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The evaluate the usefulness of various CT kernel applications by PET/CT attenuation correction (PET/CT 감쇠보정시 다양한 CT Kernel 적용에 따른 유용성 평가)

  • Lee, Jae-Young;Seong, Yong-Jun;Yoon, Seok-Hwan;Park, Chan-Rok;Lee, Hong-Jae;Noh, Kyung-Wun
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2017
  • Purpose Recently PET/CT image's attenuation correction is used CTAC(Computed Tomgraphy Attenuation Correction). it can quantitative evaluation by SUV(Standard Uptake Value). This study's purpose is to evaluate SUV and to find proper CT kernel using CTAC with applied various CT kernel to PET/CT construction. Materials and Methods Biograph mCT 64 was used for the equipment. We were performed on 20 patients who had examed at our hospital from february through March 2017. Using NEMA IEC Body Phantom, The data was reconstructed PET/CT images with CTAC appiled various CT kernel. ANOVA was used to evaluated the significant difference in the result. Results The result of measuring the radioactivity concentration of Phantom was B45F 96% and B80F 6.58% against B08F CT kernel, each respectively. the SUVmax increased to B45F 0.86% and B80F 6.54% against B08F CT kernel, In case of patient's parts data, the Lung SUVmax increased to B45F 1.6% and B80F 6.6%, Liver SUVmax increased to B45F 0.7% and B80F 4.7%, and Bone SUVmax increased to B45F 1.3% and B80F 6.2%, respectively. As for parts of patient's about Standard Deviation(SD), the Lung SD increased to B45F 4.2% and B80F 15.4%, Liver SD increased to B45F 2.1% and B80F 11%, and Bone SD increased to B45F 2.3% and B80F 14.7%, respectively. There was no significant difference discovered in three CT kernel (P >.05). Conclusion When using increased noise CT kernel for PET/CT reconstruction, It tends to change both SUVmax and SD in ROI(region of interest), Due to the increase the CT kernel number, Sharp noise increased in ROI. so SUVmax and SD were highly measured, but there was no statistically significant difference. Therefore Using CT kernel of low variation of SD occur less variation of SUV.

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ON EQUIVALENT NORMS TO BLOCH NORM IN ℂn

  • Choi, Ki Seong
    • Journal of the Chungcheong Mathematical Society
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.325-334
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    • 2006
  • For $f{\in}L^2(B,d{\nu})$, ${\parallel}f{\parallel}_{BMO}=\widetilde{{\mid}f{\mid}^2}(z)-{\mid}{\tilde{f}}(z){\mid}^2$. For f continuous on B, ${\parallel}f{\parallel}_{BO}=sup\{w(f)(z):z{\in}B\}$ where $w(f)(z)=sup\{{\mid}f(z)-f(w){\mid}:{\beta}(z,w){\leq}1\}$. In this paper, we will show that if $f{\in}BMO$, then ${\parallel}f{\parallel}_{BO}{\leq}M{\parallel}f{\parallel}_{BMO}$. We will also show that if $f{\in}BO$, then ${\parallel}f{\parallel}_{BMO}{\leq}M{\parallel}f{\parallel}_{BO}^2$. A homomorphic function $f:B{\rightarrow}{\mathbb{C}}$ is called a Bloch function ($f{\in}{\mathcal{B}}$) if ${\parallel}f{\parallel}_{\mathcal{B}}=sup_{z{\in}B}\;Qf(z)$<${\infty}$. In this paper, we will show that if $f{\in}{\mathcal{B}}$, then ${\parallel}f{\parallel}_{BO}{\leq}{\parallel}f{\parallel}_{\mathcal{B}}$. We will also show that if $f{\in}BMO$ and f is holomorphic, then ${\parallel}f{\parallel}_{\mathcal{B}}^2{\leq}M{\parallel}f{\parallel}_{BMO}$.

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STABILITY OF TWO GENERALIZED 3-DIMENSIONAL QUADRATIC FUNCTIONAL EQUATIONS

  • Jin, Sun-Sook;Lee, Yang-Hi
    • Journal of the Chungcheong Mathematical Society
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.29-42
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    • 2018
  • In this paper, we investigate the stability of two functional equations f(ax+by + cz) - abf(x + y) - bcf(y + z) - acf(x + z) + bcf(y) - a(a - b - c)f(x) - b(b - a)f(-y) - c(c - a - b)f(z) = 0, f(ax+by + cz) + abf(x - y) + bcf(y - z) + acf(x - z) - a(a + b + c)f(x) - b(a + b + c)f(y) - c(a + b + c)f(z) = 0 by applying the direct method in the sense of Hyers and Ulam.

The Fundamental Properties of Alkali-Activated Slag Cement (AASC) Mortar with Different Water-Binder Ratios and Fine Aggregate-Binder Ratios (물-결합재 비와 잔골재-결합재 비에 따른 알칼리 활성화 슬래그 모르타르의 기초특성)

  • Kim, Tae-Wan;Hahm, Hyung-Gil;Lee, Seong-Haeng;Eom, Jang-Sub
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.77-86
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    • 2013
  • This study investigates the fundamental properties of the water-binder (W/B) ratio and fine aggregate-binder (F/B) ratio in the alkali-activated slag cement (AASC) mortar. The W/B ratios are 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, and 0.50, respectively. And then the F/B ratios varied between 1.00 and 3.00 at a constant increment of 0.25. The alkali activator was an 2M and 4M NaOH. The measured mechanical properties were compared, flow, compressive strength, absorption, ultra sonic velocity, and dry shrinkage. The flow, compressive strength, absorption, ultra sonic velocity and dry shrinkage decreased with increases W/B ratio. The compressive strength decreases with increase F/B ratio at same W/B ratio. Also, at certain value of F/B ratio significant increase in strength is observed. And S2 (river sand 2) had lower physical properties than S1 (river sand 1) due to the fineness modulus. The results of experiments indicated that the mechanical properties of AASC depended on the W/B ratio and F/B ratio. The optimum range for W/B ratios and F/B ratios of AASC is suggested that the F/B ratios by 1.75~2.50 at each W/B ratios. Moreover, the W/(B+F) ratios between 0.13 and 0.14 had a beneficial effect on the design of AASC mortar.

Comparison of Characteristics of Koji Manufactured with Bacillus subtilis B-4 and Aspergillus oryzae F-5 (Bacillus subtilis B-4와 Aspergillus oryzae F-5로 제조한 코오지의 특성 비교)

  • Kwon, Dong-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.873-878
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    • 2002
  • In order to industrialize traditional Meju-tasting Koji, the characteristics of Koji manufactured with bacteria and fungi found in traditional Meju were investigated. Bacillus subtilis B-4 and Aspergillus oryzae F-5 showing high enzyme activities including those of amylase and protease were used. L-value of Koji manufactured with B. subtilis B-4 had darker color and higher enzyme production than A. oryzae F-5 made one. B. subtilis B-4 made Koji showed higher enzyme production and sensony evaluation score than A. oryzae F-5 Koji. A. oryzae F-5 Koji showed superior color to B. subtilis B-4 Koji. Activity in color, capacity of enzyme production, viable cell count, and sensory evaluation of water activity controlled Koji was superior to the uncontrolled one.

Inhibitory Effect of Persimmon Leaves on Melanin Synthesis and its Action Mechanism in B16F10 cells (시엽(枾葉)의 멜라닌 생성 억제와 작용기전에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Du-Hyun;Yoo, Dong-Youl
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.43-59
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: This study was performed to determine the inhibitory effect of Persimmon Leaves extract (PL) on melanin synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells B16F10. Methods: The inhibitory effects of PL on melanin synthesis were determined by in vitro assay. To elucidate inhibitory effects of PL on melanin synthesis, we determined the melanin release and melanin production in B16F10. And to investigate the action mechanism, we assessed the gene expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, PKA, PKC${\beta}$, ERK-1, ERK-2, AKT-1, MITF in B16F10. Results: 1. PL inhibited melanin release, melanin production in B16F10. 2. PL inhibited tyrosinase activity in vitro and in B16F10. 3. PL suppressed the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2 in B16F10. 4. PL suppressed the expression of PKA, PKC${\beta}$ in B16F10. 5. PL increased the expression of ERK-1, ERK-2, AKT-1 in B16F10. 6. PL suppressed the expression of MITF in B16F10. Conclusion: From these results, it may be concluded that PL is possesed of the antimelanogenetic effects.

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The Effect of E.G.F. and Human Follicular fluid on the Maturation of Mouse Oocytes in in vitro Culture (생쥐난의 체외 배양에서 인간난포액과 표피 성장 인자가 난성숙에 미치는 영향)

  • Min, Bu-Kie
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.157-160
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    • 1993
  • The human follicular f1uids(F.F.) may be considered to contribute the maturation of the oocytes on the in vitro culture. To investigate the effects of epidermal growth factor (E.G.F.), which is present in mature and immature follicular fluids, we had experiments of mouse oocytes maturation in vitro. The endpoints assayed were rated as percentage of oocytes undergoing germinal vesicle breakdown(G.V.B.D.) and polar body(P.B.) formation at 12 hours after in vitro culture. The rates of G.B.B.D. were 87% in mature F.F. 68% in immature F.F. and 78% in Ham's F-10 medium respectively. And overall the mature F.F. seem to stimulate on in vitro oocyte maturation compared with either immature F.F. or Ham's F-10 medium. As the concentration of addition of E.G.F. in immature F.F., the rates of G.V.B.D. and P.B. formation were 82 %, 23% in addition with 2 ng/ml while 84%, 32% in addition with 4 ng/ml respectivly. And at the concentration of addition of E.G.F. in Ham's F-10 media as well, the rates of G.V.B.D. and P.B. formation were 84%, 40% and 82%, 44% in addition with each 2ng, 4ng. AccordinglY there was no influence on the oocytes maturation at the addition of E.G.F. to each immature F.F. and Ham's F-10 medium. In conclusion, the E.G.F. is not able to induce oocyte maturation independent of it's effects in immature F.F. and Ham's F-10 media.

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A Study on the Development Propriety of F.O.B. Insurance (수출화물본선인도보험(輸出貨物本船引渡保險)의 개발 타당성(妥當性)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Ryu, Won-Woo
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.13
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    • pp.329-346
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    • 2000
  • The marine cargo insurance is mainly the insurance on foreign trade commodities. The sales contract stipulates as to which of the seller or the buyer should arrange the insurance. In other words, if the sales contract is made on the C.I.F. terms, the seller has to arrange the insurance, while, in the case of F.O.B. or C.F.R. terms, the buyer has to arrange it. The F.O.B. or C.F.R. terms means that the seller has to take out an insurance for himself until the cargo being loaded onboard the overseas vessel at the port of shipment in export country. But our country has not reasonable insurance to cover seller's risk, because it hasn't yet implemented the insurance. In respect of a cargo exported from Korea on F.O.B. or C.F.R. terms, the F.O.B. insurance covers comprehensively the inland transit and storage until the cargo being loaded onboard the overseas vessel at the port of shipment in Korea with a certain limitation of a insurance period. The goal of this study is to analyze the development propriety of F.O.B. Insurance. This could be done through analyzing the volume and analyzing the proportion of F.O.B. or C.F.R. terms for export. It is supposed that the potential demands of F.O.B. insurance are sufficient in our country for developing the F.O.B. insurance. At this point of time, the positive development of F.O.B. insurance for export is inevitable from the viewpoint of present situation of trading circles.

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Isoparametric Curve of Quadratic F-Bézier Curve

  • Park, Hae Yeon;Ahn, Young Joon
    • Journal of the Chosun Natural Science
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2013
  • In this thesis, we consider isoparametric curves of quadratic F-B$\acute{e}$zier curves. F-B$\acute{e}$zier curves unify C-B$\acute{e}$zier curves whose basis is {sint, cos t, t, 1} and H-B$\acute{e}$zier curves whose basis is {sinht, cosh t, t,1}. Thus F-B$\acute{e}$zier curves are more useful in Geometric Modeling or CAGD(Computer Aided Geometric Design). We derive the relation between the quadratic F-B$\acute{e}$zier curves and the quadratic rational B$\acute{e}$zier curves. We also obtain the geometric properties of isoparametric curve of the quadratic F-B$\acute{e}$zier curves at both end points and prove the continuity of the isoparametric curve.

$L_1$ analytic fourier-feynman transform on the fresnel class of abstract wiener space

  • Ahn, Jae-Moon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.99-117
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    • 1998
  • Let $(B, H, p_1)$ be an abstract Wiener space and $F(B)$ the Fresnel class on $(B, H, p_1)$ which consists of functionals F of the form : $$ F(x) = \int_{H} exp{i(h,x)^\sim} df(h), x \in B, $$ where $(\cdot, \cdot)^\sim$ is a stochastic inner product between H and B, and f is in $M(H)$, the space of complex Borel measures on H. We introduce an $L_1$ analytic Fourier-Feynman transforms for functionls in $F(B)$. Furthermore, we introduce a convolution on $F(B)$, and then verify the existence of the $L_1$ analytic Fourier-Feynman transform for the convolution product of two functionals in $F(B)$, and we establish the relationships between the $L_1$ analytic Fourier-Feynman tranform of the convolution product for two functionals in $F(B)$ and the $L_1$ analytic Fourier-Feynman transforms for each functional. Finally, we show that most results in [7] follows from our results in Section 3.

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