• Title, Summary, Keyword: Extended defect

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Oxygen Plasma Effect on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs Structure Grown on Si Substrate

  • Seo, Dong Hyeok;Kang, Sung Min;Lee, Dong Wha;Ahn, Du Jin;Park, Hee Bin;Ahn, Youn Jun;Kim, Min Soo;Kim, Yu Kyeong;Lee, Ho Jae;Song, Dong Hun;Kim, Jae Hee;Bae, Jin Su;Cho, Hoon Young
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.420-420
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    • 2013
  • We investigated oxygen plasma effect on defect states near the interface of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) structure grown on a silicon substrate. After the plasma treatment, electrical properties were evaluated using a frequency dependant Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) and a temperature dependant C-V measurements, and a deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) method to study the change of defect densities. In the depth profile resulted from the temperature dependant C-V, a sudden decrease in the carrier concentration for two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) nearby 250 K was observed. In C-V measurement, the interface states were improved in case of the oxygen-plasma treated samples, whereas the interface was degraded in case of the nitrogen-plasma treated sample. In the DLTS measurement, it was observed the two kinds of defects well known in AlGaN/GaN structure grown on sapphire substrate, which have the activation energies of 0.15 eV, 0.25 eV below the conduction band. We speculate that this defect state in AlGaN/GaN on the silicon substrate is caused from the decrease in 2DEG's carrier concentrations. We compared the various DLTS signals with filling pulse times to identify the characteristics of the newly found defect. In the filling pulse time range under the 80 us, the activation energies changed as the potential barrier model. On the other hand, in the filling pulse time range above the 80 us, the activation energies changed as the extended potential model. Therefore, we suggest that the found defect in the AlGaN/GaN/Si structure could be the extended defect related with AlGa/N/GaN interface states.

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Electrical Properties and Defect Types of Nb-doped $TiO_2$ (Nb를 첨가한 $TiO_2$ 의 전기적 성질 및 결함형태)

  • 이순일;백승봉;김명호
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.36 no.12
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    • pp.1335-1341
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    • 1999
  • The electrical conductivity ($\sigma$) of TiO2 doped with 0.05-4.0mol% Nb2O5 was measured in the oxygen partial pressure range of 10-17 to 100 atm and temperature range of 1100 to 130$0^{\circ}C$ to investigate the electrical properties and defect types. The oxygen partial pressure dependence of the electrical conductivity (log$\sigma$/logPo2) above 110$0^{\circ}C$ was divided into the four regions. From these experimental results the following defect regions were proposed ; 1) Magneli phase(extended defect) 2) reduced rutile region where intrinsic defect predominates 3) nearly stoichiometric region which is independent on the oxygen partical pressure and 4) overstoichiometric region which is not observed in pure TiO2 The electrical conductivity of Nb-doped TiO2 depended on the doping content the oxygen partial pressure and the measuring tem-perature.

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Direct Aspergillosis Invasion to the Anterior Wall of the Maxillary Sinus: A Case Report (협부 연부조직을 직접 침습한 상악동 아스페르길루스증)

  • Lee, Jung-Ho;Lee, So-Young;Oh, Deuk-Young;Kim, Sang-Wha;Rhie, Jong-Won;Ahn, Sang-Tae
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.691-694
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: With an increase in the population of immunocompromised patients, the incidence of maxillary sinus aspergillus infection has also escalated. Maxillary sinus aspergillosis is generally extended to the sinus antrum, base or thin orbital wall and ethmoid air cell region. We experienced a case of maxillary sinus aspergillosis which was extended directly to the soft tissue of the cheek. Methods: A 46-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukemia was consulted for the defect of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus, and cheek. Radiologic and histologic findings were consistent with invasive maxillary sinus aspergillosis. The otolaryngology department performed debridement via endoscopic sinus surgery first. Coverage of the resulting defect in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus and its inner layer was undergone by the plastic and reconstructive surgery department, using a pedicled superficial temporal fascia flap and a split thickness skin graft. The remaining skin defect of the cheek was covered with a local skin flap. Results: The patient went through an uneventful recovery. There was no recurrence during 6 months of follow-up. Conclusion: Maxillary sinus aspergillosis usually involves the orbit or the gingiva but in some cases it may directly invade soft tissues of the cheek. Such an atypical infection extending into the cheek may lead to a large soft tissue defect requiring coverage. Thus, any undiagnosed soft tissue defect involving the cheek or maxillofacial area, especially in immunocompromised patients, should be evaluated for aspergillosis. We present this rare case, with a review of the related literature.

Thermal Properties of Diamond Films Deposited by Chemical Vapor Depositon

  • Chae, Hee-Baik;Baik, Young-Joon
    • The Korean Journal of Ceramics
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.29-33
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    • 1997
  • Four diamond films were deposited by the microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition method varying CH4 concentration from 2.5 to 10% in the feeding gases. Thermal conductivity was measured on these free standing films by the steady state method from 80 K to 400K. They showed higher thermal conductivity as the film deposited with lower methane concentration. One exception, 7.79% methane concentration deposited film, was observed to be the highest thermal conductivity. Phonon scattering processes were considered to analyze the thermal conductivity with the full Callaway model. The grain size and the concentration of the extended and the point defects were used as the fitting parameters. Microstructure of diamond films was investigated with the scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

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Suggestion of the defect score and condition grading protocol about sewer pipe (하수관로 결함 점수 및 상태 등급 판정 방법 제안)

  • Kim, Jungruyl;Lee, Jaehyun;Oh, Jeill
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.21-28
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    • 2017
  • This study was performed to propose the sewer defect scoring, and grading protocols for sewer condition assessment. For this, sewer defect scoring methods were comparatively analyzed and reviewed for four international condition assessment protocols, which are established based on WRc manual. As a result, we proposed a new protocol for sewer condition assessment, in which characteristics of sewer pipes are considered by segment. In reference to the PIM-3, the extent of ground subsidence was adopted to be of importance, and renewal scores increased in accordance with weighting of defects causing structural backfill materials. Also, defect grades of 'Hole' were extended to 5 levels of the grading, and 'Surface Damage' was excluded in defect assessment. The addition of 'Buckling' resulted in reduction of weights in 'Surface Damage' and 'Lining Defects'.

Tetralogy of Fallot with Subpulmonary Ventricular Septal Defect: A Case Report (Subpulmonary VSD 를 동반한 활로 4증: 수술 치험 1례 보고)

  • 우종수
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.175-180
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    • 1978
  • A rare form of tetralogy of Fallot, in which large ventricular septal defect was located at subpulmonary position rather than beneath a well developed crista supraventricularis was operated in this Department. This case satisfied the criteria for the diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot, having large ventricular septal defect beneath the aortic valve with overriding of aorta, pulmonary stenosis and right ventricular hypeFtrophy. The operation was done through a median sternotomy using cardiopulmonary bypass. A vertical right ventriculotomy was extended to the pulmonary valve ring. Pulmonary and aortic valve were adjacent to each other, in contrast to the situation of classic tetralogy of Fallot. Pulmonary valvulotomy was done and ventricular septal defect was closed. with Teflon, and right ventricular outflow tract was reconstructed with woven Dacron covered by pericardial patch after minimal resection of septal band. The post-operatiove courses was uneventful except wound infection. The patient was discharged 15 days after open heart surgery.

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ON THE DEFECTS OF HOLOMORPHIC CURVES

  • Yang, Liu;Zhu, Ting
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.57 no.5
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    • pp.1195-1204
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    • 2020
  • In this paper we consider the holomorphic curves (or derived holomorphic curves introduced by Toda in [15]) with maximal defect sum in the complex plane. Some well-known theorems on meromorphic functions of finite order with maximal sum of defects are extended to holomorphic curves in projective space.

Aorticopulmonary Window: one case report (대동맥중격결손증[수술치험 1예])

  • 최영호
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.302-306
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    • 1981
  • Aorticopulmonary window is a rare anomaly among congenital heart disease. Various terms have been suggested including A-P window, A-P fenestration, fistula, aorticseptal defect etc. The defect lies usually between the left side of the ascending aorta and right wall of the pulmonary artery just anterior to the origin of the right main pulmonary artery. We have experienced one case of aorticopulmonary septal defect which was diagnosed as V5D with pulmonary hypertension in 1 4/12 year old, 7.2 Kg, male patient. Operation was done under the hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass using 5t. Thomas cardioplegic solution. Vertical right ventriculotomy over the anterior wall of RVOT revealed no defect in the ventricular septum, and incision was extended up to the main pulmonary artery to find the source of massive regurgitation of blood through MPA. Finger tip compression of the aorticopulmanary window was replaced with Foley bag catheter balloon, and the $7{\times}10$ mm aorticoseptal defect located 15mm above the pulmonic valve was sutured continuously wih 3-0 nylon suture during azygos flow of cardiopulmonary cannula which was located distal to the window resulted massive air pumping systemically, and temporary reversal of pumping was tried to minimize cerebral air embolism. Remained procedure was done as usual, and pump off was smooth and uneventful. Postoperatively, patient was attacked frequent opistotonic seizure with no recovery sign mentally and p.hysically. Vital signs were gradually worsen with peripheral cyanosis and oliguria, and cardiac activity was arrested 1485 minutes after operation. Autopsy was performed to find the sutured window and massive edema of the brain.

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Transposition Lateral Arm Flap for Coverage of the Elbow Defects (전이형 외측 상완 피판술을 이용한 주관절 연부조직 결손의 피복)

  • Song, Joo-Hyoun;Lee, Yoon-Min;Lee, Joo-Yup
    • Archives of Reconstructive Microsurgery
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.82-86
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Soft tissue defect can occur on the posterior aspect of the elbow after trauma or fracture fixation. To cover the defect and maintain elbow functions, various flap surgeries including latissimus dorsi muscle flap, lateral arm flap and radial forearm flap can be performed. We present the clinical results of transposition lateral arm flap for coverage of the elbow defect and discuss the cause of posterior soft tissue necrosis after fracture fixation. Materials and Methods: Two patients who had posterior soft tissue defect of the elbow after open reduction of the fractures around the elbow were treated with transposition lateral arm flap. The mean size of skin defect was 20 $cm^2$. The flap was elevated with posterior radial collateral artery pedicle and transposed to the defect area. Donor defect was covered with split thickness skin graft. The elbow was immobilized for 1 week in extended position and active range of motion was permitted. Results: All two cases of transposition lateral arm flap survived without marginal necrosis. The average range of motion of the elbow was 10~115 degrees. Mayo elbow performance score was 72 and Korean DASH score was 23. Conclusion: When elbow fractures are fixed with three simultaneous plates and screws, skin necrosis can occur on the posterior aspect of the elbow around olecranon area. If the size of skin defect is relatively small, transposition lateral arm flap is very useful option for orthopaedic surgeons without microsurgical technique.

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Effect of Boundary Conditions of Failure Pressure Models on Reliability Estimation of Buried Pipelines

  • Lee, Ouk-Sub;Pyun, Jang-Sik;Kim, Dong-Hyeok
    • International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing
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    • v.4 no.6
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    • pp.12-19
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    • 2003
  • This paper presents the effect of boundary conditions in various failure pressure models published for the estimation of failure pressure. Furthermore, this approach is extended to the failure prediction with the aid of a failure probability model. The first order Taylor series expansion of the limit state function is used in order to estimate the probability of failure associated with each corrosion defect in buried pipelines for long exposure period with unit of years. A failure probability model based on the von-Mises failure criterion is adapted. The log-normal and standard normal probability functions for varying random variables are adapted. The effects of random variables such as defect depth, pipe diameter, defect length, fluid pressure, corrosion rate, material yield stress, material ultimate tensile strength and pipe thickness on the failure probability of the buried pipelines are systematically investigated for the corrosion pipeline by using an adapted failure probability model and varying failure pressure model.