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Analysis of environment effects on the carcass traits Hanwoo cows using ultrasonic measurement

  • Choi, Tae-Jeong;Lee, Sang-Jae;Park, Jong-Eun;Lim, Dajeong;Cho, Yong-Min;Park, Byoungho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2018
  • Hanwoo is an important livestock resource in Korea. Its genetic improvements of economic traits have mainly focused on the steers in the past. However, there is a great necessity to extend the breed improvement programs to the cows as well. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of various environmental factors (person taking the measurement, region, year of measurement, month of measurement, image interpreter, birth-year and birth-year) on ultrasound measured carcass traits. A total of 27,215 ultrasound measurements of carcass traits were recorded between 2004 and 2012 for 22,620 cows born from 1997 to 2011. The ultrasound measures included backfat thickness (BFT), eye muscle area (EMA), and marbling score (MAR). The mean values for the BFT, EMA and MAR were 4.46 mm, $56.24cm^2$, and 4.12 point, respectively. Seven environmental factors, person taking the measurement, region, year of measurement, month of measurement, image interpreter, birth-year and birth-month, were tested to determine if they had a significant effect on the studied traits using the GLM procedure in SAS. All factors were found to significantly affect all the ultrasound carcass traits in this study. Unlike in previous studies, among the environmental effects, the significant effect of the image interpreter on the ultrasound carcass traits was shown for the first time in this study. These results indicate that future genetic evaluations of ultrasound carcass traits of Hanwoo cows should include all of the above environmental factors as well as the effect from people taking the measurements.

EFFECT OF FLOCK SIZE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF GOATS FED GLIRICIDIA-SUPPLEMENTED DIET IN DRYLAND FARMING IN BALI, INDONESIA

  • Sukanten, I.W.;Nitis, I.M.;Uchida, S.;Putra, S.;Lana, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.271-279
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    • 1996
  • On-farm experiments were carried out in dryland farming in Bali for 48 weeks to study the effect of flock size on the growth and carcass characteristics of cross-bred goat fed gliricidia-supplemented diet. Eighty four bucks with average live weight of 15.87 kg were allocated in a completely randomized block design arrangement, consisted of three treatments and four blocks. The treatments were $3goats/2.7m^2$ (A), $6goats/5.4m^2$ (B) and $12goats/10.8m^2$ (C), while the floor density was the same ($0.9m^2$ per goat). Feed consumed by goat B was similar (p > 0.10), while feed consumed by goat C was lower (p < 0.10) than goat A. Live weight gain of goat B and C were lower (p<0.05) than goat A. FCR of goat B was higher (p < 0.10) than goat A, while FCR of goat C was similar (p > 0.10) with goat A. Goat B has heavier (p < 0.10) head and digestive tract, while goat C has heavier (p<0.10) hindlegs and digestive tract than goat A. Goat B has lighter (p < 0.10) shoulder, while goat C has lighter shoulder and heavier legs (p < 0.10) than goat A. The carcass quality (measured in terms of loin eye muscle area, meat, bone and fat portions) were not affected (p > 0.05) by the flock sizes.

Effect of Graded Dietary Levels of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Kernel Cake on Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Rabbits

  • Vasanthakumar, P.;Sharma, K.;Sastry, V.R.B.;Kumar, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.8
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    • pp.1246-1250
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    • 1999
  • Rabbits (48) of Soviet chinchilla (24) and White giant (24) were fed from 6 weeks to 12 weeks of age intensively on either of four isonitrogenous - isocaloric diets containing 0 ($D_1$), 5($D_2$), 10($D_3$) and 20($D_4$) percent raw neem seed kernel cake (NSKC), respectively as per NRC (1977) requirements in a Randomized block design and slaughtered at the end to find out differences in their carcass traits due to NSKC feeding. Dietary treatment had no significant effect on weight of edibles and inedibles and their percentages and dressing percentage in terms of carcass, carcass with pluck and carcass with pluck and head. Similarly, the meat-bone ratio of various primal cuts and overall carcass, yield of edibles per unit of inedibles and eye muscle area were not influenced due to the dietary variations. Chemical composition of fresh meat, and organoleptic evaluation of cooked meat with and without salt did not vary significantly due to incorporation of NSKC in the diets. The rabbits fed 20% NSKC ($D_4$) though consumed more (p<0.05) DM and DE per kg meat production, the intake of crude protein and total digestible nutrients was similar with other dietary treatments. Feed cost per unit meat production was, however, lower on 5 and 10% NSKC containing diets by 7.75 and 12.56%, respectively, as compared to deoiled ground nut cake containing control diet. It appears that NSKC could be used as a wholesome vegetable protein supplement upto 10% in diet of rabbits without any adverse effect on commercial carcass traits.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Ferulic Acid or Vitamin E Individually or in Combination on Meat Quality and Antioxidant Capacity of Finishing Pigs

  • Lia, Y.J.;Lia, L.Y.;Li, J.L.;Zhang, L.;Gao, F.;Zhou, G.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.374-381
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    • 2015
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E (VE), ferulic acid (FA) and their combination supplementation on meat quality and antioxidant capacities of finishing pigs. Sixty barrows were randomly allocated to four experimental diets using a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement with 2 VE supplemental levels (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 FA supplemental levels (0 or 100 mg/kg) in basal diets. After 28 days, six pigs per treatment were slaughtered. The results showed that VE supplementation increased loin eye area of pigs (p<0.05) and FA supplementation increased $pH_{45min}$ value (p<0.05). The interaction of $FA{\times}VE$ was observed in shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle (p<0.05). Moreover, supplementation with VE decreased hepatic and sarcous malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and sarcous glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (p<0.05). Additionally, supplementation with FA increased hepatic GSH-Px activity and decreased sarcous MDA content (p<0.05). However, dietary treatment did not affect the expression of genes related to nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) pathway. These results suggest that dietary FA and VE could partially improve meat quality and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs, but not by activating NFE2L2 pathway under the normal conditions of farming.

Genetic Parameter Estimation of Carcass Traits of Duroc Predicted Using Ultrasound Scanning Modes

  • Salces, Agapita J.;Seo, Kang Seok;Cho, Kyu Ho;Kim, SiDong;Lee, Young Chang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1379-1383
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    • 2006
  • A total of 6,804 records for Duroc breed were collected from three farms registered at the Korean Animal Improvement Association (KAIA) from 1998 to 2004 of which both records from two ultrasound modes (A and B) were analyzed to estimate the variance components of carcass traits. Three carcass traits backfat thickness (bf), loin eye muscle area (lma) and lean meat percentage (lmp) were measured. These traits were analyzed separately as bf1, lma1 and lmp1 for ultrasound mode A and bf2, lma2 and lmp2 for ultrasound mode B with multiple trait animal model by using MTDFREML (Boldman et al., 1993). All the traits revealed medium heritability values. Estimated heritabilities for bf1, bf2, lma1, lma2, lmp1 and lmp2 were 0.45, 0.39, 0.32, 0.25, 0.28 and 0.39, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations for traits bf1 and bf2, lma1 and lma2, lmp1 and lmp2 were positive but low. Specifically, genetic correlations between bf1 and bf2 was 0.30 while the estimates for lean traits between lma1 and lma2 and between lmp1 and lmp2 were 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. Conversely, high negative genetic correlations existed between bf1 and the lean traits lma2, lmp2. Likewise, the estimated genetic correlations between lma1 and lma2 and lmp1 and lmp2 were low.

Identification of Polymorphisms of Fas Gene and Association Analysis in Hanwoo

  • Kim, Seung-Chang;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Kim, Bum-Soo;Kim, Tae-Hun;Seong, Hwan-Hoo;Oh, Sung-Jong;Yoon, Du-Hak;Choi, Bong-Hwan
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.511-516
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    • 2011
  • Fas gene known to associate with intramuscular fat content in Korean cattle was selected for DNA marker development. Fas (APO-1, CD95), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is a cell membrane protein that mediates apoptosis (programmed cell death). We discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within Fas gene in order to develop novel DNA markers at genomic level. Of this gene to search for SNP, sequences of whole exon and 1kb range of both front and back of the gene using 24 cattle were determined by direct-sequencing methods. As a result, 16 SNPs in exon, 37 SNPs in intron and 2 SNPs in promoter region, a total of 55 SNPs were discovered. In these SNPs, thirty-one common polymorphic sites were selected considering their allele frequencies, haplotype-tagging status and Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) for genotyping in larger-scale subjects. Selected SNPs were confirmed genotype through SNaPshot method (n=274) and were examined for possible genetic association of Fas polymorphisms with carcass weight (CWT), eye muscle area (EMA), and backfat thickness (BF). So, the SNP have been identified significant g.-12T>G, g.1112T>G and g.32548T>C. These results suggest that polymorphism of Fas gene was associated with meat quality traits in Hanwoo.

Genetic Relationship between Carcass Traits and Carcass Price of Korean Cattle

  • Kim, Jong-Bok;Kim, Dae-Jung;Lee, Jeong-Koo;Lee, Chae-Young
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.848-854
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    • 2010
  • The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for the carcass price and carcass traits contributing to carcass grading and to investigate the influence of each carcass trait on the carcass price using multiple regression and path analyses. Data for carcass traits and carcass prices were collected from March 2003 to January 2009 on steers of Korean cattle raised at private farms. The analytical mixed animal model, including slaughter house-year-month combination, linear and quadratic slaughter age as fixed effects and random animal and residual effects, was used to estimate genetic parameters. The effects of carcass traits on the carcass price were evaluated by applying multiple regression analyses. Heritability estimates of carcass traits were $0.20{\pm}0.08$ for carcass weight (CWT), $0.33{\pm}0.10$ for back fat thickness (BFT), $0.07{\pm}0.05$ for eye-muscle area (EMA) and $0.25{\pm}0.10$ for marbling score (MS), and those of carcass prices were $0.21{\pm}0.10$ for auction price per 1 kg of carcass weight (AP) and $0.13{\pm}0.07$ for total price (CP). Genetic correlation coefficients of AP with CWT and MS were $-0.35{\pm}0.29$ and $0.99{\pm}0.04$, respectively, and those of CP with CWT and MS were $0.59{\pm}0.22$ and $0.39{\pm}0.29$ respectively. If an appropriate adjustment for temporal economic value is available, the moderate heritability estimates of AP and CP might suggest their potential use as the breeding objectives for improving the gross incomes of beef cattle farms. The large genetic correlation estimates of carcass price variables with CWT and MS implied that simultaneous selection for both CWT and MS would be also useful in enhancing income.

Effect of Carcass Traits on Carcass Prices of Holstein Steers in Korea

  • Alam, M.;Cho, K.H.;Lee, S.S.;Choy, Y.H.;Kim, H.S.;Cho, C.I.;Choi, T.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1388-1398
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    • 2013
  • The present study investigated the contribution of carcass traits on carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. Phenotypic data consisted of 76,814 slaughtered Holsteins (1 to 6 yrs) from all over Korea. The means for live body weight at slaughter (BWT), chilled carcass weight (CWT), dressing percentage (DP), quantity grade index (QGI), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS), carcass unit price (CUP), and carcass sell prices (CSP) were 729.0 kg, 414.2 kg, 56.79%, 64.42, $75.26cm^2$, 5.77 mm, 1.98, 8,952.80 Korean won/kg and 3,722.80 Thousand Korean won/head. Least squares means were significantly different by various age groups, season of slaughter, marbling scores and yield grades. Pearson's correlation coefficients of CUP with carcass traits ranged from 0.12 to 0.62. Besides, the relationships of carcass traits with CSP were relatively stronger than those with CUP. The multiple regression models for CUP and CSP with carcass traits accounted 39 to 63% of the total variation, respectively. Marbling score had maximum economic effects (partial coefficients) on both prices. In addition, the highest standardized partial coefficients (relative economic weights) for CUP and CSP were calculated to be on MS and CWT by 0.608 and 0.520, respectively. Path analyses showed that MS (0.376) and CWT (0.336) had maximum total effects on CUP and CSP, respectively; whereas BF contributed negatively. Further sub-group (age and season of slaughter) analyses also confirmed the overall outcomes. However, the relative economic weights and total path contributions also varied among the animal sub-groups. This study suggested the significant influences of carcass traits on carcass prices; especially MS and CWT were found to govern the carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea.

Carcass Characteristics and Qualitative Attributes of Pork from Immunocastrated Animals

  • Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro;Moi, Marta;Santos, Luan Sousa Dos;Paz, Ibiara Correia De Lima Almeida;Garcia, Rodrigo Garofallo;Naas, Irenilza De Alencar;Fernandes, Alexandre Rodrigo Mendes
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1630-1636
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    • 2013
  • An investigation was carried out to assess the carcass characteristics and meat quality aspects of immunocastrated male pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass (53 to 55%). When the crossbred Large White x Landrace pigs (n = 45) were 70 days old, they were distributed in a totally randomized design in three treatments (castrated males, females and immunocastrated males) with three replicates of five animals. The pigs were slaughtered when they were 140 days old. Carcass temperature and pH were recorded twice, at 45 min and 24 h after slaughter. The carcasses were evaluated for hot and cold carcass yield, commercial cuts yield, length and depth, back fat thickness, loin eye area and lean meat percentage. The Longissimus dorsi muscle was extracted for analysis of color ($L^*$, $a^*$, $b^*$), exudate loss, cooking loss and centesimal and sensorial analysis of the meat. There were no significant differences for the evaluated parameters between castrated males, immunocastrated males and females, except for backfat thickness between the 7th and 8th thoracic vertebra and the point P2 (lower for immunocastrated males) and carcass temperature at 45 min post slaughter (higher in immunocastrated males), however, this did not interfer with the rate of pH decrease post mortem and the meat quality. The results from this research did not indicate a benefit of immunocastration on carcass characteristics of pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass, when compared to surgical castration.

Genetic Relationships of Carcass Traits with Retail Cut Productivity of Hanwoo Cattle

  • Koh, Daeyoung;Lee, Jeongkoo;Won, Seunggun;Lee, Chaeyoung;Kim, Jongbok
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1387-1393
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    • 2014
  • This study aimed to estimate genetic correlation between carcass grading and retail productivity traits and to estimate the correlated response on retail productivity traits through selection for carcass grading traits in order to assess the efficacy of indirect selection. Genetic parameters were estimated with the data from 4240 Hanwoo steers using mixed models, and phenotypes included carcass weight (CWT), back fat thickness (BFT), eye muscle area (EMA), marbling (MAR), and estimated lean yield percentage (ELP) as the carcass grading traits, and weight and portion of retail cuts (RCW and RCP), trimmed fats (TFW and TFP) and trimmed bones (TBW and TBP) as the lean productivity traits. The CWT had positive genetic correlations with RCW (0.95) and TFW (0.73), but its genetic correlation with RCP was negligible (0.02). The BFT was negatively correlated with RCP (-0.63), but positively correlated with TFW and TFP (0.77 and 0.70). Genetic correlations of MAR with TFW and TFP were low. Among the carcass grading traits, only EMA was positively correlated with both RCW (0.60) and RCP (0.72). The EMA had a relatively strong negative genetic correlation with TFW (-0.64). The genetic correlation coefficients of ELP with RCP, TFW, and TFP were 0.76, -0.90, and -0.82, respectively. These correlation coefficients suggested that the ELP and EMA might be favorable traits in regulating lean productivity of carcass.