Carlo shielding evaluation of a CSNS Multi-Physics instrument

  • Liang, Tairan;Shen, Fei;Yin, Wen;Xu, Juping;Yu, Quanzhi;Liang, Tianjiao
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.51 no.8
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    • pp.1998-2004
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    • 2019
  • The Multi-Physics (MP) instrument is one of 20 neutron spectrometers planned in the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). This paper presents a shielding calculation for the MP instrument using Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and FLUKA. First, the neutrons that escape from the CSNS decoupled water moderator and are delivered to the beam line of the MP instrument are calculated to use as the source term of the shielding calculation. Then, to validate the calculation method based on multiple variance reduction techniques, a cross check between MCNPX and FLUKA codes is performed by comparing the calculation results of the dose rate distribution on a simplified beam line model. Finally, a complete geometry model of the MP instrument is set up, and the primary parameters for the shielding design are obtained according to the calculated dose rate map considering different worst-case scenarios.

Estimation of Dose Distribution on Carbon Ion Therapy Facility using Monte Carlo Simulation (몬테카를로 시뮬레이션을 이용한 중입자 치료실의 선량분포 추정)

  • Song, Yongkeun;Heo, Seunguk;Cho, Gyuseok;Choi, Sanghyun;Han, Moojae;Park, Jikoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.437-442
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    • 2017
  • Heavy ion therapy has a high cure rate for cancer cell. So many countries are introducing heavy ion therapy facility. When treating a cancer using heavy ion therapy, neutrons and gamma rays are generated and affect electronic equipment. A budget of about KRW 200 billion is needed to build a heavy ion therapy facility, and it takes more than five years to build it. Therefore it is important to observe the dose distribution in the treatment room using the monte carlo simulation before construction. In this study, we used the FLUKA of monte carlo simulation to investigate the dose distribution in the heavy ion treatment room.

Assessment of the Radiation Dose Level of the PAL-XFEL Hard X-ray Beamlines under Accident Conditions

  • Jung, Nam-Suk;Kim, Min Ho;Kim, Hee Hoon;Lee, Hyeon Jae;Lee, Hee-Seock
    • Journal of the Korean Physical Society
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    • v.73 no.8
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    • pp.1061-1067
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    • 2018
  • A PAL-XFEL is a free electron laser using 10-GeV, 0.2-nC electron beams. The failure of the main dump magnet can cause a serious radiation risk because electron beams go straight to the experimental area of the hard X-ray beamlines and high-energy radiation is produced in the forward direction. This type of accident should be prevented through a suitable shielding design and a Personal Safety and Interlock System. A proper safety design based on a reliable method for estimating the radiation dose level is as important as anything else. In this study, the leakage dose rate was estimated under predictable accident conditions, and the suitable radiation shielding of the hard X-ray beamlines was designed using a well-known Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, in preparation for an accident. The result was verified by measurements of the radiation dose rate during commissioning period and was compared with the result obtained by using a semi-empirical code, SHIELD11. The measured radiation dose rates in the lateral direction under failure of the main dump magnet were agreed to the radiation dose rates calculated by using the SHIELD11 well, and the FLUKA results were relatively overestimated. In addition, the assessment error of the neutron dose rate depending on the type of neutron rem-counter was verified for high-energy neutrons. The effect of an accidental loss is negligible compared to the annual dose received by beamline users.

Evaluation of dose distribution from 12C ion in radiation therapy by FLUKA code

  • Soltani-Nabipour, Jamshid;Khorshidi, Abdollah;Shojai, Faezeh;Khorami, Khazar
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.52 no.10
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    • pp.2410-2414
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    • 2020
  • Heavy ions have a high potential for destroying deep tumors that carry the highest dose at the peak of Bragg. The peak caused by a single-energy carbon beam is too narrow, which requires special measures for improvement. Here, carbon-12 (12C) ion with different energies has been used as a source for calculating the dose distribution in the water phantom, soft tissue and bone by the code of Monte Carlobased FLUKA code. By increasing the energy of the initial beam, the amount of absorbed dose at Bragg peak in all three targets decreased, but the trend for this reduction was less severe in bone. While the maximum absorbed dose per bone-mass unit in energy of 200 MeV/u was about 30% less than the maximum absorbed dose per unit mass of water or soft tissue, it was merely 2.4% less than soft tissue in 400 MeV/u. The simulation result showed a good agreement with experimental data at GSI Darmstadt facility of biophysics group by 0.15 cm average accuracy in Bragg peak positioning. From 200 to 400 MeV/u incident energy, the Bragg peak location increased about 18 cm in soft tissue. Correspondingly, the bone and soft tissue revealed a reduction dose ratio by 2.9 and 1.9. Induced neutrons did not contribute more than 1.8% to the total energy deposited in the water phantom. Also during 12C ion bombardment, secondary fragments showed 76% and 24% of primary 200 and 400 MeV/u, respectively, were present at the Bragg-peak position. The combined treatment of carbon ions with neutron or electron beams may be more effective in local dose delivery and also treating malignant tumors.

Physical and nuclear shielding properties of newly synthesized magnesium oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles

  • Rashad, M.;Tekin, H.O.;Zakaly, Hesham MH.;Pyshkina, Mariia;Issa, Shams A.M.;Susoy, G.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.52 no.9
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    • pp.2078-2084
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    • 2020
  • Magnesium oxide (MgO) and Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully synthesized by solid-solid reaction method. The structural properties of ZnO and MgO NPs were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results indicated a formation of pure MgO and ZnO NPs. The mean diameter values of the agglomerated particles were around to be 70 and 50 nm for MgO and ZnO NPs, respectively using SEM analysis. Further, a wide-range of nuclear radiation shielding investigation for gamma-ray and fast neutrons have been studied for Magnesium oxide (MgO) and Zinc oxide (ZnO) samples. FLUKA and Microshield codes have been employed for the determination of mass attenuation coefficients (μm) and transmission factors (TF) of Magnesium oxide (MgO) and Zinc oxide (ZnO) samples. The calculated values for mass attenuation coefficients (μm) were utilized to determine other vital shielding properties against gamma-ray radiation. Moreover, the results showed that Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with the lowest diameter value as 50 nm had a satisfactory capacity in nuclear radiation shielding.