• Title, Summary, Keyword: Exhaust emissions

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A Field Survey on the Characteristics of Air Pollutants Emission from Commercial Charcoal Kiln (숯가마에서 발생하는 대기오염물질의 배출특성에 관한 현장조사 연구)

  • Park, Seong-Kyu;Choi, Sang-Jin;Kim, Jin-Yun;Park, Gun-Jin;Hwang, Ui-Hyun;Lee, Jeong-Joo;Kim, Tae-Sik
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.601-614
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    • 2013
  • The commercial charcoal kiln was projected the largest source of biomass burning sector in Korea. Commercial charcoal kiln was operated to emit air pollutants into the air without any air pollution prevention equipment. The object of this field survey was to understand characteristics of air pollutants concentration and emission factors and to provide preliminary data for effective processor from oak charcoal manufacturing process. As result of field survey, TSP, $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ concentration from charcoal kiln were 400~37,000 $mg/m^3$. These values were over the 100 $mg/m^3$ in TSP, this value was effluent quality standard of Clean Air Conservation Act. The average concentration of CO, $SO_2$ and TVOC were 2~5%. 0~110 ppm and 820~10,000 ppm respectively. The emission factors were 42.4 g-PM/kg-oak in TSP, 40.3 g-PM/kg-oak in $PM_{10}$, 38.2 g-PM/kg-oak in $PM_{2.5}$, 182.5 g-CO/kg-oak, 1.0 g-NO/kg-oak, $SO_2$ 0.2 g-$SO_2/kg$-oak and 104.4 g-TVOC/kg-oak. The part of commercial charcoal kiln had air pollution prevention equipment but it was difficult to work properly. Much wood tar excreted in exhaust emissions from oak charcoal manufacturing process. This wood tar was cause of many troubles sticking in the air pollutant prevention equipment. For handling particulate matters and gaseous air pollutants from oak charcoal manufacturing process in biomass burning, air pollutant prevention equipment design and management needs preprocessor for removal wood tar.

Characteristics in Atmospheric Chemistry between NO, NO2 and O3 at an Urban Site during MAPS (Megacity Air Pollution Study)-Seoul, Korea (서울 도심대기의 NO, NO2와 O3 사이의 대기화학적 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Deug-Soo;Jeong, Jinsang;Ahn, Joonyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.422-434
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to understand roles of $NO_x(=NO+NO_2)$ on high $O_3$ episodes at an urban monitoring station in Seoul. Concentrations of NO, $NO_2$, $NO_y$ and $O_3$ were measured intensively at KIST monitoring station which located at urban center in Seoul metropolitan area during May 18~June 13, 2015. Sampling period was planed because high $O_3$ and PM occurred frequently during from late spring to early summer months in Seoul. The experimental site locates in NW from center of Seoul and is surrounded by residential area. Belt highway of the city runs from north to west side nearby experimental site. Vehicle exhaust emissions due to heavy traffic influenced $NO_x$ concentration at the site during northwesterly wind. Specific $NO_2$ concentration was measured by Blue Light photolytic converter, and it was compared to $NO_2$ concentration measured by molybedenum converter. $[NO_2]_{phtolysis}$ was usually lower than $[NO_2]_{molybedenum}$ during the experiment period; however their diurnal variations were very similar. The linear relationship between these $NO_2$ concentrations was found to be $[NO_2]_{phtolysis}$=0.64 $[NO_2]_{molybedenum}$ - 2.6, $r^2$=0.83 during May 16~8, 2015. The difference between $NO_2$ by molybdenum converter and by photolytic converter (${\Delta}NO_2=[NO_2]_{molybedenum}-[NO_2]_{phtolysis}$) accounted for residual $NO_y$ which can represent $NO_z$ (=$NO_y-NO_x$). $O_3$ concentration showed typical daily trend which has maximum at late afternoon and minimum during the night. $O_3$ increased at a rate of 7 ppb/hr since 8 am. and reached the maximum concentration (~80 ppb) at 3 pm.. The diurnal pattern of $O_3$ was inversely related with that of $NO_2$, suggesting that the formation of $O_3$ was the result of photochemical activity of $NO_2$.

Study of spatial temperature distribution during combustion process in a high temperature and pressure constant volume chamber (고온 고압 정적 연소실에서 연소과정에 따른 온도 분포 측정)

  • Kim, Ki-hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.345-350
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    • 2017
  • Downsizing is widely applied to diesel engines in order to improve fuel efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions. Engine sizes are becoming smaller but pressure and temperature inside combustion chambers are increasing. Therefore, research for fuel spray under high pressure and temperature conditions is important. A constant volume chamber which simulates high temperature and pressure likely to be found in diesel engines was developed in this study. Pressure and temperature were increased abruptly because of ignition of the pre-mixture in the constant volume chamber. Then pressure and temperature were gradually decreased due to the heat loss through the chamber wall. Fuel spray occurred when temperature and pressure were reached at the target condition. In this experiment, the temperature condition should be exactly defined to understand the relation between fuel evaporation and ambient temperature. A fast response thermocouple was developed and used to measure the temporal and spatial temperature distribution during the combustion process inside the combustion chamber. In the results, the core temperature was slightly higher than the bulk temperature calculated by the gas equation. Ed-note: do you want to say 'ideal gas equation'? This was attributed to the heat transfer loss through the chamber wall. The vertical temperature deviation was higher than the horizontal temperature deviation by 5% which resulted from the buoyancy effect.

Study on the simulation of a spark ignition engine using BOOST (상용 소프트웨어를 이용한 스파크 점화 기관의 시뮬레이션에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Chang-Sik;Woo, Seok-Keun;Ryu, Soon-Pil;Yoon, Keon-Sik
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.733-742
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    • 2016
  • In recent years, gas engines fueled with LNG or synthetic gas have been attracting considerable attention for marine use owing to their potential to facilitate better fuel economy and to reduce emissions. It has been confirmed that gas engines using the Otto cycle, which involves premixed combustion, can satisfy Tier III regulations without the EGR or SCR system. The objective of this study is to acquire simulation technologies for predicting gas engine performances in industrial fields. Using the commercial software BOOST, the simulation is conducted on a gasoline engine rather than a marine engine due to the gasoline engine's easier accessibility. This study consists of two stages. In the first stage published previously, the optimal modeling techniques for representing the behavior of the gas in the intake and exhaust systems were determined. In the current study, we formulated a method to evaluate the combustion and heat transfer processes in the cylinder and to ultimately determine the major performance parameters, given that the analytical model derived from the previous stage has been applied. Through this study, we were able to determine a combustion and heat transfer model and a valve discharge coefficient that are less reliant on empirical data: we were also able to formulate a methodology through which relevant constants are decided. We confirmed that the values of transient cylinder pressure variation, indicated mean effective pressure, and air supply can be successfully predicted using our modeling techniques.

Research for Performance Improvement of De-NOx of Cu-SCR Catalysts (Cu-SCR 촉매의 De-NOx 성능 향상을 위한 연구)

  • Seo, Choong-Kil
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.112-118
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    • 2018
  • In order to meet the strict emission regulations for internal combustion engines based on fossil fuel, the proportion of after-treatments for vehicles and vessels is gradually increasing. Diesel engines have high power, good fuel economy, and lower $CO_2$ emissions, and their market shares are increasing in commercial vehicles and passenger cars. However, NOx is generated in the localized high-temperature combustion regions, and particulate matter is formed in the zones of diffusion combustion. LNT and urea-SCR catalysts have been developed for after-treatment of the exhaust gas to reduce NOx in diesel vehicles. This study aims to improve the NOx reduction performance of Cu SCR catalyst, which is widely used in light, medium, and heavy-duty diesel engines. The de-NOx performance of $5Cu-2ZrO_2$/93Zeolyst(Si/Al=13.7) SCR catalyst was about 5-50% higher than that of $5Cu-2ZrO_2$/93Zeolite(Si/Al=2.9) at catalyst temperatures of $300^{\circ}C$ or higher. The zeolite had lower metal dispersion than zeolyst, and the reaction rate of the catalyst decreased as the average particle size increased. The $10Cu-2ZrO_2$/88Zeolyst catalyst loaded with 10wt% Cu had the highest NOx conversion rate of 40% at $200^{\circ}C$ and about 65% at $350^{\circ}C$. The ion exchange rate of Cu ions increased with that of Al, the crystalline compound of zeolite, and the de-NOx performance was improved by 20-40% compared to other catalysts.

Occupational Factors Influencing the Forklift Operators' Exposure to Black Carbon (지게차 운전원의 블랙카본(black carbon, BC) 노출에 영향을 미치는 직업적 요인)

  • Lee, Hyemin;Lee, Seunghee;Ryu, Seung-Hun;Park, Jihoon;Park, Dong-Uk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.313-323
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: This study aimed to assess exposure to black carbon(BC) among forklift operators and to identify environmental and occupational factors influencing their BC exposure. Methods: We studied a total of 23 forklift operators from six workplaces manufacturing paper boxes. A daily BC exposure assessment was conducted during working hours from January to April 2017. A micro-aethalometer was used to monitor daily BC exposure, and information on work activities was also obtained through a time-activity diary(TAD) and interviews. BC exposure records were classified into four categories influencing BC exposure level: working environment, workplace, forklift operation, and job characteristics. Analysis of variance(ANOVA) was used to compare average BC exposure levels among the four categories and the relationships between potential factors and BC exposure were analyzed using a multiple linear regression model. Results: The operators' daily exposure was $12.9{\mu}g/m^3$(N=9,148, $GM=7.5{\mu}g/m^3$) with a range: $0.001-811.4{\mu}g/m^3$. The operators were exposed to significantly higher levels when they operate a forklift in a room ${\leq}20,000m^3$($AM=12.3{\mu}g/m^3$), in indoor workplaces($AM=16.3{\mu}g/m^3$), when they operate a forklift manufactured before 2006 ($AM=13.2{\mu}g/m^3$), a forklift with a loading limit of four-tons($AM=27.1{\mu}g/m^3$), with a roll and bale type clamp($AM=17.1{\mu}g/m^3$), and with no particulate filter($AM=15.7{\mu}g/m^3$). Conclusions: Occupational factors including temperature, smoking, season, daytime, room volume($m^3$), location of operating, and manufacturing era and model of forklift influenced the BC exposure of forklift operators. The results of this study can be used to minimize the BC exposure of forklift operators.

Effects of Swirl and Combustion Parameters on the Performance and Emission in a Turbocharged D.1. Diesel Engine (선회유동 및 연소인자가 터보과급 디젤엔진의 성능 및 배기가스특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤준규;차경옥
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.90-98
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    • 2002
  • The effects of swirl and combustion parameters on the performance and emission in a turbo-charged D.I. diesel engine of the displacement 9.4L were studied experimentally in this paper. Generally the swirl in the combustion process of diesel engine promotes mixing of the injection fuel and the intake air. It is a major factor to improve the engine performance because the fuel consumption and NO$_{x}$ is trade-off according to the high temperature and high pressure of combustion gas in a turbocharged D.I. diesel engine, it's necessary to thinking over the intake and exhaust system, the design of combustion bowl and so on. In order to choose a turbocharger of appropriate capacity. As a result of steady flow test, when the swirl ratio is increased, the mean flow coefficient is decreased, whereas the gulf factor is increased. Also, through engine test its can be expected to meet performance and emissions by optimizing the main parameter's; the swirl ratio is 2.43, injection timing is BTDC 13$^{\circ}$ CA, compression ratio is 16, combustion bowl is re-entrant 5$^{\circ}$, nozzle hole diameter is $\Phi$0.28*6, turbocharger is GT40 model which are compressor A/R 0.58 and turbine A/R 1.19.

Characteristics of Particle Number and Exhaust emission by Alteration of MTBE Contents in Gasoline (휘발유의 MTBE 함량 변화에 따른 입자개수 및 배출가스 특성)

  • Lim, Taeyoon;Song, Hoyoung;Park, Cheonkyu;Hwang, Inha;Ha, Jonghan;Na, Byungki
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.42-47
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    • 2015
  • While the oxygen content of gasoline for automobiles in Korea is regulated to less than 2.3 weight %, European and World-Wide Fuel Charter (WWFC) regulate it to less than 2.7 weight %. The oxygen content of oxygen-containing materials increases the octane number of the fuel due to the secondary combustion in the internal combustion engine. It has been reported to be effective in reducing emissions, such as CO, HC, which is caused by incomplete combustion. Before 2000s in the United States and Europe, there has been many researches about vehicle application of the changes in oxygen content of gasoline. However, there are not many domestic researches which reflect the improvement of the fuel quality and automotive technology. In this study, fuels of three different oxygen contents were applied to GDI and MPI engines. As a result, the changes of fuel consumption and emission gas were very similar depends of the oxygen content changes. The PN in GDI engine was decreased as the oxygen content was increased.

Combustion Characteristics of Bio Emulsion Fuel (바이오에멀젼 연료의 연소 특성)

  • Kim, Moon-Chan
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.1421-1432
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    • 2018
  • Water soluble oil was obtained from the pyrolysis of coconut waste as a biomass at $600^{\circ}C$. It was studied that the combustion characteristics of bio-emulsion fuel by mixing and emulsifying 15~20% of water soluble oil which obtained from pyrolysis of coconut waste as a biomass and MDO(marine diesel oil) as a marine fuel. Engine dynamometer was used for detecting emissions, temperature, and power. The temperature of combustion chamber was decreased because the moisture in bio-emulsion fuel deprived of heat of evaporation in combustion chamber. While combustion, micro-explosion took place in the combustion chamber by water in the bio-emulsion fuel, MDO fuel scattered to micro particles and it caused to smoke reduction. The temperature reduction of combustion chamber by using bio-emulsion fuel reduced the NOx emission. The increasing of bio-oil content caused increasing water content in bio-emulsion fuel so total calorific value was reduced. So the characteristics of power was decreased in proportion to using the increasing amount of bio-emulsion fuel. Heavy oil as a marine fuel exhausts a lot of smoke and NOx. We expect that we can reduce the exhaust gas of marine engine such as smoke and NOx by using of bio-emulsion fuel as a marine fuel.

A Study on the Fine Dust Removal Equipment of Pressurized Water type for the Removal of Exhaust Gas Fine Dust and Volatile Organic Compounds from the Non-industrial combustion plant (비산업 연소 사업장 배출 가스상 미세먼지와 휘발성 유기 화합물 제거를 위한 가압수식 미세먼지 제거 장치 연구)

  • Youn, Jae-Seo;Kim, Sang-Min;Lee, Ye-Ji;Noh, Seong-Yeo
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.506-512
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    • 2018
  • The fine dust generated in the home and restaurant business occupies a low ratio of about 4% of the total fine dust emissions. However, at the foodservice business, the rate of change of the pollutant concentration is very high, so that the temporary fine dust concentration can be measured up to 60 times. The pollutants generated from non-industrial combustion plants consist of particulate fine dust and gaseous organic compounds. To remove these pollutants, cleaning dust collection system, which is an effective system for simultaneous removal of gaseous and particulate matter, is applied. This is a method of increasing the probability of diffusion capture of the Brownian motion by pressurized liquid injection method using the atomizing nozzle. The dust removal efficiency of the fine dust collecting system was analyzed by nozzle spraying air pressure condition and angle using the manufactured fine dust removing system. As a result, it was confirmed that the efficiency of removal of fine dust and gaseous organic compounds was more than 90%. The developed system is expected to be highly usable in the future because it can remove particulate dust from the existing plant hood system without any installation cost.