• Title, Summary, Keyword: Eye muscle area

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Effects of Heart Fatty Acid-binding Protein Genotype on Intramuscular Fat Content in Duroc Pigs Selected for Meat Production and Meat Quality Traits

  • Uemoto, Yoshinobu;Suzuki, Keiichi;Kobayashi, Eiji;Sato, Syushi;Shibata, Tomoya;Kadowaki, Hiroshi;Nishida, Akira
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.622-626
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    • 2007
  • Using multi-trait animal model BLUP, selection was conducted over seven generations for growth rate (DG), real-time ultrasound loin-eye muscle area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), and intramuscular fat content (IMF) to develop a new line of purebred Duroc pigs with enhanced meat production and meat quality. This study was intended to investigate the relationship between restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of a heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) gene and intramuscular fat content (IMF) of this Duroc purebred population. The present experiment examined the RFLP of 499 slaughtered pigs. The DNA was separated from the blood or ear tissue of the pigs, which were slaughtered at 105 kg of body weight. Intramuscular fat content of the longissimus muscle was measured using chemical analysis. A significant difference was detected in the breeding value of IMF among the H-FABP PCR RFLP genotypes. The AA genotype has a significantly larger positive effect on the IMF breeding value than do the Aa and aa genotypes for the MspI RFLP. In addition, the DD genotype has a significantly greater positive effect on IMF breeding value than the Dd and dd genotypes for the HaeIII RFLP. For the HinfI RFLP, the hh genotype has a significantly larger positive effect on IMF breeding value than the HH genotype. Multiple regression analysis was performed using the IMF breeding values as the dependent variable and the three H-FABP genotypes as independent variables. Results revealed that the contribution of the genotypes to variation in IMF breeding values was approximately 40%. These results demonstrated that H-FABP RFLPs affect IMF in this Duroc population.

The Breed and Sex Effect on the Carcass Size Performance and Meat Quality of Yak in Different Muscles

  • Zhang, Li;Sun, Baozhong;Yu, Qunli;Ji, Qiumei;Xie, Peng;Li, Haipeng;Wang, Li;Zhou, Yuchun;Li, Yongpeng;Huang, Caixia;Liu, Xuan
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2016
  • The carcass size performances and the meat quality of Gannan and Sibu yak were determined using M. supraspinatus (SU), M. longissimus thoracis (LT) and M.quadriceps femoris (QF). It is found that Sibu yak had significantly higher carcass weight (CW) than Gannan yak with difference of nearly 40 kg, as well as significantly higher eye muscle area (EMA), carcass thorax depth (CTD), round perimeter (RP), etc. The carcass performances of steer yak were significantly higher than heifer yak except meat thickness at round (MTR) (p<0.05). The results show that both yak breed and gender had significant effects on carcass performances. It could be seen that the variation of carcass size performances from breeds is as large as from gender (50.22% and 46.25% of total variation, respectively) through principal component analysis (PCA). Sibu yak had significantly higher L*, b*, WBSF, cooking loss and Fat content, while Gannan yak had significantly higher a*, press loss, protein content and moisture (p<0.05). Yak gender and muscle had insignificant effects on meat colour and water holding capacity (p>0.05). The variation of meat quality of yak from breed is up to 59.46% of total variation according to PCA. It is shown that the difference between breeds, for Gannan yak and Sibu yak, plays an important role in carcass size performance and meat quality.

Effect of Pig Slaughter Weight on Pork Quality (돼지의 도살체중이 돈육질에 미치는 효과)

  • S. S. Moon;A. M. Mullen;D. J. Troy;H. S. Yang;S. T. Joo;G. B. Park
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.315-320
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    • 2003
  • A total of 240 crossbred(Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire ${\times}$ Duroc) pigs were housed from 70 kg live weight and slaughtered at weights of 95, 105, 115 and 125 kg. The left side loins of carcass were obtained at 24 hr postmortem to measure pork quality. There were significant differences(p<0.01) in eye muscle area of pork loins between the slaughter weights of 95 and 105 kg. However, no differences were observed in pork than 105 kg of slaughter weight. Ultimate pH values were decreased with increasing slaughter weight and cooking loss was also reduced(p<0.01) at the heavier weights. Slaughter weights did not affect the shear force and intramuscular fat. However, dry matter(DM) and crude protein(CP) contents of loin were increased, and cooking loss and sarcomere length were decreased with increasing slaughter weight. The lightness(L$^{*}$) and redness(a$^{*}$) of pork loin were increased with increasing slaughter weight. Results suggested that pork quality may be improved when pig slaughter weight is increased from 95 to 125 kg.

FRESH CASSAVA AS A FEED FOR FATTENING PIGS

  • Ochetim, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.361-365
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    • 1993
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding fresh cassava roots on the performance and carcass quality of pigs raised from $15{\pm}1kg$ to 85 kg live weight. Fresh unpeeled cassava roots were chopped into chips and offered separately along with a protein concentrate made up of copra cake and meat and bone meal, and a local mineral-vitamin premix. Commercial pig grower and finisher diets served as control. A total of 24 pigs were used in an incomplete randomized split-plot design experiment. Pigs fed fresh cassava-based diet grew as fast, 0.78 vs 0.77 kg/day, and were as efficient, 3.74 vs 3.77 in converting feed into body weight gain as those fed the commercial control diet. Similarly, there were no differences in carcass quality measured in terms of dressing percentage, 77 vs 77; backfat thickness, 2.76 vs 2.78 cm; loin eye muscle area, 29.2 vs $29.1cm^2$ and in the relative proportions of the different carcass cuts between the two dietary treatments. The use of fresh cassava along with the protein and the local mineral-vitamin premix however, resulted in lowered total feed cost and cost per unit of live weight gain. It is concluded that fresh cassava roots can be fed along with copra cake, meat and bone meal protein concentrate and a local mineral-vitamin premix to fattening pigs with no adverse affects on performance and carcass quality.

The study of clinical usefulness of Si-Zong-Sue-Ge(四總穴歌) (사총혈가(四總穴歌)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Yang, Gi-Joong;Bae, Geyn-Tae;Yoon, Jong-Hwa
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2000
  • Ge-Fu(歌賦) means prose and poetry individually, and they both have a meaning of all the rhythmical poetrical compositions making it ease for people to remember the content. All the Ge-Fus used in oriental medicine are made in Yuan(元), Mine(明)and Qing(靑)dynasty, and they have been largely used in most of all the fields of medicine such as Ben-Cao(本草), Tang-Ye(湯液), Zhen-Jiu(鍼灸), Zhen-Duan(診斷). Zhen-Jiu-Ge-Fu(鍼灸歌賦) has about 90 poetries and 10 proses and they contain the names of meridian; courses of meridian streams; accurate positions of acupuncture points; functions; effects; meanings of the name of acupuncture points; usages and effects of special points; manipulations of reinforcing and reducing method; contraindications of acupuncturing; principles of selections and orders of acupuncture points in therapy; and eight diadgoses. Zhen-Jiu-Ge-Fu is subdivided into Jing-Xue(經穴歌), Zhi-Jiu-Ge(刺灸歌), Shu-Xue-Ge(輸穴歌), Zhi-Liao-Ge(治療歌). And In Zhi-Liao-Ge, the most brief and essential Ge-Fu-Si-Zong-Sue-Ge- contains theraputic designs using far apart acpuncture points from the right painful areas in the body. In this study, the author opinionated the Si-Zong-Sue-Ge can be the prototype of the distant needling; the research on this can open the importance of Ge-Fus. On conclusion, 1. "Upper and lower Abdomen - Zu-San-Li($S_{36}$) (肚腹三里留)" means when there are problems and disorders in upper and lower abdomen, distinctively, such as gastric pain, maldigestion, flatulence, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, menstrual disorer, knee pain and tonic functioning, 족삼리 can be a right choice for distant needling point for treating. 2. "Face and Eye-He-Gu($Li_4$) (面目合谷收)" means when there are problems and disorders in facial, eye, ear, nose, throat, mouth regions, distinctively, such as facial edema, toothache, headache, sore throat, rhinorrhea, frontal headache, abdominal pain, dizziness, He-Gu can be a right choice for distant needling point for treating. 3. "Upper and lower back - Wei-Zhong($B_{40}$) (腰背委中求)" means when there are problems and disorders in upper and lower back, distinctively, such as upper back pain, lumbargo, hamstring muscle pain, popliteal region pain, lower extremity compartment syndrom, Inguinal region pain, muscle twitch, vomiting and diarrhea, hemorrhoidal bleeding, skin rash, Wei-Zhong can be a right choice for distant needling point for treating. 4. "Head and neck - Lie-Que($L_7$) (頭項審列缺)" means when there are problems and disorders in capital and nuchal area, distinctively, such as migraine, frontal headache, rhinorrhea, asthmatic dyspnea, aphasia, coughing, neck stiffness, occipital headache, upper extremity pain, Lie-Que can be a right choice for distant needling point for treating.

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Genetic Analysis of Carcass Traits in Hanwoo with Different Slaughter End-points (세가지 도축 종료 시점을 공변량으로 하는 한우 도체형질에 대한 유전능력 분석모형)

  • Choy, Y.H.;Yoon, H.B.;Choi, S.B.;Chung, H.W.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.703-710
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    • 2005
  • Data from Hanwoo steers and bull calves were analyzed to see the phenotypic and genetic relationships between carcass traits from four different covariance models. Four models fit test station and test period as fixed effect of contemporary group and sire as random effect assuming paternal half-sib relationships among animals. Each model fits one of linear covariate (s) of different slaughter end points-age at slaughter in the first order, age at slaughter in the first and second order, slaughter weight or back fat thickness at 12-13th rib of cold carcass. Age at slaughter in its second order was not significant. Age at slaughter accounted for signifi- cant amount of genetic variances and covariances of carcass traits. Heritability estimates of back fat thickness, rib eye area, carcass weight, marbling score and dressing percentage were 0.34, 0.22, 0.24, 0.42 and 0.18, respectively at constant age basis. The genetic correlation between carcass weight and the other variables were all positive and low to high in magnitude. Genetic correlations between back fat thickness and rib eye area and between marbling score and dressing percentage were low but negative. Variance and covariance structure between these traits were shifted to a great extent when these variables were regressed on slaughter weight or on back fat thickness. These two covariates counteracted to each other but they adjusted each carcass variable or their interrelationship according to differential growth of body components, bone, muscle and fat. Slaughter weight tended to decrease genetic variances and covariances of carcass weight and between component traits and back fat thickness tended to increase those of rib eye area and between rib eye area and carcass weight.

Influence of Dietary Addition of Dried Wormwood (Artemisia sp.) on the Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle Tissues of Hanwoo Heifers

  • Kim, Y.M.;Kim, J.H.;Kim, S.C.;Ha, H.M.;Ko, Y.D.;Kim, C.-H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.549-554
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    • 2002
  • An experiment was conducted to examine the performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean native beef cattle) heifers and the fatty acid composition of muscle tissues of the heifers when the animals fed diets containing four levels of dried wormwood (Artemisia sp.). For the experiment the animals were given a basal diet consisting of rice straw and concentrate mixed at 3:7 ratio (on DM basis). The treatments were designed as a completely randomized design with two feeding periods. Heifers were allotted in one of four dietary treatments, which were designed to progressively substitute dried wormwood for 0, 3, 5 and 10% of the rice straw in the basal diet. There was no difference in body weight gain throughout the entire period between the treatment groups. Feed conversion rate was improved (p<0.05) only by the 3% dried wormwood inclusion treatment compared with the basal treatment. Carcass weight, carcass yield and backfat thickness of all treatment groups were not altered by wormwood inclusion. The 5% dried wormwood inclusion significantly increased (p<0.05) the size of loin-eye area over the other treatments. The higher levels (5 and 10%) of dried wormwood inclusion resulted in the higher (p<0.05) water holding capacity (WHC) in loin than the lower levels (0 and 3%) of wormwood inclusion. The redness ($a^*$) and yellowness ($b^*$) values of meat color were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the top round muscle of heifers fed the diet containing 3% dried wormwood. There was a profound effect of the progressively increased intake of dried wormwood led to the linear increase of unsaturated fatty acid content and the linear decrease of saturated fatty acid content in the muscle tissues of Hanwoo heifers. It is concluded that the feeding diets containing dried wormwood substituted for equal weights of rice straw at 5% levels would be anticipated to provide better quality roughage for beef heifer production and economical benefits for beef cattle producers.

Screening for candidate genes related with histological microstructure, meat quality and carcass characteristic in pig based on RNA-seq data

  • Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna;Bereta, Anna;Zukowski, Kacper;Tyra, Miroslaw;Piorkowska, Katarzyna;Zak, Grzegorz;Oczkowicz, Maria
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.10
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    • pp.1565-1574
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The aim of the present study was to identify genetic variants based on RNA-seq data, obtained via transcriptome sequencing of muscle tissue of pigs differing in muscle histological structure, and to verify the variants' effect on histological microstructure and production traits in a larger pig population. Methods: RNA-seq data was used to identify the panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly related with percentage and diameter of each fiber type (I, IIA, IIB). Detected polymorphisms were mapped to quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regions. Next, the association study was performed on 944 animals representing five breeds (Landrace, Large White, Pietrain, Duroc, and native Puławska breed) in order to evaluate the relationship of selected SNPs and histological characteristics, meat quality and carcasses traits. Results: Mapping of detected genetic variants to QTL regions showed that chromosome 14 was the most overrepresented with the identification of four QTLs related to percentage of fiber types I and IIA. The association study performed on a 293 longissimus muscle samples confirmed a significant positive effect of transforming acidic coiled-coil-containing protein 2 (TACC2) polymorphisms on fiber diameter, while SNP within forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) locus was associated with decrease of diameter of fiber types IIA and IIB. Moreover, subsequent general linear model analysis showed significant relationship of FOXO1, delta 4-desaturase, sphingolipid 1 (DEGS1), and troponin T2 (TNNT2) genes with loin 'eye' area, FOXO1 with loin weight, as well as FOXO1 and TACC2 with lean meat percentage. Furthermore, the intramuscular fat content was positively associated (p<0.01) with occurrence of polymorphisms within DEGS1, TNNT2 genes and negatively with occurrence of TACC2 polymorphism. Conclusion: This study's results indicate that the SNP calling analysis based on RNA-seq data can be used to search candidate genes and establish the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. The presented results can be used for future studies evaluating the use of selected SNPs as genetic markers related to muscle histological profile and production traits in pig breeding.

Effect of Garlic Stalk Silage on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (마늘대 사일리지 급여가 한우거세우의 성장 및 도체특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Chu, G.M.;Lee, H.J.;Park, J.S.;Cho, H.W.;Ahn, B.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1007-1018
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding of garlic stalk silage on performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Feeding trial was conducted with 27 heads of Hanwoo steers and these animals were divided into two groups of control(rice straw) and garlic stalk silage. Animals consuming rice straw were fed concentrates and rice straw for 22 months from the 5 months of age and animals consuming garlic stalk silage were fed concentrates, rice straw and garlic stalk silage for 22 months from the 5 months of age. Animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage were fed 1.34 and 1.47, 1.69 and 1.74, 1.65 and 1.66% concentrates to body weight for the growing period, fattening period and finishing period, respectively. Animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage as roughage sources were fed 1.37 and 1.38, 0.65 and 0.63, 0.43 and 0.43% roughages to body weight for the growing period, fattening period and finishing period, respectively. Also, animals fed garlic stalk silage were offered 0.22 and 0.33% garlic stalk silage to body weight for the fattening and finishing period, respectively. Animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage as a roughage sources did not differ in average daily gain during the whole feeding periods. Animals of control group consumed less concentrates and roughage than those fed garlic stalk silage during the whole feeding periods. However, feed efficiency was not significantly different between both treatments. Beef yield including backfat thickness, eye muscle area and carcass weight was slightly lower in the animals fed garlic stalk silage than in the animals fed rice straw even though there were no differences between both treatments. However, beef quality including beef color, fat color, texture, maturity and marbling score was slightly higher in the garlic stalk silage-fed animals than in the animals fed rice straw although there were not statistically different between both treatments. Animals consuming garlic stalk silage was significantly(p<0.05) lower in shear value than those fed rice straw. Amino acid composition including essential amino acid and non-essential amino acid was not different between animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage. Eye muscle area of animals fed garlic stalk silage contained slightly higher oleic acid, less linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and more linolenic acid than that of animals fed rice straw only as a roughage sources. So eye muscle area of animals fed garlic stalk silage contained more mono-unsaturated fatty acid than that of animals fed rice straw and $\omega$6/$\omega$3 ratio was narrower in the animals fed garlic stalk silage than in the animals fed rice straw. Economic income was higher by 20% in the animals fed garlic stalk silage than in the animals fed rice straw. Therefore, It may be concluded that feeding of garlic stalk silage as a roughage sources to steers during the fattening period seems to improve meat quality, fatty acid composition and economic income.

ASCL2 Gene Expression Analysis and Its Association with Carcass Traits in Pigs

  • Cheng, H.C.;Zhang, F.W.;Deng, C.Y.;Jiang, C.D.;Xiong, Y.Z.;Li, F.E.;Lei, M.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.10
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    • pp.1485-1489
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    • 2007
  • Achaete-scute like 2 (ASCL2) gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor which is essential for the maintenance of proliferating trophoblasts during placental development. ASCL2 gene preferentially expresses the maternal allele in the mouse. However, it escapes genomic imprinting in the human. In this study, the complete open reading frame consisting of 193 amino acids of ASCL2 gene was obtained. Sequence analysis indicated that a C-G mutation existed in the 3' region between Meishan and Large White pigs. The polymorphism was used to determine the monoallelic or biallelic expression with RT-PCR-RFLP in pigs of Large $White{\times}Meishan$ $F_1$ hybrids. Imprinting analysis indicated that the ASCL2 gene expression was biallelic in all the tested tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, small intestine, skeletal muscle, fat, uterus, ovary and pituitary). PCR-RFLP was used to detect the polymorphism in 270 pigs of the "$Large\;White{\times}Meishan$" $F_2$ resource population. The statistical results showed highly significant associations of the genotypes and fat meat percentage (FMP), lean meat percentage (LMP) and ratio of lean to fat (RLF) (p<0.01), and significant associations of the genotypes and loin eye area (LEA) and internal fat rate (IFR) (p<0.05).