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A Study on the Characteristics and Vitalization Strategy for the Multi-Complex Shopping Mall (복합쇼핑몰 활성화 방안에 관한 사례연구)

  • Cha, Seong Soo;Park, Cheol
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.129-146
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    • 2012
  • Recently, Korea became the 7th country in the world which has got into the 20-50 clubs that means the population is 50 million and per capital income is $20,000. From the view point of the retail industry, it suggests that Korea should have its own self-sufficient market by itself. With abundant labor and increased disposable income, it made the consumer's needs change. Responding to the change, retail and F&B oriented retail malls are now starting to add culture, art and entertainment facilities in the configurations. Such complexity and variety of the shopping malls became trendy and many shopping complexes are scheduled to open in the near future across the country. Due to above reasons, it became the common trend to develop shopping complex all over the cities now. However, the history of the shopping mall in Korea is much shorter than developed countries such as America and Japan. Thereby, a lot of problems, trial and error have occurred in the process of developing and operating them. If development of shopping complex failed, it would return lots of damages to the stakeholder. Therefore, the corporations should develop the mall properly and government might support positively. In this study, we would like to propose on how all the mall should be developed and well managed and what are the ways for the vitalizing factors of the shopping complex after benchmarking other shopping mall cases. Through the case study, we realized that the most crucial factors for vitalizing shopping complex were interior design, merchandising and how well they operate the mall. In case of the failed shopping mall, developers sell each store to individual proprietors and never take care of them after they get the profit, which make it hard to have integrated marketing strategies. That causes the overall slump of the mall. Corporations developing the mall should operate it as well, so that it could be possible to make the mall consistently well managed and promoted. There is a certificate for the shopping mall expert in The States and Japan. However, we do not have this kind of certificate. In fact, if we judge the capability of a person who is involved in the shopping mall industry, we usually measure how many years they stick to the same industries and that is not equally the same as their competence. Therefore it is necessary to organize "Shopping Mall Associate" and introduce shopping mall license for the mall expert. Due to retail trends, we can easily see a lot of shopping facilities all over the cities but not every mall is able to be successful. We think it's essential that the government should certify the malls which are qualified for the design, merchandising and proficiency of the operation. For the qualified mall, the government could confer a benefit on the company such as reducing corporation taxes. In multi-complex shopping mall it is possible to make convenient for customers. However, if a mall failed to succeed, it would be disaster. To build a shopping complex, developers should invest huge money even take out loan so that many people would be connected to the project, which may affect their whole financial conditions. In addition, only qualified corporation should develop and operate shopping complex and the government must support and aid the developers in order to make a better shopping environment in which customers might be happy during their shopping experience.

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"Jungmo2501", A Winter Oat (Avena sativa L.) Cultivar of Lodging Tolerance, Early-Heading and High Forage Yield (조숙 내도복 다수성 추파용 총체귀리 품종 '중모2501')

  • Han, Ouk-Kyu;Park, Tae-Il;Park, Hyung-Ho;Park, Ki-Hun;Oh, Young-Jin;Kim, Kee-Jong;Ju, Jung-Il;Jang, Young-Jik;Park, Nam-Geon;Kim, Dea-Wook;Ku, Ja-Hwan;Kweon, Soon-Jong;Ahn, Jong-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 2017
  • 'Jungmo2501' (Avena sativa L.), a winter oat for forage use, was developed by the breeding team at the National Institute of Crop Science, RDA in 2010. The following is the characteristics of 'Jungmo2501' that is characterized as light green leaf, yellow brown culm and whitish yellow grain. The heading date of 'Jungmo2501' was about 3 days earlier than that of check cultivar 'Samhan'(May 7 and May 10, respectively). Its plant height was 11 cm longer than 103 cm of the check, and the leaf blade ratio of aerial parts was 26 % higher than the check (11.8% and 9.4%, respectively). The cold tolerance, resistance to lodging and wet injury of 'Jungmo2501' were similar to those of the check. The average forage dry matter yield of 'Jungmo2501' harvested at milk-ripe stage was 5% higher than the check ($15.5ton\;ha^{-1}$ and $14.7ton\;ha^{-1}$, respectively). 'Jungmo2501' was higher than the check in terms of protein content (6.6% and 5.9%, respectively), neutral detergent fiber (58.5% and 57.6%, respectively), and acid detergent fiber (34.5% and 32.1%, respectively), while total digestible nutrients was lower than the check (61.6% and 63.6%, respectively), and TDN yield was $0.37ton\;ha^{-1}$ more than that of the check ($9.71ton\;ha^{-1}$ and $9.34ton\;ha^{-1}$, respectively). The silage grade of 'Jungmo2501' estimated by Flig score showed level II, meaning good quality. Fall sowing cropping of 'Jungmo2501' is recommended only for areas where average daily minimum mean temperatures in January are higher than $-6^{\circ}C$.

Inhalt und Probleme von dem Entwurf des Änderungsgesetzes zum koreanischen Verwaltungsprozessgesetz - Zugleich eine kritische Betrachtung zum Änderungsgesetz für Reform und Entwicklung des Verwaltungsprozesses - (행정소송법 개정안의 내용 및 문제점 - 특히 행정소송의 개혁과 발전을 위한 비판적 고찰을 중심으로 -)

  • Chung, Nam-Chul
    • Journal of Legislation Research
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    • no.44
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    • pp.283-314
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    • 2013
  • Das koreanische Verwaltungsprozessgesetz (KVwPG) wurde am 24. 8. 1951 kodifiziert. Es hat bisher mehrmals $ge{\ddot{a}}ndert$. Der Regierungsentwurf des KVwPG-${\ddot{A}}nderungsgesetzes$ vom 30. 3. 2013, ist fast $drei{\ss}ig$ jahre nach der Novellierung des KVwPGs 1984 erfolgt und auch spiegelt sich die Erfolge der $Bem{\ddot{u}}hungen$ in Literatur und Rechtsprechung wider. Aber es gibt nicht nur einige Unterschiede zwischen dem Regierungsentwurf und dem Entwurf der Kommission des Justizministeriums zur ${\ddot{A}}nderung$ des KVwPG (dem sog. Kommissionsentwurf), sondern auch der Regierungsentwurf ist theoretisch nicht problemlos. Vor allem sind Begriff und Umfang der neuen Klagebefugnis nicht klar. Des weiteren sind in ${\S}$ 12 des Regierungsentwurfs die Klagebefugnis mit dem $Rechtsschutzbed{\ddot{u}}rfnis$ identisch gesehen. Der $Rechtsschutzbed{\ddot{u}}rfnis$ nach ${\S}$ 12 Satz 2 des Regierungsentwurfs kann aus meiner Sicht relativ eng ausgelegt. Die $Einf{\ddot{u}}hrung$ der Verpflichtugnsklage in den Regierungsentwurf ist sehr gut, aber es kann trotzdem als problematisch angesehen werden dass Feststellungsklage der Rechtswidrigkeit der Unterlassung und Anfechtungsklage gegen Ablehnung bestehen noch. Der Begriff der Unterlassung ist $unn{\ddot{o}}tig$ und auch strikt. $Vorl{\ddot{a}}ugier$ Rechtsschutz des Regierungsentwurfs ist unter dem Gesichtpunkt der Rechtsschutz der $B{\ddot{u}}rger$ noch zu verbessern, aber doch das Modell des japanischen Verwaltungsprozessgesetzes darf nicht befolgt werden. Aufbau und System des $vorl{\ddot{a}}ufigen$ Rechtsschutzes sind auch nicht eindeutig. Nach Gegenstand und Klageart muss das Institut des $vorl{\ddot{a}}ufigen$ Rechtsschutzes in Ordnung gebracht werden. Es ist nicht ${\ddot{u}}berzeugend$ dass die $Einw{\ddot{a}}nde$ gegen die $Einf{\ddot{u}}hrung$ der vorbeugenden Unterlassung mit dem Gewaltenteilungsprinzip und der $Eigenst{\ddot{a}}ndigkeit$ der Verwaltung erhoben sind. $Dar{\ddot{u}}ber$ hinaus ist ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) zu beachten. In Bezug darauf ist Rechtgrundlage $f{\ddot{u}}r$ Mediation in der Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit zu stellen.

Studies on Factors affecting on Reproductive traits of the Pig Farms managed by EDP System (전산관리 양돈농가의 번식성적에 미치는 요인에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, H.S.;Kim, B.W.;Kim, H.C.;Lee, K.W.;Ha, J.K.;Jeon, J.T.;Lee, J.G.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.917-922
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate effects of farm, type of sow Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire, LY; Yorkshire${\times}$ Landrace, YL; Yorkshire${\times}$Yorkshire, YY and multi-cross bred sow, MBS), parity, farrowing year, farrowing season and mating method on reproductive traits such as total number born per litter, number of born alive per litter, number of weaned per litter, number of mummified per litter, number of stillbirth. The Reproductive Records of 3,387 litters from January, 1999 to September, 2002 were obtained from four pig farms managed by Electronic Data Processing(EDP) system. Reproductive performances for two types of F1 Sows(YL and LY) were estimated as 11.34${\pm}$0.266 and 11.57${\pm}$0.263 heads for total number of born per litter, 10.56${\pm}$0.216 and 11.81${\pm}$0.251 heads for number of born alive per litter, and 10.05${\pm}$0.131 and 9.96${\pm}$0.153 heads for number of weaned per litter, respectively. These records are significantly higher(P〈0.05) than those of YY and MBS. However, number of mummified per litter, number of stillborn per litter, number of dead by diarrhea per litter, number of dead by other reasons during lactating period per litter and estrus interval did not show significant difference between types of sows. There were more total number of born per litter and number of weaned per litter in year 2001 than other year. As year passed, number of dead by crush per litter, number of dead by diarrhea per litter and number of dead by other reasons during lactating period per litter reduced from 0.18${\pm}$0.023 to 0.07${\pm}$0.022 head, 0.12${\pm}$0.21 to 0.02${\pm}$0.020 head and 0.43${\pm}$0.041 to 0.22${\pm}$0.040 head, respectively and weaning rate increased from 0.94${\pm}$0.005% to 0.97${\pm}$0.005%. The total number of born per litter and number of born alive per litter were higher(P〈0.05) in the case of mating twice than mating once. The number of weaned per litter, number of mummified per litter and number of stillborn per litter were not significant(P〈0.05) between mating methods. Estrus interval was shorter on the occasion of twice artificial insemination(5.24${\pm}$0.153days) than twice natural mating(6.51${\pm}$0.466days).

The Effect of Soybean Oil, Tallow and Coconut Oil Supplementation on Growth Performance, Serum Lipid Changes and Nutrient Digestibility in Weaned Pigs (이유자돈에 있어 대두유, 우지 및 코코넛 오일의 첨가가 생산성, 혈청 지질변화 및 영양소 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, J.H.;Kim, H.J.;Chen, Y.J.;Yoo, J.S.;Min, B.J.;Kim, J.D.;Kim, In-Ho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 2007
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of soybean oil, tallow and coconut oil supplementation on growth performance, serum lipid changes and nutrient digestibility in weaned pigs. One hundred twenty cross-bred [(Yorkshire×Landrace)×Duroc, 6.92±0.01kg average initial BW] were used in a 35 d growth trial. Dietary treatments included CON (5% soybean oil), T0.5 (4.5% soybean oil+0.5% tallow), C0.5 (4.5% soybean oil+0.5% coconut oil) and C1.0 (4.0% soybean oil+1.0% coconut oil). For the whole period and from d 14 to 35, G/F was increased in C0.5 and C1.0 treatments compared with T0.5 treatment (P<0.05). ADG and ADFI were not affected by treatments. On d 14, C1.0 treatment was higher in serum HDL-cholesterol than C0.5 treatment and atherogenic index was increased in C0.5 treatment compared to T0.5 and C1.0 treatments. Digestibility of fat was improved for pigs fed C1.0 diet compared with those fed T0.5 diet on d 35. However, there were no significant differences in digestibilities of DM, N and DE. In conclusion, feeding diets containing soybean and coconut oils in weaned pigs increased feed efficiency and fat digestibility than feeding those containing soybean oil and tallow.

Effects of Partial or Total Replacement of Maize with Alternative Feed Source on Digestibility, Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites and Economics in Limousin Crossbred Cattle

  • Shi, F.H.;Fang, L.;Meng, Q.X.;Wu, H.;Du, J.P.;Xie, X.X.;Ren, L.P.;Zhou, Z.M.;Zhou, B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1443-1451
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    • 2014
  • Increasing cost and scarcity of maize has stimulated the use of alternative feed sources (AFS) in the diets of cattle. In this study, we investigated the effects of partial or total replacement of maize on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood metabolites, and economics in Limousin crossbred feedlot cattle. Forty-five $Limousin{\times}Luxi$ crossbred bulls were randomly assigned to the three treatment groups, orthodox diet (OD; 45.0% maize), partial replacement diet (PRD; 15% maize, 67% AFS), total replacement diet (TRD; 0% maize, 100% AFS). The growth feeding trial lasted for 98 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) were recorded. The digestion trial was carried out after the end of the growth trial. Total faeces and feed samples were measured daily. Digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were calculated. After the feeding trial, blood metabolites were measured in 12 animals from each group. Initial and final body weights did not differ significantly among treatment groups (p>0.05). The ADG and DMI were 1.72 and 8.66, 1.60 and 9.10, and 1.40 and 9.11 kg/d for OD, PRD, and TRD, respectively. The PRD and TRD exhibited lower ADG (p<0.01) and higher DMI (p<0.01) than OD. The DMI (%body weight) was comparable between groups (p>0.5). Feed efficiency of PRD and TRD were lower than OD (p<0.01). The DM digestibility decreased with reduced level of maize (p = 0.10), OM digestibility was higher in OD (p<0.05), and CP, NDF and ADF digestibilities were similar for all groups (p>0.05). Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) in PRD and TRD was higher than OD (p<0.01), while other blood parameters did not differ significantly. Feed costs ($/head/d) were 1.49, 0.98, and 0.72 for OD, PRD, and TRD, respectively (p<0.01). Feed costs per kg gain ($) were significantly lower for PRD (0.63) and TRD (0.54) than OD (0.89; p<0.01). Overall profit ($/head) and daily profit ($/head/d) did not differ significantly between treatments (p>0.05), although TRD showed the highest economic benefits overall (p<0.01). While a traditional diet maximized the growth rate, partial or total replacement of dietary maize with AFS proved economically feasible due to their lower costs and comparable nutrient digestibilities of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF. Partial replacement may prove economically competitive in the current situation of China.

Health status of children in low socioeconomic conditions (공부방을 이용하는 저소득층 소아들의 건강상태에 대한 조사)

  • Choi, Hee Kyoung;Her, Jeong A;Jang, Seong Hee;Kim, Dal Hyun;Yoon, Kyoung Lim;Ahn, Young Min
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.24-28
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the health status and nutritional condition of children living in a low-income community through anthropometric, laboratory evaluation. Methods : A community-based survey identified children below 15 years living in a low-income community. Their weight, height, visual acuity, hearing level and dental status were measured. Blood sample were obtained on June and July, 2004. Hemoglobin, serum cholesterol, Hepatitis B antigen/antibody, AST and ALT were measured. Results : A total of 285 students(M : F=141 : 144) aged 6 to 14 years were included in this study. The heights and weights in some grades were smaller than controls. The prevalence of obesity was 10.6 percent in males and 10.7 percent in females. The prevalence of abnormal visual acuity, hearing impairments and dental carries were 20.5 percent, 0.3 percent and 69.4 percent. The prevalence of anemia was 10.1 percent. Serum total cholesterol was over 200 mg/dL in 7 percent. They complained of abdominal pain(22.1 percent) and headache(17.1 percent). Hyperthyroidism, cataract, neurofibromatosis, severe atopic dermatitis, ventricular septal defect, strabismus and inguinal hernia were newly diagnosed. Conclusion : Mean heights and weights of children in the low-income community were smaller than controls. The prevalence of abnormal visual acuity, hearing impairment and dental carries were higher than in the 2003 national health survey. Additional research is needed to evaluate the health status of the low-income community.

Effects of Feeding Mushroom Substrate Waste and Probiotics on Productivity, Emission of Gases and Odors in Manure for Finishing Pigs (버섯재배 폐배지와 생균제의 급여가 비육돈의 생산성, 돈분 중 가스 및 냄새발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, S.C.;Chae, B.J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.529-536
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    • 2003
  • A total of 72 finishing pigs(L${\times}$Y${\times}$D; 80kg of initial body weight) were employed for 5 weeks to investigate the effects of feeding mushroom substrate waste(MSW) treated with pleurotus ostreatus and probiotics on productivity, carcass traits, nutrient digestibility and emissions of harmful gases and malodor in manure. Treatments were Control(C: basal diet), T1(3% MSW) and T2(3% MSW+ 0.1% probiotics). Average daily gain(ADG) was lower(p<0.05) in pigs fed a T1 diet than those fed a C diet, however, there was no difference in ADG of pigs fed diets between C and T2. Similar trends were found in feed/gain(F/G) among treatments, though feed intake was not different. No differences were found in back fat thickness among treatments, but carcass dressing percentage was significantly(p<0.05) improved in pigs fed a T2 diet compared to C or T1 diets. Nutrient digestibilities including dry matter, crude protein, energy and crude fiber were lower(p<0.05) in T1 than C or T2. $NH_3$ and $H_2S$ gas emissions were reduced(p<0.05) or not produced in pig manure from T2 as compared to C or T1. In conclusion, the present result shows that feeding MSW with probiotics is desirable for finishing pigs in terms of productivity, carcass traits and nutrient digestibility. It also appears that the emission of harmful gases and malodor in manure can be reduced by the inclusion of probiotics in the diet.

PROSPECTIVE CLINICAL EVALUATION OF THREE DIFFERENT BONDING SYSTEMS IN CLASS V RESIN RESTORATIONS WITH OR WITHOUT MECHANICAL RETENTION (접착제와 와동형성의 차이에 따른 5급 복합레진 수복의 전향적 임상연구)

  • Lee Kyung-Wook;Choung Sae-Joon;Han Young-Chul;Son Ho-Hyun;Um Chung-Moon;Oh Myoung-Hwan;Cho Byeong-Hoon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.300-311
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate prospectively the effect of different bonding systems and retention grooves on the clinical performance of resin restorations in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs). Thirty-nine healthy adults who had at least 2 NCCLs in their premolar areas were included in this study. One hundred and fifty teeth were equally assigned to six groups: (A) Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA, 4th generation bonding system) without retention grooves; (B) SBMP with retention grooves; (C) BC Plus (Vericom Co., Anyang, Gyeonggido, Korea, 5th generation bonding system) without retention grooves; (D) BC Plus with retention grooves; (E) Adper Prompt (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany, 6th generation bonding system) without retention grooves; (F) Adper Prompt with retention grooves. All cavities were filled with a hybrid composite resin. Denfil (Vericom Co., Anyang, Gyeonggido, Korea) by one operator. Restorations were evaluated at baseline and at 6-month recall, according to the modified USPHS (United States Public Health Service) criteria. Additionally, clinical photographs were taken and epoxy resin replicas were made for SEM evaluation. At 6-month recall, there were some differences in the number of alpha ratings among the experimental groups. But, despite the differences in the number of alpha ratings, there was no significant difference among the 3 adhesive systems (p < 0.05). There was also no significant difference between the groups with or without mechanical retention (p < 0.05). Follow-ups for longer periods than 6 months are needed to verify the clinical performance of different bonding systems and retention grooves.

A Review on Ultimate Lateral Capacity Prediction of Rigid Drilled Shafts Installed in Sand (사질토에 설치된 강성현장타설말뚝의 극한수평지지력 예측에 관한 재고)

  • Cho Nam Jun;Kulhawy F.H
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2005
  • An understanding of soil-structure interaction is the key to rational and economical design for laterally loaded drilled shafts. It is very difficult to formulate the ultimate lateral capacity into a general equation because of the inherent soil nonlincarity, nonhomogeneity, and complexity enhanced by the three dimensional and asymmetric nature of the problem though extensive research works on the behavior of deep foundations subjected to lateral loads have been conducted for several decades. This study reviews the four most well known methods (i.e., Reese, Broms, Hansen, and Davidson) among many design methods according to the specific site conditions, the drilled shaft geometric characteristics (D/B ratios), and the loading conditions. And the hyperbolic lateral capacities (H$_h$) interpreted by the hyperbolic transformation of the load-displacement curves obtained from model tests carried out as a part of this research have been compared with the ultimate lateral capacities (Hu) predicted by the four methods. The H$_u$ / H$_h$ ratios from Reese's and Hansen's methods are 0.966 and 1.015, respectively, which shows both the two methods yield results very close to the test results. Whereas the H$_u$ predicted by Davidson's method is larger than H$_h$ by about $30\%$, the C.0.V. of the predicted lateral capacities by Davidson is the smallest among the four. Broms' method, the simplest among the few methods, gives H$_u$ / H$_h$ : 0.896, which estimates the ultimate lateral capacity smaller than the others because some other resisting sources against lateral loading are neglected in this method. But it results in one of the most reliable methods with the smallest S.D. in predicting the ultimate lateral capacity. Conclusively, none of the four can be superior to the others in a sense of the accuracy of predicting the ultimate lateral capacity. Also, regardless of how sophisticated or complicated the calculating procedures are, the reliability in the lateral capacity predictions seems to be a different issue.