• Title, Summary, Keyword: External dose estimate

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Characteristics of Internal and External Exposure of Radon and Thoron in Process Handling Monazite (모나자이트 취급공정에서의 라돈 및 토론 노출 특성)

  • Chung, Eun Kyo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.167-175
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate airborne radon and thoron levels and estimate the effective doses of workers who made household goods and mattresses using monazite. Methods: Airborne radon and thoron concentrations were measured using continuous monitors (Rad7, Durridge Company Inc., USA). Radon and thoron concentrations in the air were converted to radon doses using the dose conversion factor recommended by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission in Korea. External exposure to gamma rays was measured at the chest height of a worker from the source using real-time radiation instruments, a survey meter (RadiagemTM 2000, Canberra Industries, Inc., USA), and an ion chamber (OD-01 Hx, STEP Co., Germany). Results: When using monazite, the average concentration range of radon was $13.1-97.8Bq/m^3$ and thoron was $210.1-841.4Bq/m^3$. When monazite was not used, the average concentration range of radon was $2.6-10.8Bq/m^3$ and the maximum was $1.7-66.2Bq/m^3$. Since monazite has a higher content of thorium than uranium, the effects of thoron should be considered. The effective doses of radon and thoron as calculated by the dose conversion factor based on ICRP 115 were 0.26 mSv/yr and 0.76 mSv/yr, respectively, at their maximum values. The external radiation dose rate was $6.7{\mu}Sv/hr$ at chest height and the effective dose was 4.3 mSv/yr at the maximum. Conclusions: Regardless of the use of monazite, the total annual effective doses due to internal and external exposure were 0.03-4.42 mSv/yr. Exposures to levels higher than this value are indicated if dose conversion factors based on the recently published ICRP 137 are applied.

Are Medical Personnel Safe from Radiation Exposure from Patient Receiving Radioiodine Ablation Therapy? (갑상선 암의 방사성요오드 치료 시 의료진은 방사선 피폭으로부터 안전한가?)

  • Kim, Chang-Guhn;Kim, Dae-Weung
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.259-279
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    • 2009
  • Radioiodine ablation therapy has been considered to be a standard treatment for patient with differentiated thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy. Patients may need to be hospitalized to reduce radiation exposure of other people and relatives from radioactive patients receiving radioiodine therapy. Medical staffs, nursing staffs and technologists sometimes hesitate to contact patients in radioiodine therapy ward. The purpose of this paper is to introduce radiation dosimetry, estimate radiation dose from patients and emphasize the safety of radiation exposure from patients treated with high dose radioiodine in therapy ward. The major component of radiation dose from patient is external exposure. However external radiation dose from these patients treated with typical therapeutic dose of 4 to 8 GBq have a very low risk of cancer induction compared with other various risks occurring in daily life. The typical annual radiation dose without shielding received by patient is estimated to be 5 to 10 mSv, which is comparable with 100 to 200 times effective dose received by chest PA examination. Therefore, when we should keep in mind the general principle of radiation protection, the risks of radiation exposure from patients are low and the medical personnel are considered to be safe from radiation exposure.

Organ Dose Conversion Coefficients Calculated for Korean Pediatric and Adult Voxel Phantoms Exposed to External Photon Fields

  • Lee, Choonsik;Yeom, Yeon Soo;Griffin, Keith;Lee, Choonik;Lee, Ae-Kyoung;Choi, Hyung-do
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 2020
  • Background: Dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) have been commonly used to estimate radiation-dose absorption by human organs based on physical measurements of fluence or kerma. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has reported a library of DCCs, but few studies have been conducted on their applicability to non-Caucasian populations. In the present study, we collected a total of 8 Korean pediatric and adult voxel phantoms to calculate the organ DCCs for idealized external photon-irradiation geometries. Materials and Methods: We adopted one pediatric female phantom (ETRI Child), two adult female phantoms (KORWOMAN and HDRK Female), and five adult male phantoms (KORMAN, ETRI Man, KTMAN1, KTMAN2, and HDRK Man). A general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX2.7 (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport extended version 2.7), was employed to calculate the DCCs for 13 major radiosensitive organs in six irradiation geometries (anteroposterior, posteroanterior, right lateral, left lateral, rotational, and isotropic) and 33 photon energy bins (0.01-20 MeV). Results and Discussion: The DCCs for major radiosensitive organs (e.g., lungs and colon) in anteroposterior geometry agreed reasonably well across the 8 Korean phantoms, whereas those for deep-seated organs (e.g., gonads) varied significantly. The DCCs of the child phantom were greater than those of the adult phantoms. A comparison with the ICRP Publication 116 data showed reasonable agreements with the Korean phantom-based data. The variations in organ DCCs were well explained using the distribution of organ depths from the phantom surface. Conclusion: A library of dose conversion coefficients for major radiosensitive organs in a series of pediatric and adult Korean voxel phantoms was established and compared with the reference data from the ICRP. This comparison showed that our Korean phantom-based data agrees reasonably with the ICRP reference data.

Bladder And Rectum Dose Define 3D Treatment Planning for Cervix Cancer Brachtherapy Comparison of Dose-Volume Histograms for Organ Contour and Organ Wall Contour (자궁경부암의 고선량률 근접치료시 장기묘사 방법에 따른 직장과 방광의 선량비교 분석)

  • Kim, Jong-Won;Kim, Dae-Hyun;Choi, Joon-Yong;Won, Yeong-Jin
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.327-333
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: To analyze the correlation between dose volume histograms(DVH) based on organ outer wall contour and organ wall delineation for bladder and rectum, and to compare the doses to these organs with the absorbed doses at the bladder and rectum. Material and methods: Individual CT based brachytherapy treatment planning was performed in 13 patients with cervical cancer as part of a prospective comparative trial. The external contours and the organ walls were delineated for the bladder and rectum in order to compute the corresponding dose volume histograms. The minimum dose in 0.1 $cm^3$, 1 $cm^3$, 2 $cm^3$, 5 $cm^3$, 10 $cm^3$ volumes receiving the highest dose were compared with the absorbed dose at the rectum and bladder reference point. Results: The bladder and rectal doses derived from organ outer wall contour and computed for volumes of 2 $cm^3$, provided a good estimate for the doses computed for the organ wall contour only. This correspondence was no longer true when large volumes were considered. Conclusion: For clinical applications, when volumes smaller than 5 $cm^2$ are considered, the dose-volume histograms computed from external organ contours for the bladder and rectum can be used instead of dose -volume histograms computed for the organ walls only. External organ contours are indeed easier to obtain. The dose at the ICRU rectum reference point provides a good estimate of the rectal dose computed for volumes smaller than 2 $cm^2$ only for a midline position of the rectum. The ICRU bladder reference point provides a good estimate of the dose computed for the bladder wall only in cases of appropriate balloon position.

Application of the Detection of External Contamination on Radiation Workers for Bed Type Whole Body Counting Using Monte Carlo Method (몬테카를로 방법을 적용한 bed type 전신계측기의 방사선작업종사자 외부오염 검출 응용)

  • Kim, Jeong-In;Lee, Byoung-Il
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.242-245
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    • 2013
  • Monte Carlo method was applied to discriminate the external contamination on radiation workers in nuclear power plants for internal dose assessment generally used with a bed type scanning detector whole body counter. Korean voxel model with internal contamination was used to estimate the detection patterns of whole body scanning. Also, the BOMAB model with various external contamination was assumed to compare with detection of radionuclides inside the human body. From the comparison of detection efficiency between front and back side up, external contamination was easily distinguished.

A Study on the Verification and Improvement to Locate and Determine the Radioactive Contamination Using a Whole Body Counter (전신계측기를 이용한 원전종사자 방사성오염 위치확인과 내부방사능 측정개선에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hee-Geun;Kong, Tae-Young
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 2009
  • Whole body counters (WBCs) are used to monitor radiation workers for internal contamination of radionuclides at domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs). A WBC is a scintillation detector using sodium iodide (NaI) and provides the identification of inhaled radionuclide and the measurement of its internal radioactivity in a short time. However, it is often possible to estimate external contamination as internal contamination due to radionuclides attached to the skin of radiation workers and this leads to an excessively conservative estimation of radioactive contamination. In this study, several experiments using a WBC and the Korean humanoid phantom were performed to suggest the more systematic method of discrimination between external and internal contamination. Furthermore, a WBC geometry experiment was conducted to suggest the optimal WBC geometry in consideration of deposited areas inside the body for dominant radionuclides at NPPs. The procedure of measurement and estimation of internal radioactivity for radiation workers at NPPs was improved on the basis of experimental results. Thus, it is expected to prevent from estimating internal exposure dose conservatively owing to the application of accurate whole body counting program to NPPs.

AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO RISK-BASED POST-CLOSURE SAFETY EVALUATION OF COMPLEX RADIATION EXPOSURE SITUATIONS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL

  • Seo, Eun-Jin;Jeong, Chan-Woo;Sato, Seichi
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.6-11
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    • 2010
  • Embodying the safety of radioactive waste disposal requires the relevant safety criteria and the corresponding stylized methods to demonstrate its compliance with the criteria. This paper proposes a conceptual model of risk-based safety evaluation for integrating complex potential radiation exposure situations in radioactive waste disposal. For demonstrating compliance with a risk constraint, the approach deals with important exposure scenarios from the viewpoint of the receptor to estimate the resulting risk. For respective exposure situations, it considers the occurrence probabilities of the relevant exposure scenarios as their probability of giving rise to doses to estimate the total risk to a representative person by aggregating the respective risks. In this model, an exposure scenario is simply constructed with three components:radionuclide release, radionuclide migration and environment contamination, and interaction between the contaminated media and the receptor. A set of exposure scenarios and the representative person are established from reasonable combinations of the components, based on a balance of their occurrence probabilities and the consequences. In addition, the probability of an exposure scenario is estimated on the assumption that the initiating external factors influence release mechanisms and transport pathways, and its effect on the interaction between the environment and the receptor may be covered in terms of the representative person. This integrated approach enables a systematic risk assessment for complex exposure situations of radioactive waste disposal and facilitates the evaluation of compliance with risk constraints.

Development for Improvement Methodology of Radiation Shielding Evaluation Efficiency about PWR SNF Interim Storage Facility (PWR 사용후핵연료 중간저장시설의 몬테칼로 차폐해석 방법에 대한 계산효율성 개선방안 연구)

  • Kim, Taeman;Seo, Myungwhan;Cho, Chunhyung;Cha, Gilyong;Kim, Soonyoung
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.92-100
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    • 2015
  • For the purpose of improving the efficiency of the radiation impact assessment of dry interim storage facilities for the spent nuclear fuel of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), radiation impact assessment was performed after the application of sensitivity assessment according to the radiation source term designation method, development of a 2-step calculation technique, and cooling time credit. The present study successively designated radiation source terms in accordance with the cask arrangement order in the shielding building, assessed sensitivity, which affects direct dose, and confirmed that the radiation dosage of the external walls of the shielding building was dominantly affected by the two columns closest to the internal walls. In addition, in the case in which shielding buildings were introduced into storage facilities, the present study established and assessed the 2-step calculation technique, which can reduce the immense computational analysis time. Consequently, results similar to those from existing calculations were derived in approximately half the analysis time. Finally, when radiation source terms were established by adding the storage period of the storage casks successively stored in the storage facilities and the cooling period of the spent nuclear fuel, the radiation dose of the external walls of the buildings was confirmed to be approximately 40% lower than the calculated values; the cooling period was established as being identical. The present study was conducted to improve the efficiency of the Monte Carlo shielding analysis method for radiation impact assessment of interim storage facilities. If reliability is improved through the assessment of more diverse cases, the results of the present study can be used for the design of storage facilities and the establishment of site boundary standards.

Development of a Monte Carlo Simulation Code (CALEFF) for Calibrating Thyroid Internal Dose Measurement and Detection Efficiency Calculation (갑상선 내부피폭선량 측정치 보정을 위한 몬테카를로 모의실험 코드 (CALEFF) 개발 및 검출효율 계산)

  • Ahn, Ki-Soo;Cho1, Hyo-Sung
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.117-122
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    • 2005
  • According to the Para. 5 of Art 2 of the Korean Nuclear Safety Regulations, which was revised in 1999, internal dose assessment as well as external one should be performed by law for employees at a nuclear power plant from 2003, and their estimate errors should also be within 50%. Thus, more accurate internal dosimetry becomes important. Corresponding to such regulation revision, we are developing a more accurate thyroid-uptake internal dosimetric system and have developed a Monte Carlo simulation code, the so-called CALEFF, to calculate the detection efficiency of the dosimetric system. In this paper, we calculated detection efficiencies with various test conditions by using the CALEFF code and discussed their characteristics. We may use the detection efficiency calculated by the code in calibrating the thyroid internal dose from measured data.

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Optimum Radiotherapy Schedule for Uterine Cervical Cancer based-on the Detailed Information of Dose Fractionation and Radiotherapy Technique (처방선량 및 치료기법별 치료성적 분석 결과에 기반한 자궁경부암 환자의 최적 방사선치료 스케줄)

  • Cho, Jae-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Chang;Suh, Chang-Ok;Lee, Chang-Geol;Keum, Ki-Chang;Cho, Nam-Hoon;Lee, Ik-Jae;Shim, Su-Jung;Suh, Yang-Kwon;Seong, Jinsil;Kim, Gwi-Eon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.143-156
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    • 2005
  • Background: The best dose-fractionation regimen of the definitive radiotherapy for cervix cancer remains to be clearly determined. It seems to be partially attributed to the complexity of the affecting factors and the lack of detailed information on external and intra-cavitary fractionation. To find optimal practice guidelines, our experiences of the combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) were reviewed with detailed information of the various treatment parameters obtained from a large cohort of women treated homogeneously at a single institute. Materials and Methods: The subjects were 743 cervical cancer patients (Stage IB 198, IIA 77, IIB 364, IIIA 7, IIIB 89 and IVA 8) treated by radiotherapy alone, between 1990 and 1996. A total external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) dose of $23.4\~59.4$ Gy (Median 45.0) was delivered to the whole pelvis. High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-IBT) was also peformed using various fractionation schemes. A Midline block (MLB) was initiated after the delivery of $14.4\~43.2$ Gy (Median 36.0) of EBRT in 495 patients, while In the other 248 patients EBRT could not be used due to slow tumor regression or the huge initial bulk of tumor. The point A, actual bladder & rectal doses were individually assessed in all patients. The biologically effective dose (BED) to the tumor ($\alpha/\beta$=10) and late-responding tissues ($\alpha/\beta$=3) for both EBRT and HDR-ICBT were calculated. The total BED values to point A, the actual bladder and rectal reference points were the summation of the EBRT and HDR-ICBT. In addition to all the details on dose-fractionation, the other factors (i.e. the overall treatment time, physicians preference) that can affect the schedule of the definitive radiotherapy were also thoroughly analyzed. The association between MD-BED $Gy_3$ and the risk of complication was assessed using serial multiple logistic regression models. The associations between R-BED $Gy_3$ and rectal complications and between V-BED $Gy_3$ and bladder complications were assessed using multiple logistic regression models after adjustment for age, stage, tumor size and treatment duration. Serial Coxs proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the relative risks of recurrence due to MD-BED $Gy_{10}$, and the treatment duration. Results: The overall complication rate for RTOG Grades $1\~4$ toxicities was $33.1\%$. The 5-year actuarial pelvic control rate for ail 743 patients was $83\%$. The midline cumulative BED dose, which is the sum of external midline BED and HDR-ICBT point A BED, ranged from 62.0 to 121.9 $Gy_{10}$ (median 93.0) for tumors and from 93.6 to 187.3 $Gy_3$ (median 137.6) for late responding tissues. The median cumulative values of actual rectal (R-BED $Gy_3$) and bladder Point BED (V-BED $Gy_3$) were 118.7 $Gy_3$ (range $48.8\~265.2$) and 126.1 $Gy_3$ (range: $54.9\~267.5$), respectively. MD-BED $Gy_3$ showed a good correlation with rectal (p=0.003), but not with bladder complications (p=0.095). R-BED $Gy_3$ had a very strong association (p=<0.0001), and was more predictive of rectal complications than A-BED $Gy_3$. B-BED $Gy_3$ also showed significance in the prediction of bladder complications in a trend test (p=0.0298). No statistically significant dose-response relationship for pelvic control was observed. The Sandwich and Continuous techniques, which differ according to when the ICR was inserted during the EBRT and due to the physicians preference, showed no differences in the local control and complication rates; there were also no differences in the 3 vs. 5 Gy fraction size of HDR-ICBT. Conclusion: The main reasons optimal dose-fractionation guidelines are not easily established is due to the absence of a dose-response relationship for tumor control as a result of the high-dose gradient of HDR-ICBT, individual differences In tumor responses to radiation therapy and the complexity of affecting factors. Therefore, in our opinion, there is a necessity for individualized tailored therapy, along with general guidelines, in the definitive radiation treatment for cervix cancer. This study also demonstrated the strong predictive value of actual rectal and bladder reference dosing therefore, vaginal gauze packing might be very Important. To maintain the BED dose to less than the threshold resulting in complication, early midline shielding, the HDR-ICBT total dose and fractional dose reduction should be considered.