• Title, Summary, Keyword: Eye muscle area

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Repeated Records Animal Model to Estimate Genetic Parameters of Ultrasound Measurement Traits in Hanwoo Cows (반복모형을 이용한 한우 초음파 측정형질의 유전모수추정)

  • Park, Cheol-Hyeon;Koo, Yang-Mo;Kim, Byung-Woo;Sun, Du-Won;Kim, Jung-Il;Song, Chi-Eun;Lee, Ki-Hwan;Lee, Jae-Youn;Jeoung, Yeoung-Ho;Lee, Jung-Gyu
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.71-75
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    • 2012
  • The present study data were obtained from 36,894 cows in Korea Animal Improvement Association from 2001 to 2009 which was subjected for ultrasound measurements (eye muscle area, back-fat thickness, marbling score) and descent. Repeated record models were carried out using 7,913 of 36,894 of total animal traits. The ultrasound measured traits and performance test data were used to study the chest girth, body condition score, eye muscle area, back-fat thickness and marbling score with genetic correlation and parameters for the ultrasound measured traits using REMLF90 program. Genetic correlation of eye muscle area with back-fat thickness, marbling score and back-fat thickness with marbling score were noticed in repeated records animal model as 0.69, 0.54, and 0.59, whereas in multiple trait animal model method were 0.07, 0.66, and 0.39, respectively. Repeated records of animal models were used as positive correlation of traits. Multiple trait animal models were used as negative correlation of eye muscle area with marbling score. The analysis on repeat records of animal models using ultrasound measurements about Korean cattle showed positive effects for each traits. In comparison differences between the repeat records of animal models and multiple trait animal models was found with higher traits of her, the heritability and repeatability was found higher in repeat records animal models. In light of these assessments, carcass traits by ultrasound measurements are expected to help and improve an accurate analysis of each trait and if the research analysis using repeat records of animal models continue when we estimate genetic ability of these traits.

Effectiveness of Computed Tomography for Blow-out Fracture

  • Rhee, Seung-Hyun;Kim, Tae-Seup;Song, Jae-Min;Shin, Sang-Hoon;Lee, Jae-Yeol
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.273-279
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study assessed the association between eye symptoms (enophthalmos or diplopia) and site of damage, volume, deviated inferior rectus muscle (IRM) and type of fracture with computed tomography (CT). The intent is to anticipate the prognosis of orbital trauma at initial diagnosis. Methods: Forty-five patients were diagnosed with fractures of the inferior wall of one orbit. Fracture area, volume of displaced tissue, deviated IRM, and type of fracture were evaluated from coronal CT by one investigator. The association of those variables with the occurrence of eye symptoms (diplopia and enophthalmos) was assessed. Results: Of 45 patients, 27 were symptom-free (Group A) and 18 had symptoms (Group B) of enophthalmos and/or diplopia. In Group B, 12 had diplopia, one was enophthalmos, and five had both. By CT measurement, group A mean area was $192.6mm^2$ and the mean volume was $673.2mm^3$. Group B area was $316.2mm^2$ and volume was $1,710.6mm^3$. The volume was more influential on symptom occurrence. Each patient was categorized into four grades depending on the location of IRM. Symptom occurrence and higher grade were associated. Twenty-six patients had trap-door fracture (one side, attached to the fracture), and 19 had punched-out fracture (both sides detached). The punched-out fracture was more strongly associated with symptoms and had statistically significantly higher area and volume. Conclusion: In orbital trauma, measurement of fracture area and volume, evaluation of the deviated IRM and classification of the fracture type by coronal CT can effectively predict prognosis and surgical indication.

Effect of Nutritional Levels on the Growth and Meat Quality of Korean Native Black Pigs (사료의 영양수준에 따른 재래흑돼지의 산육능력 및 육질비교)

  • Choi, Yeom-Soon;Park, Beom-Young;Lee, Jong-Moon;Chae, Byung-Jo;Lee, Sung-Ki
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nutritional levels on the growth and pork quality of Korean native black pigs (54 pigs from 35-75kg). Three nutritional levels (high, medium and low in ME and lysine) were tested. As nutritional levels increased, the average daily gain improved, and the days to market weight were reduced. There were no significant differences in dressing percentage, backfat thickness, loin eye area and % lean among the dietary treatments. However, barrows showed thicker (p<0.05) for backfat than gilt. The analysis of Korean native black pig carcass traits indicated that the fatty acid composition of loin-eye muscle, intra-muscular fat content, sarcomere length, and muscle ratio between red- and white-muscles did not show any statistically significant variation. However, regarding intra-muscular fat, H carcasses (high energy diet) contained higher levels of saturated fatty acids with lower levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the carcasses from the other two energy groups (M and L). In addition, the levels of n-3 tended to be lower as the energy/lysine level in the diet increased, while the ratio of n-6/n-3 tended to decrease as the energy/lysine level increased, even though the differences were not statistically significant. Even with no statistically significant differences, it was interesting to observe that the sarcomere length tended to increase as the energy level of the diet increased, and with muscle ratio analysis, the red muscle ratio from the L-group, and the white muscle ratio from the M-group were higher than the other energy groups.

Changes of Muscle Activity and Cephalometric Variables Related to Head Posture (두부자세에 따른 근활성과 측모두부방사선계측치의 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Byung-Wook;Han, Kyung-Soo
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.189-206
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    • 1999
  • This study was performed to investigate the factors affecting muscle activity and cephalometric variables according to change of head postures. For this study, 150 patients with temporomandibular disorders and 80 dental students without any signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders were selected as the patients group and as the normal group, respectively. Head position to body-midline in frontal plane and upper quarter posture to body plumb line in sagittal plane were observed clinically and electromyographic(EMG) activity of anterior temporalis, masseter, sternocleidomastoideus, and trapezius on clenching were recorded with $BioEMG^{(R)}$ in four head postures, which were natural head posture(NHP), forward head posture(FHP), $20^{\circ}$ upward head posture(UHP), and $20^{\circ}$ downward head posture(DHP). Cephaloradiographs were also taken in the same head postures as in EMG taking, but that was taken only in NHP for the patient group. Cephalometric variables measured were SN angle, CVT angle, atlas inclination angle, occlusal plane angle, Me-C2 angle, pharyngeal width, occiput~axis distance, area of pharyngeal space, and cervical curvature. The data were analyzed by SAS statistical program. The results of this study were as follows : 1. Between the patient and the normal group, there were significant difference in distance from plumb line to acromion, eye-tragus angle, electromyographic activity of the four muscles, and cephalometric variables of linear measurement. 2. There was no consistent pattern of correlation between upper quarter posture, EMG activity and cephalometric variables in any case without relation to cervical curvature and head position in frontal plane. 3. Sternocleidomastoid muscle only showed variation of electromyographic activty with changes of head postures, but all the muscles did show correlation with head postures. 4. All the cephalometric variables measured in this study showed difference of mean value by head posture, and CVT angle, pharyngeal width, occiput-atlas distance, and area of pharyngeal space showed correlation between these variables with change from NHP to FHP, and from NHP to UHP.

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Studies on Live-carcass Trait of Parity and Region in Hanwoo Cows Measured by Real-time Ultrasound (초음파 진단장치를 이용한 한우 암소의 산차 및 지역별 산육특성 구명)

  • Ha, Jae-Jung;Kim, Jong-Bok;Lee, Chang-Woo;Song, Young-Han
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.255-262
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    • 2009
  • Current study was conducted to investigate the influence of parity and region variation in ultrasound live carcass traits of Hanwoo cows. A total of 1,386 heads of Hanwoo cows, spreading over six regions in Gangwon province of South Korea, were measured for longissimus muscle area, back fat thickness, marbling score and rump fat thickness by using real-time ultrasound method. The results revealed that, positive correlations were found in all ultrasound live carcass traits. All live carcass traits were increased in accordance with parity until the sixth, and then decreased thereafter. Statistical significant differences (p<0.01) were found among regions in ultrasound live carcass traits, e.g. Hanwoo cows showed highest longissimus muscle area and marbling score in Hwacheon, while the lowest back fat thickness and rump fat thickness were observed in Yanggu. Greater longissimus muscle area and marbling scores were found in Hanwoo cows which were born during autumn, 2000. Moreover, individuals born during autumn, 2005 and 2006 showed a thicker back fat and rump fat thickness. Back fat thickness had the highest positive correlation with rump fat thickness, while rib eye area and rump fat thickness had the lowest correlation.

Carcass Traits and Their Relationships in Hanwoo(Korean Native) Steers (한우 거세우의 도체 형질간의 관계)

  • Baik, D.H.;Hoque, M.A.;Park, H.K.;Chung, Y.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.593-598
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was prosecuted to estimate the carcass traits and their relationships in Hanwoo steers. The mean carcass weight(CWT), back fat thickness (BFT), meat, bone, intra- muscular fat (IMF) and eye muscle area (EMA) of steers were 300.27 kg, 9.23 mm, 58.99%, 12.92%, 28.08% and 74.00 $cm^2$, respectively. The pHB(before aging), pHA(after aging), cook loss before aging($CL_B$) and cook loss after aging ($CL_A$) were 5.32, 5.60, 16.43% and 19.21%, respectively. It was also found that the MS and FC were 3.67 and 3.17, respectively. The EMA and quantity index (QIX) were positively correlated with CWT, meat% and bone% but negatively correlated with IMF%. The BFT was positively correlated with CWT and meat% but negatively correlated with bone% and IMF%. The pH (both before and after aging) was negatively correlated with CL (both before and after aging), water loss during freezing (WLF) and FC. The muscle score(MS) was negatively correlated with CL but positively correlated with WLF and FC. The ARM, HRD, CHW and CTM increased with the increasing of fat% and sharply decreased with the increasing of meat% in the carcass.

Genotypes of Lysophospholipase I (LYPLA1) Gene Associate with Carcass Traits of the Jeju Crossbred Cattle (Hanwoo × Jeju Black cattle) and Hanwoo Populations (제주도산 한우와 제주흑한우 집단의 도체형질에 대한 Lysophospholipase I (LYPLA1) 유전자형의 효과)

  • Han, Sang-Hyun;Seong, Pil-Nam;Cho, In-Cheol
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.760-766
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    • 2017
  • Genotypes of the nucleotide substitution g.23655332G>C of SNP marker rs385360448 at Lysophospholipase I (LYPLA1) gene intron 7, were tested for their effect on the carcass traits of Hanwoo and Jeju Crossbred cattle ($F_1$ progeny produced between Hanwoo ${\times}$ Jeju Black cattle) populations on Jeju Island. In the Hanwoo steer population, the meats containing LYPLA1 rs385360448 G/- genotypes showed significantly higher marbling scores and greater texture indices, compared to those of rs385360448 C/C homozygous animals (p<0.05). However, the LYPLA1 genotypes were not associated with the levels of carcass weight, backfat thickness, eye muscle area (EMA), meat color, and fat color (p>0.05). On the other hand, in the JCC steer population, the LYPLA1 G/- harboring meats showed significantly greater EMA levels, compared to those of C/C homozygotes (p<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that the LYPLA1 genotypes could alter the levels of intramuscular fat deposition, texture index, and eye muscle area via phospholipid metabolism in the Longissimus dorsi muscle of the cattle. These findings suggested that LYPLA1 genotypes may effect molecular genetic markers in the improvement of carcass traits of Hanwoo and Jeju Black industrial cattle populations on Jeju Island.

Structuring Program to Improve Unbalance of Woman's Face (여성 얼굴의 불균형 개선을 위한 프로그램 구축)

  • Kim, Ae-Kyung;Lee, Kyung-Hee
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.398-408
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    • 2011
  • This study shows that the self-satisfaction individually is rising and social life is attracted effective and successful in image making field by structuring the facial image improvement program through experimental study in order to improve unbalance of women's face. Experiment is conducted by electing 3 samples for 12 weeks and analyzing the measurement and visual analysis, infrared thermography, and evaluation of experts in order to check the facial unbalance. Subject 1 had the effect at approximately in 4 weeks with the severely distorted chin line and mouth appendage. The facial outline became softer to turn entire image to be softer and more feminine. Subject 2 had the severe distortion of location and size of eyes and nose. But the skin was getting better at first, followed by eyes getting clearer with the location changed in left and right. Subject 3 had the twisted nose and lower chin, but after two weeks, the eye area and skin were better and the width of left and right chin was similarly changed. On the basis of the above research result, the program to effectively improve the image was structured and presented with the resolution of facial unbalance. Program is consist of the training of breathing method, face washing method, facial muscle exercise.

Effects of Lower Dietary Lysine and Energy Content on Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Zhang, Jinxiao;Yin, Jingdong;Zhou, Xuan;Li, Fengna;Ni, Jianjun;Dong, Bing
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.1785-1793
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    • 2008
  • Fifty-four PIC barrows were used to evaluate the effects of lower dietary lysine content and energy level on carcass characteristics and meat quality in slaughter pigs. Pigs were allotted to one of three treatments by body weight with six replicate pens in each treatment. The dietary treatments for body weights of 20-50 kg, 50-80 kg and 80-90 kg were as follows, respectively: control diet (digestible energy 14.22 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.67 g/MJ, 0.53 g/MJ and 0.42 g/MJ); a low lysine group (digestible energy 14.22 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.49, 0.38 and 0.30 g/MJ); and a low lysine-low energy group or low nutrient group (digestible energy 13.11 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.49, 0.38 and 0.30 g/MJ). The daily weight gain, daily feed intake and feed efficiency were calculated in the overall growth period (nearly 12 weeks). Meanwhile, carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated at 60 and 90 kg body weight respectively. During the overall growth trial, lowering dietary lysine and nutrient level both decreased weight gain (p<0.05) and feed efficiency (p<0.01). At 60 kg body weight, decreasing dietary lysine and nutrient level noticeably decreased dressing percentage (p<0.01) and back fat depth at last rib of PIC pigs (p<0.01), but enhanced marbling scores (p<0.10), intramuscular fat content (p<0.10) and water loss rate (p<0.01) of the longissimus dorsi muscle. At 90 kg body weight, lean percentage (p<0.01) was evidently reduced by both lowering lysine content and nutrient level in the diet. However, the shoulder back fat depth (p<0.05) and marbling scores of the loin eye muscle (p<0.05) were increased; Lowering dietary nutrient level could improve back fat depth of 10th rib (p<0.01) and last rib (p<0.01), intramuscular fat content (p<0.10), redness (p<0.01) and water loss rate of the loin eye muscle (p<0.05), but decrease loin area (p<0.05). Finally, when comparing the 60 kg and 90 kg slaughter weights, it was found that the shoulder back fat depth (p<0.01, p<0.10), 6th-7th rib (p<0.01, p<0.01), 10th-rib (p<0.01, p<0.01) and last rib back fat depth (p<0.01, p<0.01) of the low lysine and low nutrient group were all obviously increased comparing with the control group. Taken together, the results showed that decreasing dietary lysine content and nutrient level increased intramuscular fat content and water loss rate of longissimus dorsi muscle; On the other hand, both lowering dietary lysine and nutrient level markedly compensated to increase back fat deposition in the later finishing period (body weight from 60 to 90 kg) in contrast to the control group.

Full-length cDNA, Expression Pattern and Association Analysis of the Porcine FHL3 Gene

  • Zuo, Bo;Xiong, YuanZhu;Yang, Hua;Wang, Jun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.10
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    • pp.1473-1477
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    • 2007
  • Four-and-a-half LIM-only protein 3 (FHL3) is a member of the LIM protein superfamily and can participate in mediating protein-protein interaction by binding one another through their LIM domains. In this study, the 5'- and 3'- cDNA ends were characterized by RACE (Rapid Amplification of the cDNA Ends) methodology in combination with in silico cloning based on the partial cDNA sequence obtained. Bioinformatics analysis showed FHL3 protein contained four LIM domains and four LIM zinc-binding domains. In silico mapping assigned this gene to the gene cluster MTF1-INPP5B-SF3A3-FHL3-CGI-94 on pig chromosome 6 where several QTL affecting intramuscular fat and eye muscle area had previously been identified. Transcription of the FHL3 gene was detected in spleen, liver, kidney, small intestine, skeletal muscle, fat and stomach, with the greatest expression in skeletal muscle. The A/G polymorphism in exon II was significantly associated with birth weight, average daily gain before weaning, drip loss rate, water holding capacity and intramuscular fat in a Landrace-derived pig population. Together, the present study provided the useful information for further studies to determine the roles of FHL3 gene in the regulation of skeletal muscle cell growth and differentiation in pigs.