• Title, Summary, Keyword: Exploration

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Screening of Disease Resistance of Introduced Lettuce Cultivars from Overseas to Fusarium Wilt(Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae) (상추 국외 도입 유전자원의 시들음병 저항성 검정)

  • Jeon, Young-Ah;Rhee, Ju-Hee;Lee, Jae-Eun;Sung, Jung-Sook;Hur, On-sook;Ro, Na-young;Lee, Sok-Young;Lee, Ho-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.197-204
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to get information of Fusarium wilt resistance for introduced lettuce cultivars from 12 countries. 111 developed cultivars introduced from 12 countries showed intense and broad resistance symptom. The withered rates of the 111 accessions widely ranged from 0(no symptom) to 4(completely died caused by Fusarium wilt) index. The average of pathogenicity of all evaluated accessions was $2.6{\pm}0.19$. Among them, 7 accessions including IT 294125 showed strong resistance(100 percent survival from Fusarium wilt) and 16 accessions including IT 289569, showed high level of resistance that is higher than 80% of 0 level and lower than 20 % of 3 or 4 level to young plants evaluated. Among the 16 accessions, 11 accessions were developed from U.S.A, 4 accessions from Turkey, and 1 from China. The 16 accessions consisted of 8 crisphead, 5 leaf lettuce, 2 romain type, and 1 stem type. As a result, 16 accessions which showed high level of resistance to Fusarium wilt can be possible to be used by commercial farmers and breeders. However, research related to the exploration of appropriate materials(accessions) for breeding cultivars with variable characters, good quality, high functional components, high consumer acceptability, etc. should be continued, considering pathogenicity test was conducted in young stage.

Exploration of Figurative Characteristics of Hand-Foot Coordination Movements - With Emphasis on Ballet and Korean Dance - (수족상응(手足相應) 동작의 형태학적 특징 탐색 - 발레와 한국무용을 중심으로 -)

  • Hwang, Kyu Ja;Yoo, Ji Young
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.20
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    • pp.339-367
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    • 2010
  • Despite that it is relatively difficult to compare the movements in eastern and western dancing, this study approached hand-foot coordination movements, which involve lifting both an arm and a leg to stand on one foot, from a figurative point of view. In ballet, arabesque, developpe, and attitude were recognized as the example hand-foot coordination movements, and in Korean Dance, Oesawi, Gyeopsawi, and Meongseokmari of Mask Dance were classified into the hand-foot coordination movements. The figurative characteristics of these dances were approached from the aspects of racial traits, philosophies of dancing, and forms of movements. The following summarizes the findings about hand-foot coordination movements of this study. First, in relation to human physiology, eastern and western races have different traits. The forms of dancing have developed differently according to the builds and figures of dancers. Ballet is an elegant form of dancing using long legs and arms and its arabesque, developpe, and attitude movements emphasize stretching the body for an elegant and beautiful presentation. On the other hand, Korea was an agricultural society and lived closer to the land. As its people developed petite figures, its dancing movements, especially the hand-foot coordination movements, involved 'twisting' and 'walking down and up.' Second, despite that the hand-foot coordination movements are identical for east and west, ballet aims at the heaven and Korean Dance aims at the land according to the differences in the views of nature. Although the principle of hand-foot coordination movements is about aiming at the land, western philosophies and aesthetics pursue the heaven. Third, in ballet, the focus of beauty is the presentation of beautiful movements. Therefore, the hand-foot coordination movements precisely control the position and angle of arms and legs for the perfect balance of the body. On the other hand, the hand-foot coordination movements of Korean Dance are mostly rooted from natural daily movements and movements that enhance the efficiency of labor. Therefore, it is considered beautiful techniques even if the body looks rather unbalanced.

Qualitative Inquiry on Ways to Improve Science Instruction and Assessment for Raising High School Students' Positive Experiences on Science (고등학생의 과학긍정경험 향상을 위한 교수학습 및 평가 개선 방안에 대한 질적 탐구)

  • Kwak, Youngsun;Shin, Youngjoon;Kang, Hunsik;Lee, Sunghee;Lee, Il;Lee, Soo-Young;Ha, Jihoon
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.337-346
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    • 2020
  • In this study, we investigated the characteristics of students participating in Science Core high schools classes and their relevance to Positive Experiences on Science (hereinafter, PES), and factors causing PES, presented by the students of Science Core high schools. A total of 20 students and five teachers in four regions across the country participated in the in-depth interview, which were conducted with the focus group of students first, and then in-depth interviews with teachers. Based on the interview results, we explored teaching and learning experiences helpful to the PES, assessment experiences resulting in the PES, and ways to support Science Core high schools to enhance their PES. Students and teachers of Science Core high schools argued that students' participation will increase only if they engage in classes while drawing attention within the range that students can understand, students' PES such as scientific interest can be improved through experiments in which students choose topics or design their own exploration process, science competencies such as science problem solving ability and scientific thinking ability should be developed through exploratory experiment activities that fit the nature of science, etc. In addition, regarding ways to improve and support Science Core high schools to enhance PES, securing science class hours, restructuring the contents of science elective courses, and necessity of maintaining Science Core high schools are suggested. Based on the research results of science high school students' PES, ways to improve the PES of general high school students are discussed.

The Non-Appropriation Principle and Corpus Juris Spatialis (비전유원칙과 우주법(Corpus Juris Spatialis))

  • Kim, Han-Taek
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.181-202
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    • 2020
  • The Non-Appropriation Principle was stipulated in the OST and the MA. However the MA, creating CHM in international law for the first time, attempted to further limit the prohibitions to include ownership of resources extracted from celestial bodies, its rejection by the U.S. and most of the international spacefaring community prevented it from serving as a binding international treaty. Individuals or private enterprises intending to perform space exploitation must receive approval from the nation and may not appropriate outer space or celestial bodies. In the course of this space activity, each party will be liable. Articles 6 and 7 of the OST and the Liability Convention of 1972 deal with matters concerning those problems. The CSLCA of 2015 and Luxembourg Space Resources Law of 2017 allows States to provide commercial exploration and use of space resources to their own nationals and to companies operated by other countries within their territory. These laws do not violate Article 2 of the OST. In the case of the CSLCA of 2015, the law clearly states that it cannot claim ownership, sovereignty or jurisdiction over certain celestial bodies. Even if scholars claim that the U.S. CSLCA and Luxembourg Space Resources Law violate the non-appropriation principle of the OST, they cannot prevent these two countries from extracting the space resources on "the first come, first served" basis. The legal status of outer space including the moon and other celestial bodies is res extra commercium, like the high seas, where the fishing vessels from each country catch and sell fish without occupying the sea. Major space-faring nations must push for the adoption of an international regulatory committee which will oversee applications and issue permits based on a set of robust, modern, and forward-thinking ideals that are best equipped to govern and protect outer space as individuals, businesses, and nations compete to commercialize space through mining and the extraction of space-based resources. The new Corpus Juris Spatialis on the development of space resources, whether it is a treaty or a soft law such as recommendation and declaration, in the case of the Moon and Mars, will cover a certain amount of area to develop, and the development period by the states should be specified.

The Significance of Registration Convention and its Future Challenges in Space Law (등록협약의 우주법상 의의와 미래과제에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Han-Taek
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.375-402
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    • 2020
  • The adoption and entering into force of the Registration Convention was another achievement in expanding and strengthening the corpus iuris spatialis. It was the fourth treaty negotiated by the member states of the UNCOPUOS and it elaborates further Articles 5 and 8 of the Outer Space Treaty(OST). The Registration Convention also complements and strengthens the Article 11 of the OST, which stipulates an obligation of state parties to inform the UN Secretary-General of the nature, conduct, locations, and results of their space activities in order to promote international cooperation. The prevailing purposes of the Registration Convention is the clarification of "jurisdiction and control" as a comprehensive concept mentioned in Article 5 8 of the OST. In addition to its overriding objective, the Registration Convention also contributes to the promotion and the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes. Establishing and maintaining a public register reduces the possibility of the existence of unidentified space objects and thereby lowers the risk such as, for example, putting the weapons of mass destruction secretly into orbit. And furthermore it could serve for a better space traffic management. The Registration Convention is a treaty established to implement Article 5 of OST for the rescue and return of astronaut in more detail. In this respect, if OST is a general law, the Registration Convention would be said to be in a special law. If two laws conflict the principle of lex specialis will be applied. Countries that have not joined the Registration Convention will have to follow the rules concerning the registration of paragraph 7 of the Declaration by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 1721 (X V I) in 1961. UN Resolution 1721 (XVI) is essentially non-binding, but appears to have evolved into the norm of customary international law requiring all States launching space objects into orbit or beyond to promptly provide information about their launchings for registration to the United Nations. However, the nature and scope of the information to be supplied is left to the discretion of the notifying State. The Registration Convention is a treaty created for compulsory registration of space objects by nations, but in reality it is a treaty that does not deviate from existing practice because it is based on voluntary registration. With the situation of dealing with new problems due to the commercialization and privatization of the space market, issues related to the definition of a 'space object', including matter of the registry state of new state that purchased space objects and space debris matter caused by the suspension of space objects launched by the registry state should be considered as matters when amendments, additional protocols or new Registration Convention are established. Also the question of registration of a flight vehicle in the commercial space market using a space vehicle traveling in a sub-orbital in a short time should be considered.

Analysis of the Content of Global Citizenship Education in the 2015 Revised Home Economics Textbook (2015 개정 중학교 가정 교과서 세계시민교육 내용 분석)

  • Heo, Young Sun;Kim, Nam Eun
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.111-133
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the contents of global citizenship education in the 2015 revision of Home Economics textbook and examine the relevance of global citizenship education in the subject of Home Economics. To this end, the contents of global citizenship education included in the 2015 revision of middle school Home Economics textbook were extracted and analyzed from the viewpoint of the UNESCO Topics and Learning Objectives (TLO), according to the procedure of the concurrent triangulation design. When the frequencies of inclusion of the 9 topics of TLOs were counted, about 54.6% of global citizenship education(GCED) content covered in the 2015 revision of Home Economics textbooks in total was related to the socio-emotional aspects. In particular, TLO 4 (Different levels of identity) showed the highest ratio, followed by TLO 5(Different communities people belong to and how these are connected) and TLO 1 (Local, national and global systems and structures). As a result of categorizing global citizenship education learning topics extracted from Home Economics textbooks of middle school by Home Economics sub-topic area, the child and family(94) area showed the greatest relevance to all learning topics. Food and nutrition(13), clothing(13), housing(15), and consumption (14) showed similar distributions of learning subjects. Child and family area is related to global citizenship education in the topics of adolescent development and its characteristics, family relations, sexual and domestic violences prevention, change in family structures and healthy families, aging society and work-family balance, and life planning and career exploration. The food and nutrition area is related to global citizenship education in the topics of nutrition and eating behavior, and adolescents' food selection and safe cooking. The topic of clothing management and recycling of clothing area, housing culture, residential space utilization, and residential life and safety of housing area, consumer life in adolescence of consumption area were related to the learning subject of global citizenship education. As such, high relations between GCED learning topics and Home Economics learning content elements were found. It is expected that the data of this study will be used as basic data for program development, class improvement, and textbook development with global citizenship education as a content element in Home Economics education.

The Empirical Exploration of the Conception on Nursing (간호개념에 대한 기초조사)

  • 백혜자
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.65-87
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    • 1981
  • The study is aimed at exploring concept held by clinical nurses of nursing. The data were collected from 225 nurses conviniently selected from the population of nurses working in Kang Won province. Findings include. 1) Nurse's Qualification. The respondents view that specialized knowledge is more important qualification of the nurse. Than warm personality. Specifically, 92.9% of the respondents indicated specialized knowledge as the most important qualification while only 43.1% indicated warm personality. 2) On Nursing Profession. The respondents view that nursing profession as health service oriented rather than independent profession specifically. This suggests that nursing profession is not consistentic present health care delivery system nor support nurses working independently. 3) On Clients of Nursing Care The respondents include patients, family and the community residents in the category of nursing care. Specifically, 92.0% of the respondents view that patient is the client, while only 67.1% of nursing student and 74.7% of herself. This indicates the lack of the nurse's recognition toward their clients. 4) On the Priority of Nursing care. Most of the respondents view the clients physical psychological respects as important component of nursing care but not the spiritual ones. Specially, 96.0% of the respondents indicated the physical respects, 93% psychological ones, while 64.1% indicated the spiritual ones. This means the lack of comprehensive conception on nursing aimension. 5) On Nursing Care. 91.6% of the respondents indicated that nursing care is the activity decreasing pain or helping to recover illness, while only 66.2% indicated earring out the physicians medical orders. 6) On Purpose of Nursing Care. 89.8% of the respondents indicated preventing illness and than 76.6% of them decreasing 1;ai of clients. On the other hand, maintaining health has the lowest selection at the degree of 13.8%. This means the lack of nurses' recognition for maintaining health as the most important point. 7) On Knowledge Needed in Nursing Care. Most of the respondents view that the knowledge faced with the spot of nursing care is needed. Specially, 81.3% of the respondents indicated simple curing method and 75.1%, 73.3%, 71.6% each indicated child nursing, maternal nursing and controlling for the communicable disease. On the other hand, knowledge w hick has been neglected in the specialized courses of nursing education, that is, thinking line among com-w unity members, overcoming style against between stress and personal relation in each home, and administration, management have a low selection at the depree of 48.9%,41.875 and 41.3%. 8) On Nursing Idea. The highest degree of selection is that they know themselves rightly, (The mean score measuring distribution was 4.205/5) In the lowest degree,3.016/5 is that devotion is the essential element of nursing, 2.860/5 the religious problems that human beings can not settle, such as a fatal ones, 2,810/5 the nursing profession is worth trying in one's life. This means that the peculiarly essential ideas on the professional sense of value. 9) On Nursing Services. The mean score measuring distribution for the nursing services showed that the inserting of machine air way is 2.132/5, the technique and knowledge for surviving heart-lung resuscitating is 2.892/s, and the preventing air pollution 3.021/5. Specially, 41.1% of the respondents indicated the lack of the replied ratio. 10) On Nurses' Qualifications. The respondents were selected five items as the most important qualifications. Specially, 17.4% of the respondents indicated specialized knowledge, 15.3% the nurses' health, 10.6% satisfaction for nursing profession, 9.8% the experience need, 9.2% comprehension and cooperation, while warm personality as nursing qualifications have a tendency of being lighted. 11) On the Priority of Nursing Care The respondents were selected three items as the most important component. Most of the respondents view the client's physical, spiritual: economic points as important components of nursing care. They showed each 36.8%, 27.6%, 13.8% while educational ones showed 1.8%. 12) On Purpose of Nursing Care. The respondents were selected four items as the most important purpose. Specially,29.3% of the respondents indicated curing illness for clients, 21.3% preventing illness for client 17.4% decreasing pain, 15.3% surviving. 13) On the Analysis of Important Nursing Care Ranging from 5 point to 25 point, the nurses' qualification are concentrated at the degree of 95.1%. Ranging from 3 point to 25, the priorities of nursing care are concentrated at the degree of 96.4%. Ranging from 4 point to 16, the purpose of nursing care is concentrated at the degree of 84.0%. 14) The Analysis, of General Characteristics and Facts of Nursing Concept. The correlation between the educational high level and nursing care showed significance. (P < 0.0262). The correction between the educational low level and purpose of nursing care showed significance. (P < 0.002) The correlation between nurses' working yeras and the degree of importance for the purpose of nursing care showed significance (P < 0.0155) Specially, the most affirmative answers were showed from two years to four ones. 15) On Nunes' qualification and its Degree of Importance The correlation between nurses' qualification and its degree of importance showed significance. (r = 0.2172, p< 0.001) 0.005) B. General characteristics of the subjects The mean age of the subject was 39 ; with 38.6% with in the age range of 20-29 ; 52.6% were male; 57.9% were Schizophrenia; 35.1% were graduated from high school or high school dropouts; 56.l% were not have any religion; 52.6% were unmarried; 47.4% were first admission; 91.2% were involuntary admission patients. C. Measurement of anxiety variables. 1. Measurement tools of affective anxiety in this study demonstrated high reliability (.854). 2. Measurement tools of somatic anxiety in this study demonstrated high reliability (.920). D. Relationship between the anxiety variables and the general characteristics. 1. Relationship between affective anxiety and general characteristics. 1) The level of female patients were higher than that of the male patient (t = 5.41, p < 0.05). 2) Frequencies of admission were related to affective anxiety, so in the first admission the anxiety level was the highest. (F = 5.50, p < 0.005). 2, Relationship between somatic anxiety and general characteristics. 1) The age range of 30-39 was found to have the highest level of the somatic anxiety. (F = 3.95, p < 0.005). 2) Frequencies of admission were related to the somatic anxiety, so .in first admission the anxiety level was the highest. (F = 9.12, p < 0.005) 0. Analysis of significant anxiety symptoms for nursing intervention. 1. Seven items such as dizziness, mental integration, sweating, restlessness, anxiousness, urinary frequency and insomnia, init. accounted for 96% of the variation within the first 24 hours after admission. 2. Seven items such as fear, paresthesias, restlessness, sweating insomnia, init., tremors and body aches and pains accounted for 84% of the variation on the 10th day after admission.

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DC Resistivity method to image the underground structure beneath river or lake bottom (하저 지반특성 규명을 위한 전기비저항 탐사)

  • Kim Jung-Ho;Yi Myeong-Jong;Song Yoonho;Cho Seong-Jun;Lee Seong-Kon;Son Jeongsul
    • 한국지구물리탐사학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.139-162
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    • 2002
  • Since weak zones or geological lineaments are likely to be eroded, weak zones may develop beneath rivers, and a careful evaluation of ground condition is important to construct structures passing through a river. Dc resistivity surveys, however, have seldomly applied to the investigation of water-covered area, possibly because of difficulties in data aquisition and interpretation. The data aquisition having high quality may be the most important factor, and is more difficult than that in land survey, due to the water layer overlying the underground structure to be imaged. Through the numerical modeling and the analysis of case histories, we studied the method of resistivity survey at the water-covered area, starting from the characteristics of measured data, via data acquisition method, to the interpretation method. We unfolded our discussion according to the installed locations of electrodes, ie., floating them on the water surface, and installing at the water bottom, since the methods of data acquisition and interpretation vary depending on the electrode location. Through this study, we could confirm that the dc resistivity method can provide the fairly reasonable subsurface images. It was also shown that installing electrodes at the water bottom can give the subsurface image with much higher resolution than floating them on the water surface. Since the data acquired at the water-covered area have much lower sensitivity to the underground structure than those at the land, and can be contaminated by the higher noise, such as streaming potential, it would be very important to select the acquisition method and electrode array being able to provide the higher signal-to-noise ratio data as well as the high resolving power. The method installing electrodes at the water bottom is suitable to the detailed survey because of much higher resolving power, whereas the method floating them, especially streamer dc resistivity survey, is to the reconnaissance survey owing of very high speed of field work.

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Exploration and Development in the Janggun Pb-Zn Mine (장군광산(將軍鑛山)의 탐사(探査)와 개발현황(開發現況))

  • Kho, Suck Jin
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.289-303
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    • 1987
  • 당(當) 광산(鑛山)은 1936년(年) 금(金), 은(銀) 광종(鑛種)으로 출원(出願)하였다가 1940년(年) 망간을 추가(追加)하여 망간 광산(鑛山)으로 1975년(年)까지 Mn(30~35%) 110,000여(餘)톤을 생산(生産), 국내생산량(國內生産量)의 70%를 점(占)하였고 1976년(年) Mn광상(鑛床) 하부(下部)에 연(鉛), 아연(亞鉛) 유화광(硫化鑛)을 발견(發見), 현재(現在)까지 Pb十Zn=10% 이상(以上) 원광석(原鑛石) 500,000여(餘)톤을 처리(處理), 연정광(鉛精鑛)(Pb : 62%) 37,000여(餘)톤, 아연정광(亞鉛精鑛)(Zn : 46.5%) 37,000여(餘)톤, 유비광정광(硫砒鑛精鑛)(As : 30%) 5,000여(餘)톤을 생산(生産)하였다. 현재(現在) 일처리(日處理) 220톤 선광장(選鑛場)을 일처리(日處理) 400톤 규모(規模)로 증설계획중(增設計劃中)이다. 당(當) 광산(鑛山)에서 현재(現在)까지 시행(施行)한 갱외시추(坑外試錐)는 75개공(個孔) 18,500여(餘)m, 갱내시추(坑內試錐) 750개공(個孔) 40,000여(餘)m 갱도(坑道) 총연장(總延長) 13,000m에 달(達)하며 지표(地表)(623ML)로 부터 수직(垂直) 300m 하부(下部)까지 갱도(坑道)가 개착(開鑿)되어 있다. 당(當) 광산(鑛山)의 지질(地質)은 여러 조사서(調査書)에 의(依)하여 견해(見解) 차이(差異)를 보여주고 있으나 대체(大體)로 다음과 같은 쪽으로 인정되고 있다. 즉(卽) 본지역(本地域) 루층군(累層群)의 층순(層順)을 하위(下位)로 부터 상위(上位)로 향(向)하여 원남층(遠南層)${\rightarrow}$율리통(栗里統)${\rightarrow}$장산규암층(壯山珪岩層)${\rightarrow}$두음리층(斗音里層)${\rightarrow}$장군석회암층(將軍石灰岩層)${\rightarrow}$동수곡층(東水谷層)${\rightarrow}$재산층(才山層)의 순위(順位)로 보며 장산규암층(壯山珪岩層)과 두음리층(斗音里層)을 조선계(朝鮮系)의 양덕통(陽德統)으로, 장군석회암층(將軍石灰岩層)을 대석회암통(大石灰岩統)으로, 동수곡층(東水谷層)과 함탄층(含炭層)인 재산층(才山層)을 평안계(平安系) 지층(地層)으로 대비(對比)한다. 이들은 본지역(本地域) 북(北)쪽에서는 선(先)캠브리아기(紀)의 원남층(遠南層)과 율리통(栗里統)을 불정합(不整合)으로 덮고 남측(南側)에서는 재산층(才山層)과 원남층(遠南層)이 단층접촉(斷層接觸)하고 있다. 이들 지층(地層)의 주향(走向)은 $N60^{\circ}{\sim}80^{\circ}W$, $N60^{\circ}{\sim}80^{\circ}E$이며 경사(傾斜)는 대체(大體)로 $50^{\circ}{\sim}80^{\circ}N$이며 전체적(全體的)으로 역전(逆轉)된 층서(層序)를 보여주는 바 지질구조(地質構造)에 있어서 단사구조(單斜構造)인지 등사(等斜)습곡의 향사(向斜), 또는 등사(等斜)습곡이 배사구조(背斜構造)인지 아직 밝혀지지 않고 있다. 화성암체(火成岩體)는 본지역(本地域) 서측(西側)에 쥬라기(紀) 춘양화강암(春陽花崗岩)이 불규칙(不規則)한 실입(實入) 접촉면(接觸面)을 보여주며 시대미상(時代未詳)(백악기(白堊紀)?)의 거정화강암(巨晶花崗岩), 반화강암(半花崗岩)이 소암주상(小岩株狀)으로 몇 곳 실입(實入)하고 산성(酸性)~중성(中性)의 맥암(脈岩)과 염기성(鹽基性) 안산암질암(安山岩質岩)이 실입(實入)해 있다. 광상(鑛床)은 장군석회암층(將軍石灰岩層)에 배태(胚胎)되어 있는 열수교대(熱水交代) 연(鉛), 아연(亞鉛), 은등(銀等)의 혼합(混合) 유화광상(硫化鑛床)으로 다량(多量)의 Mn분(分)을 수반(隨伴)하며 지표부(地表部)에 Mn광상(鑛床)을 형성(形成)하고 있다. 광상(鑛床)의 형태(形態)는 괴상(塊狀), 각력(角礫)pipe상(狀), 맥상(脈狀)으로 나타난다. 광상(鑛床)의 성인(成因)과 생성시기(生成時期)에 대(對)하여 많은 논란(論難)이 있다. 즉(卽) 열수교대(熱水交代)냐, 접촉교대(接觸交代)냐, 동시퇴적기원(同時堆積起源)이냐, 또는 생성시기(生成時期)가 쥬라기(紀)인지 백악기(白堊紀)인지에 대해 이론(異論)이 있다. 본지역(本地域) 광상(鑛床)은 남본(南本), 100우(右), 북(北), 유비철(硫砒鐵), 동(東), 서(西), 재남(才南), 재동(才東), 110호(號) 등(等)이 지표(地表) Mn로두광화대(露頭鑛化帶)와 관련(關聯) 명명(命名)된 바 전(前)4자(者)는 하부(下部)에서 유화광상(硫化鑛床)이 확인(確認)되었으나 나머지 후자(後者)에서는 아직 하부(下部)에 유화광상(硫化鑛床)이 확인(確認)되지 않고 있으며 남본광상(南本鑛床)으로 부터 남동(南東) 300여(餘)m 지점에 장군석회암층(將軍石灰岩層)과 동수곡층(東水谷層) 경계부(境界部)에 Fe 55~60% 자철광상(磁鐵鑛床)이 확인(確認)된 바 신례미(新禮美) 자철광상(磁鐵鑛床)과 유사성(類似性)이 있는 것 같아 흥미(興味)롭다. 당(當) 광산(鑛山)의 현재(現在)까지의 탐광(探鑛)은 남본광상(南本鑛床) 지표로두(地表露頭)(Mn) 하부(下部)에서 확인(確認)된 연(鉛), 아연(亞鉛), 은(銀) 유화광체(硫化鑛體) 하부(下部)와 전탐(電探)에 의(依)해 확인(確認)된 북광체(北鑛體), 갱도접근중(坑道接近中)에 확인(確認)된 100우광체(右鑛體), 유비철광체(硫砒鐵鑛體) 등(等)의 하부(下部) 탐광(探鑛)을 주(主)로 하고 지표(地表) Mn로두(露頭) 하부(下部)에 대(對)한 시추탐광(試錐探鑛0을 병행(竝行)하고 있으며 시추(試錐)에 의(依)해서 지표(地表)로 부터 790m 하부(下部)(해발(海拔) 200ML)까지 광화대(鑛化帶)가 확인(確認)되었다. 향후(向後) 탐광방침(探鑛方針)을 확고(確固)히 수립(樹立)하기 위(爲)하여는 광상(鑛床)의 성인구명(成因究明)은 물론(勿論) 광상(鑛床)의 배태조건(胚胎條件)에 있어 지질구조규제(地質構造規制)와 화강암(花崗岩)의 실입상(實入狀)과의 관계(關係), 광액(鑛液)의 통로(通路)에 대(對)한 지질구조(地質構造), 모암(母岩)의 화학(化學) 물리적(物理的) 특성(特性)에 대(對)한 연구(硏究) 검토(檢討)가 었어야 하겠다.

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Stratigraphic response to tectonic evolution of sedimentary basins in the Yellow Sea and adjacent areas (황해 및 인접 지역 퇴적분지들의 구조적 진화에 따른 층서)

  • Ryo In Chang;Kim Boo Yang;Kwak won Jun;Kim Gi Hyoun;Park Se Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Petroleum Geology
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    • v.8 no.1_2
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    • pp.1-43
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    • 2000
  • A comparison study for understanding a stratigraphic response to tectonic evolution of sedimentary basins in the Yellow Sea and adjacent areas was carried out by using an integrated stratigraphic technology. As an interim result, we propose a stratigraphic framework that allows temporal and spatial correlation of the sedimentary successions in the basins. This stratigraphic framework will use as a new stratigraphic paradigm for hydrocarbon exploration in the Yellow Sea and adjacent areas. Integrated stratigraphic analysis in conjunction with sequence-keyed biostratigraphy allows us to define nine stratigraphic units in the basins: Cambro-Ordovician, Carboniferous-Triassic, early to middle Jurassic, late Jurassic-early Cretaceous, late Cretaceous, Paleocene-Eocene, Oligocene, early Miocene, and middle Miocene-Pliocene. They are tectono-stratigraphic units that provide time-sliced information on basin-forming tectonics, sedimentation, and basin-modifying tectonics of sedimentary basins in the Yellow Sea and adjacent area. In the Paleozoic, the South Yellow Sea basin was initiated as a marginal sag basin in the northern margin of the South China Block. Siliciclastic and carbonate sediments were deposited in the basin, showing cyclic fashions due to relative sea-level fluctuations. During the Devonian, however, the basin was once uplifted and deformed due to the Caledonian Orogeny, which resulted in an unconformity between the Cambro-Ordovician and the Carboniferous-Triassic units. The second orogenic event, Indosinian Orogeny, occurred in the late Permian-late Triassic, when the North China block began to collide with the South China block. Collision of the North and South China blocks produced the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu-Imjin foldbelts and led to the uplift and deformation of the Paleozoic strata. Subsequent rapid subsidence of the foreland parallel to the foldbelts formed the Bohai and the West Korean Bay basins where infilled with the early to middle Jurassic molasse sediments. Also Piggyback basins locally developed along the thrust. The later intensive Yanshanian (first) Orogeny modified these foreland and Piggyback basins in the late Jurassic. The South Yellow Sea basin, however, was likely to be a continental interior sag basin during the early to middle Jurassic. The early to middle Jurassic unit in the South Yellow Sea basin is characterized by fluvial to lacustrine sandstone and shale with a thick basal quartz conglomerate that contains well-sorted and well-rounded gravels. Meanwhile, the Tan-Lu fault system underwent a sinistrai strike-slip wrench movement in the late Triassic and continued into the Jurassic and Cretaceous until the early Tertiary. In the late Jurassic, development of second- or third-order wrench faults along the Tan-Lu fault system probably initiated a series of small-scale strike-slip extensional basins. Continued sinistral movement of the Tan-Lu fault until the late Eocene caused a megashear in the South Yellow Sea basin, forming a large-scale pull-apart basin. However, the Bohai basin was uplifted and severely modified during this period. h pronounced Yanshanian Orogeny (second and third) was marked by the unconformity between the early Cretaceous and late Eocene in the Bohai basin. In the late Eocene, the Indian Plate began to collide with the Eurasian Plate, forming a megasuture zone. This orogenic event, namely the Himalayan Orogeny, was probably responsible for the change of motion of the Tan-Lu fault system from left-lateral to right-lateral. The right-lateral strike-slip movement of the Tan-Lu fault caused the tectonic inversion of the South Yellow Sea basin and the pull-apart opening of the Bohai basin. Thus, the Oligocene was the main period of sedimentation in the Bohai basin as well as severe tectonic modification of the South Yellow Sea basin. After the Oligocene, the Yellow Sea and Bohai basins have maintained thermal subsidence up to the present with short periods of marine transgressions extending into the land part of the present basins.

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