• Title, Summary, Keyword: Eye muscle area

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Estimation of Genetic and Environmental Parameters of Carcass Traits in Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) Populations

  • Baik, D.H.;Hoque, M.A.;Choe, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.1523-1526
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    • 2002
  • Genetic parameters of carcass weight (CWT), dressing percent (DP), cook loss (CL), eye muscle area (EMA), back fat thickness (BFT), and meat tenderness in terms of mastication (MAS), shear force (SFR) and penetration (PEN) in Korean native cattle were estimated in this study. Effects of sire, location and their interaction on these traits were also evaluated. Sire effects were found to be significant on all the traits studied except for PEN. The CWT and DP were also significantly affected both by location (p<0.01) and by interaction effect between sire${\times}$location (p<0.05). The EMA was significantly (p<0.05) affected by location but not by interaction effect between sire${\times}$location. All the traits were positively correlated ($r_g$ and $r_p$) with each other except between CL and meat tenderness (negatively correlated). Moderate to high genetic correlations between CWT and other important traits were obtained; indicating that selection for CWT would lead to improve carcass quality. Heritability estimates were 0.64, 0.52, 0.37, 0.25, 0.19 and 0.18 for MAS, SFR, CWT, PEN, DP and EMA, respectively.

Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights

  • Choi, Young Min;Oh, Hee Kyung
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 2016
  • In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm2, p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×103, p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm2, p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH45 min, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics.

Effects of Substituting Soybean Meal for Sunflower Cake in the Diet on the Growth and Carcass Traits of Crossbred Boer Goat Kids

  • Palmieri, Adriana Dantas;Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes;Ribeiro, Claudio Vaz Di Mambro;Ribeiro, Marinaldo Divino;Ribeiro, Rebeca Dantas Xavier;Leao, Andre Gustavo;Agy, Mariza Sufiana Faharodine Aly;Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2012
  • The present study was conducted to determine the best level of substitution of soybean meal by sunflower cake in diets for kids through the evaluation of quantitative carcass traits. Thirty-two Boer kids X 1/2 NDB (no defined breed), males, non-castrated, with 4 months of age and initial body weight of $15{\pm}3.2$ kg, were randomly assigned to individual pens. The treatments contained four substitution levels of soybean meal by sunflower cake (0, 33, 66 and 100% DM). At the end of the experimental period, the animals were slaughtered. There was no influence of the treatments on any of the mean values of the evaluated measures (p>0.05): 21.78 kg (body weight at slaughter), 8.65 kg (hot carcass weight), 8.59 kg (cold carcass weight), 40.27% (hot carcass yield), 39.20% (cold carcass yield), 7.73 $cm^2$ (rib eye area), 46.74 cm (carcass outer length), 45.68 cm (carcass internal length), 36.92 cm (leg length), 26.04 cm (leg perimeter), 48.66 cm (hind perimeter), 58.62 cm (thoracic perimeter), 0.20 (carcass compactness index), 68.48% (total muscle of the leg), 2.79% (total leg fat), 55.19% (subcutaneous leg fat), 28.82% (total bone), 81.66 g (femur weight), 14.88 cm (femur length), 0.38 (leg muscularity index), 2.53 (muscle:bone ratio) and 33.42 (muscle:fat ratio). The substitution of soybean meal by sunflower cake may be recommended up to a level of 100% without alterations to quantitative carcass traits.

Association Between MSTN Gene Polymorphism and Growth Traits in Landrace Pigs (돼지 Landrace 품종에서 Myostatin 유전자의 유전적 다형성과 성장형질과의 연관성)

  • Cho, I.C.;Choi, Y.L.;Ko, M.S.;Kim, H.S.;Lee, J.G.;Jeon, J.T.;Han, Sang-Hyun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 2005
  • Porcine myostatin(MS1N) gene plays a key role in the differentiation of myoblast and muscle development. Genetic polymorphism was screened by single stranded conformation polymorphism(SSCP) analysis and subsequent DNA sequencing detected a nucleotide substitution(C2150T) in exon 3 of MSIN gene. Phenotypic association of the polymorphism was tested in a Landrace population and positive effects of the allele T for lean growth traits were found in the population. Even though it is not significant, the pigs have IT and TC genotypes were heavier for the body weight at birth and at twenty weeks of age than those containing genotype. Cc. However, the allele T was significantly associated with higher eye muscle area(P < 0.05). As a result of this study, we suggested that the allele T in exon 3 of MSTN gene comes a significant effect for increasing the eye muscle area without decreasing backfat thickness. This polymorphism did not change the amino acid but Taq I -RFLP matched to SSCP band patterns in exon 3 of MSTN gene, which will be an useful molecular marker for breeding of Landrace pigs.

Effects of a Novel p.A41P Mutation in the Swine Myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) Gene on Protein Stabilizing, Muscle Fiber Characteristics and Meat Quality

  • Ryu, Youn-Chul;Lee, Eun-A;Chai, Han-Ha;Park, Jong-Eun;Kim, Jun-Mo
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.711-717
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    • 2018
  • Myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) plays an important role in regulating skeletal muscle fiber characteristics, consequently affecting meat production and quality. We identified a novel p.A41P mutation in exon1 of the porcine MYF5 gene by direct sequencing. The mutation was predicted to be destabilizing in protein structure based on the resultant amino acid substitution. We estimated the significant substitution effect of p.A41P on the energy stabilization of Myf5 protein structure. Then, we demonstrated that the mutation in Yorkshire population significantly affected muscle fiber type I composition (p<0.05), loin-eye area of lean meat content (p<0.05) and filter-fluid uptake of meat quality (p<0.01). Furthermore, dominant effects significantly influenced total muscle fiber number (p<0.05). This study suggests that the novel p.A41P mutation in porcine MYF5 may be a valuable genetic marker to affect the muscle fiber characteristics and consequently improve meat production quality and quantity.

Genetic and of environmental effects for economic traits in pigs (돼지 주요 경제형질들에 영향을 미치는 유전 및 환경효과 추정)

  • Lee, Ill-Joo;Hong, Joon-Ki;Kim, Du-Wan;Sa, Soo-Jin;Kim, Young-Hwa;Cho, Kyu-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.347-351
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to estimate the effect of sex, breed and on the basis of the records on 300 pigs of Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds raised at the National Institute of Animal Science. Yorkshire was observed to be superior to other breeds between 90 to 110 kg of body weight. Thicker backfat was estimated in the B-mode than in A-mode of 110 kgs range than in 90 kgs. Loin eye muscle area was larger in the final weight of 110kg than in 90 and the Duroc had significantly (p<0.05) larger loin eye muscle area than other breeds. Thinner backfat was observed in males than in females in both modes of backfat measurements and in both of the final weights of test. Females had significantly larger loin eye muscle area than males, and the difference between the two sexes were larger in the final weight of 110 kg than in 90 kg. Analysis models concluded that backfat thickness certainly influences the body weight gain when at 90 kgs and 110 kgs analysed with A-mode and B-mode respectively.

Estimation of Farm-Scale and Environmental Effects for On-Farm Test Records (농장 검정돈의 규모 및 환경요인의 효과 추정)

  • Jo, Hwan;Kim, Byeong-Woo;Sun, Du-Won;Kim, Hyo-Sun;Park, Jae-Chan;Kim, Jae-Hoon;Park, Jong-Won;Lee, Jung-Gyu
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.33-42
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to estimate the effects of breed, sex, Farm-Scale and environment on average daily gain, age at 90kg, backfat thickness, eye muscle area and lean percent of pig. The total number of pig used in this study was 30,525 head consisted of 5,902 Landrace, 18,022 Yorkshire, and 6,601 Duroc on 2004 to 2008. The covariance used in the model to adjust age at the final test. The average daily gain, age at 90kg, and lean percent were significantly superior in medium Farm-Scale. However Backfat thickness and Eye muscle Area were significantly superior in small Farm-Scale. In conclusion this study suggest that breed, sex, test year, test season, Farm-Scale and environment may affect to average daily gain, age at 90kg, backfat thickness, eye muscle area and lean percent. The study about the Farm-Scale has to do continually more than now, and this study will be contributed to development of the pig industry.

Association Analyses with Carcass Traits in the Porcine KIAA1717 and HUMMLC2B Genes

  • Xu, D.Q.;Xiong, Y.Z.;Liu, M.;Lan, J.;Ling, X.F.;Deng, C.Y.;Jiang, S.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1519-1523
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    • 2005
  • By screening a subtracted cDNA library constructed with mRNA obtained from the longissimus dorsi muscles of F1 hybrids Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire and their Yorkshire female parents, we isolated two partial sequences coding for the H3-K4-specific methyltransferase (KIAA1717) and skeletal muscle myosin regulatory light chain (HUMMLC2B) genes. In the present work we investigated two SNPs, one (C1354T) at the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of KIAA1717 and one (A345G) at the SINE (PRE-1) element of HUMMLC2B, in a resource population derived from crossing Chinese Meishan and Large White pig. The selected pigs were genotyped by means of a PCR-RFLP protocol. Significant associations were observed for the KIAA1717 C1354T polymorphic site with thorax-waist backfat thickness (p<0.05), buttock backfat thickness (p<0.05), average backfat thickness (p<0.05), loin eye height (p<0.05), loin eye area (p<0.05), carcass length to 1$^{st}$ spondyle (p<0.01) and carcass length to 1st rib (p<0.01). HUMMLC2B A345G were significantly associated with loin eye width (p<0.05), loin eye area (p<0.05). Further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

Genetics of Residual Feed Intake in Cattle and Pigs: A Review

  • Hoque, M.A.;Suzuki, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.747-755
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    • 2009
  • The feed resource for animals is a major cost determinant for profitability in livestock production enterprises, and thus any effort at improving the efficiency of feed use will help to reduce feed cost. Feed conversion ratio, expressed as feed inputs per unit output, is a traditional measure of efficiency that has significant phenotypic and genetic correlations with feed intake and growth traits. The use of ratio traits for genetic selection may cause problems associated with prediction of change in the component traits in future generations. Residual feed intake, a linear index, is a trait derived from the difference between actual feed intake and that predicted on the basis of the requirements for maintenance of body weight and production. Considerable genetic variation exists in residual feed intake for cattle and pigs, which should respond to selection. Phenotypic independence of phenotypic residual feed intake with body weight and weight gain can be obligatory. Genetic residual feed intake is genetically independent of its component traits (body weight and weight gain). Genetic correlations of residual feed intake with daily feed intake and feed conversion efficiency have been strong and positive in both cattle and pigs. Residual feed intake is favorably genetically correlated with eye muscle area and carcass weight in cattle and with eye muscle area and backfat in pigs. Selection to reduce residual feed intake (excessive intake of feed) will improve the efficiency of feed and most of the economically important carcass traits in cattle and pigs. Therefore, residual feed intake can be used to replace traditional feed conversion ratio as a selection criterion of feed efficiency in breeding programs. However, further studies are required on the variation of residual feed intake during different developmental stage of production.

Research of Statistical Model for Genetic Evaluation of Hanwoo Carcass Traits (한우 도체형질의 유전능력평가를 위한 통계모형 탐색)

  • Koo, Yang-Mo;Kim, Si-Dong;Kim, Jung-Il;Song, Chi-Eun;Lee, Ki-Hwan;Jeoung, Yeoung-Ho;Lee, Jae-Youn;Jang, Hyun-Gi;Park, Byoung-Ho;Choi, Te-Jong;Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Soo;Lee, Jung-Gyu;Kim, Hyo-Sun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.283-288
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to study the environment effects on live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, eye muscle area, backfat thickness, and marbling score, which are the carcass traits of Hanwoo, based on the estimates and all the possible regression for the selection of variable and significance test for 231,382 heads that underwent the carcass measurements. The average and standard deviation for the live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, eye muscle area, backfat thickness, and marbling score were 654.79${\pm}$91.61 kg, 362.30${\pm}$67.15 kg, 59.52${\pm}$0.03%, 81.79${\pm}$12.21 $cm^2$, 11.39${\pm}$5.40 mm, 4.38${\pm}$2.29, respectively. The live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, eye muscle area, backfat thickness, and marbling score for cow were 532.79${\pm}$78.38 kg, 313.40${\pm}$44.90 kg, 56.50${\pm}$0.03%, 75.24${\pm}$10.69 $cm^2$, 11.82${\pm}$5.10 mm, 4.30${\pm}$2.06, respectively, while for bull were 619.74${\pm}$93.27 kg, 376.89${\pm}$48.62 kg, 58.61${\pm}$0.02%, 85.61${\pm}$10.46 $cm^2$, 5.64${\pm}$2.71 mm, 1.41${\pm}$0.83, respectively, and for steer were 681.78${\pm}$70.72 kg, 415.23${\pm}$49.43 kg, 60.19${\pm}$0.02%, 88.29${\pm}$10.27 $cm^2$, 12.71${\pm}$5.23 mm, 5.42${\pm}$1.99, respectively. In the environmental variables selection based on the variables selection method, the examination by carcass traits suggested that the most appropriate model could be determined when five variables were selected for the live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, eye muscle area, and four variables for backfat thickness, and marbling score. When they were considered at a time altogether based on multiple traits, it was deemed to be desirable to insert all five variables into the variables for analysis. In addition, high significance was found by carcass traits.