• Title, Summary, Keyword: Expanded Respiration

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Variation of Alternative and Cytochrome Respiration during Ripening in Rice Leaves

  • Lee, Kwang-hong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.301-304
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    • 2002
  • The variation of alternative and cytochrome respiration during ripening in rice leaves (Oryza sativa L. cv. Takanari) was examined. The capacity of both respiration pathway was measured by inhibitor titration method using gas-phase oxygen electrodes. The alternative respiration rate decreased from 31.3% of the total respiration rate at around heading to 11.7% at 34 days after heading in the first fully expanded leaf from the top, and further to 6.4 % at 34 days after heading in the fourth leaf from the top. In contrast, the proportion of cytochrome respiration to total respiration increased with leaf senescence. The possible cause of alternative respiration as either an increase in inefficient respiration or a decrease in growth efficiency during ripening was discussed.

Extra-phase Image Generation for Its Potential Use in Dose Evaluation for a Broad Range of Respiratory Motion

  • Lee, Hyun Su;Choi, Chansoo;Kim, Chan Hyeong;Han, Min Cheol;Yeom, Yeon Soo;Nguyen, Thang Tat;Kim, Seonghoon;Choi, Sang Hyoun;Lee, Soon Sung;Kim, Jina;Hwang, JinHo;Kang, Youngnam
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 2019
  • Background: Four-dimensional computed tomographic (4DCT) images are increasingly used in clinic with the growing need to account for the respiratory motion of the patient during radiation treatment. One of the reason s that makes the dose evaluation using 4DCT inaccurate is a change of the patient respiration during the treatment session, i.e., intrafractional uncertainty. Especially, when the amplitude of the patient respiration is greater than the respiration range during the 4DCT acquisition, such an organ motion from the larger respiration is difficult to be represented with the 4DCT. In this paper, the method to generate images expecting the organ motion from a respiration with extended amplitude was proposed and examined. Materials and Methods: We propose a method to generate extra-phase images from a given set of the 4DCT images using deformable image registration (DIR) and linear extrapolation. Deformation vector fields (DVF) are calculated from the given set of images, then extrapolated according to respiratory surrogate. The extra-phase images are generated by applying the extrapolated DVFs to the existing 4DCT images. The proposed method was tested with the 4DCT of a physical 4D phantom. Results and Discussion: The tumor position in the generated extra-phase image was in a good agreement with that in the gold-standard image which is separately acquired, using the same 4DCT machine, with a larger range of respiration. It was also found that we can generate the best quality extra-phase image by using the maximum inhalation phase (T0) and maximum exhalation phase (T50) images for extrapolation. Conclusion: In the present study, a method to construct extra-phase images that represent expanded respiratory motion of the patient has been proposed and tested. The movement of organs from a larger respiration amplitude can be predicted by the proposed method. We believe the method may be utilized for realistic simulation of radiation therapy.

THE PROBLEMS OF EXPANDABLE METALLIC STENT FOR THE TREATMENT OF SUBGLOTTIC TRACHEAL AND TRACHEOSTOMAL STENOSIS (성문하 기관 및 기관누공 협착증에 대한 팽창성 금속 스텐트의 문제점)

  • 홍기환;정경호;김중호;한영민
    • Korean Journal of Bronchoesophagology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.213-221
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    • 1996
  • To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of expandable metallic stents, the stents were implanted under endoscopic guidance with local anesthesia or general anesthesia for maintenance of the constructed subglottic space of trachea. The nine patients with respiration difficulty were subjected for expandable stents. The stenosis of upper airway were due to the framework problem of subglottic trachea and tracheostoma after total laryngectomy. Stents were constructed of 0.4 m stainless steel win in a zigzag configuration of 8 bends. A single stent was 20 m in diameter when fully expanded and 20 mm long. The stents were placed accurately to the stenotic site and followed to the 5 month after stent placement. The stenotic area became narrowed with overgrowing of granuloma in all patients and the metallic stents were removed and the stenotic area reconstructed surgically. As conclusion, this technique for the treatment of the subglottic trachea showed simple and safe, but highly recurred due to overgrowing of granuloma. We suggest that the expandable metallic stent is not encouraging in this study.

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Air Sampling and Isotope Analyses of Water Vapor and CO2 using Multi-Level Profile System (다중연직농도시스템(Multi-Level Profile System)을 이용한 수증기와 이산화탄소 시료채취 및 안정동위원소 조성 분석)

  • Lee, Dong-Ho;Kim, Su-Jin;Cheon, Jung-Hwa;Kim, Joon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.277-288
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    • 2010
  • The multi-level $H_2O/CO_2$ profile system has been widely used to quantify the storage and advection effects on energy and mass fluxes measured by eddy covariance systems. In this study, we expanded the utility of the profile system by accommodating air sampling devices for isotope analyses of water vapor and $CO_2$. A pre-evacuated 2L glass flask was connected to the discharge of an Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA) of the profile system so that airs with known concentration of $H_2O$ and $CO_2$ can be sampled. To test the performance of this sampling system, we sampled airs from 8 levels (from 0.1 to 40 m) at the KoFlux tower of Gwangneung deciduous forest, Korea. Air samples in the 2L flask were separated into its component gases and pure $H_2O$ and $CO_2$ were extracted by using a vacuum extraction line. This novel technique successfully produced vertical profiles of ${\delta}D$ of $H_2O$ and ${\delta}^{13}C$ of $CO_2$ in a mature forest, and estimated ${\delta}D$ of evapotranspiration (${\delta}D_{ET}$) and ${\delta}^{13}C$ of $CO_2$ from ecosystem respiration (${\delta}^{13}C_{resp}$) by using Keeling plots. While technical improvement is still required in various aspects, our sampling system has two major advantages over other proposed techniques. First, it is cost effective since our system uses the existing structure of the profile system. Second, both $CO_2$ and $H_2O$ can be sampled simultaneously so that net ecosystem exchange of $H_2O$ and $CO_2$ can be partitioned at the same temporal resolution, which will improve our understanding of the coupling between water and carbon cycles in terrestrial ecosystems.