• Title, Summary, Keyword: Extruded Full Fat Soybean

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Treated Extruded Soybean Meal as a Source of Fat and Protein for Dairy Cows

  • Ure, A.L.;Dhiman, T.R.;Stern, M.D.;Olson, K.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.980-989
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    • 2005
  • The influence of treated, extruded, partially expelled soybean meals as undegradable protein and bypass fat sources on lactation performance and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows was studied. Experiment 1: nine cows were used in a replicated 3${\times}$3 Latin square design with each period being 3 wk in duration. Cows were fed 440 g/kg forage and 560 g/kg grain diet with one of three extruded soybean meals fed at 110 g/kg of the diet. The 3 soybean meals were 1) twice-extruded soybean meal (ESM; as a control); 2) lignosulfonate-treated, twice-extruded soybean meal (LSM); and 3) calcium oxide plus lignosulfonate-treated, twice extruded soybean meal (CLSM). Experiment 2: 3 ruminally cannulated cows were used in a 3${\times}$3 Latin square to study the treatment influence on ruminal fermentation characteristics. Feeding treated soybean meal to cows in LSM and CLSM treatments did not improve feed intake, milk yield, or milk composition except that cows fed the LSM and CLSM treatments produced less milk protein compared with the ESM treatment. The proportion of $C_{18:2}$ was greater in milk fat of cows fed CLSM compared with that of cows fed the ESM or LSM treatments. Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile fatty acids were not affected by treatment. An increased proportion of $C_{18:2}$ in milk fat suggests that there is a potential use of calcium salts of fatty acids in protecting the lipid portion of extruded soybean meal and further research is needed to explore this potential with full-fat extruded soybeans not with extruded and partially oil expelled soybeans.

Effects of Moist Extruded Full-fat Soybeans on Gut Morphology and Mucosal Cell Turnover Time of Weanling Pigs

  • Qiao, Shiyan;Li, Defa;Jiang, Jianyang;Zhou, Hongjie;Li, Jingsu;Thacker, P.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2003
  • Ten barrows, weaned at 28 days (7.2$\pm$0.1 kg BW), were used to evaluate the effects of feeding extruded full-fat soybeans on intestinal morphology and mucosal cell turnover time. All pigs were fed corn-based diets with half of the pigs receiving diets supplemented with 15.5% soybean meal and 3% soybean oil and the remaining pigs fed a diet in which the soybean meal and oil were replaced by 18.5% extruded full-fat soybeans. The pigs were individually placed in $80{\times}150cm$ metabolic cages and fed twice daily an amount approximately equal to their ad libitum intake for a period of 14 days. On day 14, pigs were weighed and then injected intraperitoneally with $^3$H]thymidine ($100{\mu}Ci/kg$ of BW, specific activity 20 Ci/mmol) 6 h after the morning meal. A pig from each treatment was killed 1, 4, 8, 16, or 24 h postinjection and intestinal tissues were collected. Daily gains for pigs fed the soybean diet and extruded full-fat soybean diet were 0.24 and 0.31 kg/day (p=0.05) with feed conversions of 1.58 and 1.39 (p=0.05), respectively. In comparison with pigs fed soybean meal, pigs fed moist extruded full-fat soybeans had a decreased crypt depth in their duodenum and cecum (p<0.1), while the villus height in the mid jejunum and ileum and the total height (villus height plus crypt depth) of the ileum and mid jejunum increased (p<0.05). The villus width in the duodenum and mid jejunum decreased (p<0.05). The number of crypt epithelial cells in the upper jejunum increased but decreased in the ileum, colon and cecum (p<0.05). The number of villus epithelial cells in the ileum and the upper and mid jejunum increased (p<0.05). The time for migration of epithelial cells in the crypt-villus column decreased (p<0.05) in all sites except the upper jejunum, ileum and cecum. The mucosal turnover rate for all intestinal sites except the upper jejunum, colon and cecum decreased (p<0.05). From these data, we conclude that inclusion of moist extruded full-fat soybeans in weanling pig diets can improve the intestinal morphology and slow the migration rate and turnover time of epithelial cells of the small intestine, especially in the mid jejunum compared with soybean meal.

THE UTILIZATION OF FULL FAT SOYBEAN FOR EGG PRODUCTION AND EGG QUALITY IN THE LAYING HENS

  • Han, I.K.;Choi, Y.J.;Chu, K.S.;Park, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 1988
  • To study the effects of utilizing extruded full fat soybean (FFS) in layer diets, 300 White Leghorn pullets were put in trial divided into 5 treatments; control (commercial soybean meal as protein source), FFS 50% (replacing 50% of soybean meal with FFS), FFS 100% (replacing all amount of soybean meal with FFS), soybean oil and tallow added treatment. Each treatment consisted of 5 replicates of 12 birds. Egg production and feed efficiency from hens fed control diet were significantly lower than from hens fed the other diets. Significant differences in egg production and feed efficiency were found between the control and the other treatments. Cholesterol concentration of serum and egg yolk were not affected by any dietary treatment. Feeding extruded full fat soybean did not cause pancreatic hypertrophy nor change in mortality. There was an indication that linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3) and iodine contents increased in the thigh and egg yolk lipid of the groups fed FFS or soybean soybean can serve as effective protein source for layer diets if economically justified.

Effects of L-Carnitine on the Nutritive Value of Extruded Full-Fat Soybean in Weaned Pigs

  • Piao, X.S.;Kim, J.H.;Jin, J.;Kim, J.D.;Lee, J.H.;Shin, I.S.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1263-1271
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    • 2000
  • A total of 80 piglets ($5.85{\pm}0.62kg$ BW; 21 d of age) were used to study the effect of carnitine addition to extruded full-fat soybean (EFS) diets on the growth of weaned pigs. Pigs were allotted into five treatments based on body weight, in a completely randomized block design. Each treatment has 4 replicates of 4 heads each. Treatments were 1) SBM (positive control), 2) EFS without carnitine (negative control), 3) EFS with 50 ppm carnitine, 4) EFS with 100 ppm carnitine and 5) EFS with 150 ppm carnitine. During d 0 to 14, piglets were fed diets containing 3,400 kcal ME, 23% crude protein, 1.65% lysine, 0.9% Ca and 0.8% P and for the period of d 15 to 28, piglets were fed diets supplying 3,300 kcal ME, 20% crude protein, 1.55% lysine, 0.9% Ca and 0.8% P. The urease activity of EFS (0.18) were three times higher than SBM (0.07). During d 0-14, pigs fed SBM had greater ADG and ADFI compared to pigs fed extruded full-fat soybean diets (p<0.05). Feed conversion ratio was not different among treatments. No linear or quadratic effect of carnitine addition was found in growth performance. During d 15-28, piglets fed SBM diet also showed better ADG and FCR with no significant differences among treatments. Feed intake tended to increase as carnitine addition level was increased (p=0.10). For overall period (d o to 28), the best performance was observed in pigs fed SBM diet. CP digestibility was higher in pigs fed SBM diet than piglets fed EFS diet at d 14, and DM and CP digestibility tended to be higher in pigs fed SBM diet at d 28. Blood metabolites (BUN, glucose and cholesterol)were not affected by treatments. In conclusion, based on the results of this study piglets at 21 d of age appeared to be not ready for extruded full-fat soybean (FFSB) in their diets. Piglets fed extruded FFSB showed decreased growth rate compared to piglets fed SBM diet. Nutrient utilization was also poor in piglets fed extruded FFSB diets. L-carnitine addition at the level of 50 to 150 ppm was not effective in improving the growth performance of pigs fed EFS diets.

Influence of Processing Method on Ileal Digestibility of Nutrients from Soybeans in Growing and Finishing Pigs

  • Kim, I.H.;Hancock, J.D.;Hines, R.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.192-199
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    • 2000
  • Eight crossbred barrows (four growing and four finishing pigs with average initial BW of 40 and 82 kg, respectively) were fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum and used in a 36 d metabolism experiment ($4{\times}4$ Latin squares) to determine the effects of roasting and extruding full-fat soybeans on nutrient utilization. Treatments were: 1) soybean meal; 2) roasted soybeans; 3) extruded soybeans; and 4) soybeans extruded with an extrusion enhancer (sodium sulfite). The control diet was corn starch-based with 0.90% lysine, 0.65% Ca and 0.55% P for the growing pigs and 0.75% lysine, 0.55% Ca and 0.45% P for the finishing pigs. For the growing pigs, apparent total tract digestibilities of DM (p<0.04) and GE (p<0.008) were greater for soybean meal than full-fat soy products. However, ileal digestibilities of DM, GE, N and most amino acids were, in general, greatest for extruded soybeans and lowest for roasted soybeans, with soybean meal intermediate. For finishing pigs, trends in digestibilities of nutrients were very similar to those for the growing pigs. Total tract digestibilities of DM (p<0.03) and GE (p<0.001) for soybean meal were greater than for the full-fat soy products and ileal digestibilities of DM, GE, N and most amino acids were greater for the extruded soybeans than for the roasted soybeans. In conclusion, nutrient digestibilities and availabilities of indispensable amino acids tended to be greatest in extruded soybeans, intermediate in soybean meal and lowest in roasted soybeans for growing and finishing pigs.

Evaluation of HP300 Soybean Protein in Starter pig Diets

  • Zhu, Xiaoping;Li, Defa;Qiao, Shiyan;Xiao, Changting;Qiao, Qingyan;Ji, Cheng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.201-207
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    • 1998
  • One growth trial and one digestibility trial were conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of HP300, a commercially processed soybean meal product for weanling pigs. Dried whey, fish meal and/or full fat extruded soybeans (FFES) as well as portions of soybean meal (SBM) were replaced with HP300 in weanling pig diets. The objectives were to investigate the effects of HP300 on growth performance, digestibility, ileal amino acid digestibility and blood amino acid concentration in weanling pigs. One hundred and twenty crossbred $(Duroc{\times}Beijing\;Black{\times}Landrace)$ pigs weaned at 28 days of age were used in the growth trial. The pigs were randomly allocated to five treatments, with three pens per treatment and eight pigs per pen. The trial duration was 28 days. The control (CTRL) diet contained no HP300; in treatments 2, 3 and 4, dried whey and fish meal were replaced by 3.0%, 7.5% and 10.5% HP300; in treatment 5, full fat extruded soybeans were replaced by 10.5% HP300 plus soybean oil to attain the same metabolic energy content as FFES. Five T-cannulated barrows were used in a digestibility trial with a $5{\times}5$ Latin square design to determine nitrogen retention and amino acid ileal digestibility of HP300 used alone or mixed with other ingredients. The results indicated that replacement of dried whey, fish meal, full fat extruded soybeans and a part of the soybean meal with HP300 in piglet diets improved average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (p < 0.05). There was a trend toward improved DM, crude protein and amino acid ileal digestibilities and improved protein and amino acid ileal digestibilities and improved protein net availability with the use of HP300 in swine diets.

UTILIZATION OF FULL FAT SOYBEAN IN POULTRY DIETS II. BROILER

  • Cheva-Isarakul, B.;Tangtaweewipat, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 1995
  • The efficient use as a protein source for poultry of full fat soybean (FFSB) treated under various processes, i. e. steaming under pressure 40 lbs/sq. inch for 5, 10 or 15 minutes or roasting in a baking oven at $180^{\circ}C$ for 20, 30 or 40 minutes or extruding was compared with that of soybean meal. Eight hundred straight run broiler chicks (AA 707) were randomly allotted into 8 treatments of 4 replicates, fed with, rations containing either kind of the above mentioned FFSB for 6 weeks (Wks 1-7). The protein content of the diets for chicks during 1-3, 3-6 and 6-7 weeks of age was 21, 19 and 17% respectively. The result revealed that steaming can destroy 76-92% of the trypsin inhibitor activity (TlA) in soybean, particularly that at 15 minutes, while roasting can get rid of only 13-28% TlA. Chicks fed roasted FFSB had an enlarged pancreas and showed inferior performances to the steaming and the extrusion products. Steaming should be at least 10-15 minutes in order to obtain the comparable performances to those of the extrusion or of the soybean meal. The extruded FFSB showed the best feed conversion ratio. This might be due to the very fine particle of the product.

Effects of Extruded Full Fat Soybean in Early-Weaned Piglets

  • Piao, X.S.;Kim, J.H.;Jin, J.;Kim, J.D.;Cho, W.T.;Shin, I.S.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.645-652
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    • 2000
  • A total of 80 piglets ($5.18{\pm}0.61kg$ of BW; 16 d of age) were fed experimental diets to evaluate the effect of extruded full-fat soybean (EFS) on the growth of eatly weaned pigs. Pigs were allotted into five treatments based on body weight, in a completely randomized block design. Each treatment has 4 replicates of 4 animals each. Treatments consisted of diets representing substitutional ratios of EFS for soybean meal. 1) 100:0 (SBM), 2) 75:25 (EFS 25), 3) 50:50 (EFS 50), 4) 25:75 (EFS 75) and 5) 0:100 (EFS 100). During phase I (d 0 to 7), piglets were fed diets containing 3,340 kcal ME, 26% crude protein, 1.85% lysine, 1.0% Ca and 0.9% P. For phase II (d 8 to 21), piglets were fed diets supplying 3,340 kcal ME, 23% crude protein, 1.65% lysine, 0.9% Ca and 0.8% P. Urease activity (pH rise) of EFS (0.18) was three times higher than that of SBM (0.06) indicating that processing conditions were not efficient enough to inactivate urease activity. During the first week postweaning, pigs fed SBM had significantly greater average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and better feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to pigs fed FFS diets. Linear negative effect on growth rate was found as the inclusion rate of FFS increased. During d 8 - 21 postweaning, piglets fed EFS 50 diet showed the best ADG and FCR despite no significant difference between treatment SBM and EFS 25 have been observed. Overall, piglets fed diets up to 50% FFS inclusion rate exhibited similar weight gain. Only piglets fed EFS 100 diet showed a significantly decreased growth rate. No other significant effect was found in feed intake and feed conversion ratio. At d 7, dry matter digestibility was higher in pigs fed SBM diet than piglets fed EFS 75 diet (p<0.05) and crude protein digestibility was higher in piglets fed SBM diet than piglets fed EFS 50, EFS 75 and EFS 100 (p<0.05). At d 21, no difference other than in phosphorus digestibility was detected. This indicates that piglets at 21 d postweaning are capable of utilizing nutrients from FFS. No treatment effects were detected in blood metabolites. The data suggests that piglets at 16 d of age are not sufficiently mature to use extruded FFS in their diets. Nevertheless, FFS seemed to be able to replace upto 50% of SBM in weaned piglet diet.

GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND AMINO ACID DIGESTIBILITIES AFFECTED BY VARIOUS PLANT PROTEIN SOURCES IN GROWING-FINISHING PIGS

  • Moon, H.K.;Kim, J.W.;Heo, K.N.;Kim, Y.H.;Kim, S.W.;Kwon, C.H.;Shin, I.S.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.537-546
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    • 1994
  • This experiment was carried out to compare the effects of six different plant protein sources such as soybean meal, extruded full-fat soybean, canola meal, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and perilla meal as a sole protein source of diets on growth performance and amino acid bioavailabilities in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 54 pigs with average 25 kg of body weight were used as experimental subjects for a 65-d feeding trial. Digestion trial was carried out with seven ileal-cannulated pigs. The most rapid rate of weight gain was observed in pigs fed soybean meal and full-fat soybean, the moderate one in pigs fed canola meal and cottonseed meal and the least one in pigs fed rapeseed meal and perilla meal (p<0.005). Feed efficiency was better for groups fed soybean meal and full-fat soybean than other protein meals (p<0.05). The apparent ileal digestibilities of essential amino acids of soybean meal and full-fat soybean (82.5% and 81.6%) were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of other protein sources (61.2 to 69.4%). Regardless of protein sources, the apparent ileal digestibility of arginine was highest, whereas that of histidine was lowest among essential amino acids. Proline had the lowest digestibility among non-essential amino acids. True amino acid digestibilities tended to be higher than apparent amino acid digestibilities. The differences between true and apparent ileal digestibilities were greater in canola meal, rapeseed meal or cottonseed meal than other protein sources. The differences was greatest in praline except for cottonseed meal. The fecal digestibility appeared to be higher than the ileal digestibility. The differences between fecal and ileal digestibilities were greater in canola meal, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and perilla meal than in soybean meal and full-fat soybean. In general, praline was the most disappeared amino acid in the hind gut, while the net synthesis of lysine in the large intestine was observed in all protein sources except perilla meal. It is appropriate that swine feeds should be formulated based on true ileal amino acid digestibility of protein sources for pig's normal growth.

Influence of Supplementing Dairy Cows Grazing on Pasture with Feeds Rich in Linoleic Acid on Milk Fat Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Content

  • Khanal, R.C.;Dhiman, T.R.;Boman, R.L.;McMahon, D.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.1374-1388
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    • 2007
  • Three experiments were conducted to investigate the hypothesis that cows grazing on pasture produce the highest proportion of c-9 t-11 CLA in milk fat and no further increase can be achieved through supplementation of diets rich in linoleic acid, such as full-fat extruded soybeans or soybean oil. In experiment 1, 18 lactating Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design with measurements made from wk 4 to 6 of the experiment. In experiment 2, three cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a $3{\times}3$ Latin square design. Each period was 4 wk with measurements made in the final wk of each period. Cows in both experiments were assigned at random to treatments: a, conventional total mixed ration (TMR); b, pasture (PS); or c, PS supplemented with 2.5 kg/cow per day of full-fat extruded soybeans (PES). In both experiments, feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and fatty acid profile of milk and blood serum were measured, along with fatty acid composition of bacteria harvested from rumen digesta in experiment 2. In experiment 3, 10 cows which had continuously grazed a pasture for six weeks were assigned to two groups, with one group (n = 5) on pasture diet alone (PS) and the other group (n = 5) supplemented with 452 g of soy oil/cow per day for 7 d (OIL). In experiment 1, cows in PS treatment produced 350% more c-9, t-11 CLA compared with cows in TMR treatment (1.70 vs. 0.5% of fat), with no further increase for cows in PES treatment (1.50% of fat). Serum c-9, t-11 CLA increased by 233% in PS treatment compared with TMR treatment (0.21 vs. 0.09% of fat) with no further increase for cows in PES treatment (0.18% of fat). In experiment 2, cows in PS treatment produced 300% more c-9 t-11 CLA in their milk fat compared with cows in TMR treatment (1.77 vs. 0.59% of fat), but no further increase for cows in PES treatment (1.84% of fat) was observed. Serum c-9, t-11 CLA increased by 250% for cows in PS treatment compared with cows in TMR treatment (0.27 vs. 0.11% of fat), with no further increase for cows in PES treatment (0.31% of fat). The c-9, t-11 CLA content of ruminal bacteria for cows in PS treatment was 200% or more of TMR treatment, but no further increase in bacterial c-9, t-11 CLA for cows in PES treatment was observed. Supplementation of soy oil in experiment 3 also did not increase the c-9 t-11 CLA content of milk fat compared with cows fed a full pasture diet (1.60 vs. 1.54% of fat). Based on these findings, it was concluded that supplementing with feeds rich in linoleic acid, such as full-fat extruded soybeans or an equivalent amount of soy oil, to cows grazing perennial ryegrass pasture may not increase milk fat c-9 t-11 CLA contents.