• Title, Summary, Keyword: Exhaust emissions

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Exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using ethanol-in-palm oil/diesel microemulsion-based biofuels

  • Charoensaeng, Ampira;Khaodhiar, Sutha;Sabatini, David A.;Arpornpong, Noulkamol
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.242-249
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    • 2018
  • The use of palm oil and diesel blended with ethanol, known as a microemulsion biofuel, is gaining attention as an attractive renewable fuel for engines that may serve as a replacement for fossil-based fuels. The microemulsion biofuels can be formulated from the mixture of palm oil and diesel as the oil phase; ethanol as the polar phase; methyl oleate as the surfactant; alkanols as the cosurfactants. This study investigates the influence of the three cosurfactants on fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions in a direct-injection (DI) diesel engine. The microemulsion biofuels along with neat diesel fuel, palm oil-diesel blends, and biodiesel-diesel blends were tested in a DI diesel engine at two engine loads without engine modification. The formulated microemulsion biofuels increased fuel consumption and gradually reduced the nitrogen oxides ($NO_x$) emissions and exhaust gas temperature; however, there was no significant difference in their carbon monoxide (CO) emissions when compared to those of diesel. Varying the carbon chain length of the cosurfactant demonstrated that the octanol-microemulsion fuel emitted lower CO and $NO_x$ emissions than the butanol- and decanol-microemulsion fuels. Thus, the microemulsion biofuels demonstrated competitive advantages as potential fuels for diesel engines because they reduced exhaust emissions.

Emissions Limits and Measures for Reducing Exhaust Emissions in Marine Diesel Engines (박용 디젤기관의 배기규제 및 배기 배출물 저감 대책)

  • 배명환
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.471-486
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    • 2001
  • The principal trends in the course of emission control legislation are reviewed in this paper. In order to keep such a regulation, moreover, an inquiry ito the concrete technical possibility is conducted through review articles, Also, the composition of exhaust gases emitted from a marine diesel engine are investigated as several samples and the measures that can satisfy the value of regulation are handled with laying stress on the control methods discussed to date. It was concluded that various combined systems can be made to reduce NOx emissions without deteriorating substantially navigation costs since many technologies for reducing NOx emissions are being developed. All heat engines suffer from SOx emissions. There are two methods for reducing SOx emissions: desulfurization from exhaust gas and removal of sulfur composition from fuel oil. However it is necessary to watch the development of these technologies to evaluate which method is more favorable. Heat engines have a big problem in the regulation of environmental pollution from exhaust emissions. In the near future, however, diesel engines may be superior to other heat engines, owing to the high thermal efficiency, although the sales of individual models in dises engines may be prosperous and declining.

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An Experimental study on Analysis of Hydrocarbon of Exhaust gas Using Oxygenated Fuels by Gas Chromatography in Diesel Engine (디젤기관의 배기 배출물 중 가스 크로마토그래피를 이용한 탄화수소분석에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Choi, S.H.;Oh, Y.T.
    • Journal of Power System Engineering
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.12-18
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    • 2000
  • Recently, our world is faced with very serious and hard problems related to the air pollution due to the exhaust emissions of the diesel engine. So, lots of researchers have studied to reduce the exhaust emissions with various methods of diesel engine that influenced the environment strong. In this paper, the quantities of the low and high hydrocarbon among the exhaust emissions in diesel engine have been investigated by the quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon $C_1{\sim}C_6$ using the gas chromatography. This study carried out by comparing the chromatogram with diesel fuel and three kinds of mixed fuels. One is the diesel fuel blended DGM(diethylene glycol dimethyl ether) 5%. Another is the diesel fuel blended DEE(diethyl ether) 25% and DMC(dimethyl carbonate) 10%. The results of this study show that the hydrocarbon $C_1{\sim}C_6$ among the exhaust emissions of the mixed fuels are exhausted lower than those of the diesel fuel at the all load and speed.

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Effect of Recirculated Exhaust Gas upon Performance and Exhaust Emissions in Power Plant Boilers with FGR System (FGR 시스템 공력 플랜트 보일러의 성능 및 배기 배출물에 미치는 재순환 배기의 영향)

  • Bae, Myung-Whan;Jung, Kwong-Ho;Choi, Seung-Chul;Cho, Yong-Soo;Kim, Yi-Suk
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.1686-1691
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    • 2004
  • The effect of recirculated exhaust gas on performance and exhaust emissions with FGR rate are investigated by using a natural circulation, pressurized draft and water tube boiler with FGR system operating at several boiler loads and over fire air(OFA) damper openings. The purpose of this study is to apply the FGR system to a power plant boiler for reducing $NO_{x}$ emissions. To activate the combustion, the suction damper of two stage combustion system installed in the upper side of wind box is opened by handling the lever between $0^{\circ}$ and $90^{\circ}$ , and the OFA with 0 to 20% into the flame is supplied, as the combustion air supplied to burner is reduced. It is found that the fuel consumption rate divided by evaporation rate does not show an obvious tendency to increase or decrease with rising the FOR rate, and $NO_{x}$ emissions are decreased, at the same OF A damper opening, as FOR rates are elevated and boiler loads are dropped.

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A Study on the Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions in Diesel Engines with Scrubber EGR System (스크러버형 EGR시스템 디젤기관의 배기 배출형 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 하정호
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.481-489
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    • 1998
  • The effects of recirculated exhaust gas on the characteristics of fuel economy combustion and exhaust emissions have been experimentally investigated by a four-cylinder four cycle indirect injection water-cooled and marine diesel engine operating at several loads and speeds. in order to reduce the soot contents in the recirculated exhaust gas to intake system of the engine a novel diesel soot removal system with a cylinder-type scrubber which has 6 water injectors(A water injector has 144 nozzles in 1.0 mm diameter) is specially designed and manufactured for the experiment system The experiments in this study are performed at the fixed fuel injection timing of $15.3^{\circ}$ BTDC regardless of experimental conditions, The brake specific fuel consumption rate is slightly fluctuated with EGR in the range of experimental conditions, The maximum value of premixed combustion for the rate of heat release is decreased with EGR at engine load 25% and the ignition is slightly delayed with EGR at engine load 100% NOx emissions are markedly decreased with EGR especially at high loads while soot emissions are increased as the EGR rate rises.

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An Experimental Study on the Reduction of Exhaust Emissions by using Glow Plug during Cold-start and Warm-up in Gasoline Engine (가솔린기관의 냉시동시 Glow Plug를 이용한 배기가스저감에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 문영호;김종호;오영택
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2002
  • In order to reduce exhaust omissions of spark ignition engine, it is important not only to improve catalyst conversion efficiency but also to directly reduce engine out exhaust emissions, during cold starting and warm up process. Therefore many researchers have been attracted to develop an early fuel evaporator(EFE) by Introducing a ceramic heater fur a solution of engine out exhaust emissions in SI engine. But, the performance of the EFE in MPI engine to reduce the exhaust emissions and to improve the cold startability has not been clarified yet. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of a glow plug far EFE. Impinging spray using heated and unheated glow plug helps the vaporization of the fuel and heat up the three way catalyst sufficiently. The amount of CO, and UHC is reduced overall. The amount of NOx is higher at the initial stage, but become lower as time goes on than without glow plug.

The Durability and Exhaust Emission Characteristics of an IDI Diesel Engine Using Biodiesel Fuel (바이오디젤유를 사용하는 간접분사식 디젤기관의 내구 및 배기 특성)

  • Ryu, Kyung-Hyun;Oh, Young-Taig
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 2006
  • To evaluate the durability characteristics of in-direct injection diesel engine using BDF 20(a blend of 20% biodiesel fuel and 80% diesel fuel in volume), an IDI diesel engine used to commercial vehicle was operated on BDF 20 for 300 hours. Engine dynamometer testing was completed at regularly scheduled intervals to investigate the combustion characteristics, engine performance and exhaust emissions. The engine performance and exhaust emissions were sampled at 1 hour interval for analysis. From the results, the combustion variations such as the combustion maximum pressure($P_{max}$) and the crank angle at which this maximum pressure occurs(${\Theta}_{Pmax}$) were not appeared during long-time dynamometer testing. Also, BSFC with BDF 20 resulted in lower than with diesel fuel. The peak pressure with BDF 20 was higher than that with diesel fuel due to the oxygen content in BDF. And, BDF 20 resulted in lower emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and smoke emissions with a little increase of oxides of nitrogen than diesel fuel. It was concluded that there was no unusual deterioration of the engine, or any unusual change in exhaust emissions during the durability test of an IDI diesel engine using BDF 20.

A Study on the Improvements of Idle Performance for a SI Engine with a Syngas Assist (합성가스를 이용한 SI엔진의 아이들 성능 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Chang-Gi;Song, Chun-Sub;Cho, Young-Seok;Kang, Kern-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.14-21
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    • 2006
  • In this study, syngas which is reformed from fossil fuel and has hydrogen as a major component, was added to a gasoline engine to improve combustion stability and exhaust emissions of idle state. Syngas fraction of the total supplied fuel varied to 0 %, 25 %, 50 % with various ignition timing and excess air ratio. Combustion stability, exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature were measured to investigate the effects of syngas addition on idle performance. Results showed that syngas has ability to widely extend lean operation limit and ignition retard range with dramatical reduction of engine out emissions. It is supposed that the usage of syngas in the internal combustion engine is an effective solution to meet the future strict emission regulations.

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A Study on the Emission Characteristics of NOx in Medium Speed Diesel Engine (중속 디젤기관의 질소산화물 배출특성에 관한 연구)

  • 우석근;윤건식;윤영환
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.526-534
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    • 2000
  • In this study, the characteristics of exhaust emissions in medium speed diesel engine under various operating conditions were investigated through experiments to derive the optimum conditions for minimizing the exhaust emissions, especially, nitrogen oxides. The 355 KW$\times$1200 rpm medium speed diesel engine was intensively examined to investigate the trend of exhaust emissions in case that the parameters affecting combustion conditions such as fuel injection timing, intake air temperature and pressure, engine speed and load were changed. The exhaust emissions for 9 sets of medium speed diesel engine were analyzed in addition. From this study, NOx level could be reduced by 30~50% through the adjustment of retarded fuel injection timing, lowered intake air temperature and increased charging air pressure.

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Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions from a Heavy-duty Diesel Engine (대형디젤엔진의 오염물질 배출특성)

  • 엄명도;류정호;이종태;임철수
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.7 no.9
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    • pp.20-27
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    • 1999
  • The proportion of diesel vehicle is very high in this country . PM and NOx emitted from diesel-posered vehicle is severely ;affecting to be air quality . Especially, diesel particulate matters(DPM) including black smoke are hazardous air pollutants to human health and environment. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions from diesel engines, it is necessary to analyze the characteristics of exhaust emissions from diesel engines in various driving conditions. Recently, there are occasion to increase the fuel consumption rate to engine power up. So, in this study we have tested a diesel engine detached from in use -diesel vehicle and analyzed exhaust emission by driving condition and fuel dispersion rate. From this results, we will prepare the comprehensive management plan for exhaust emissions from diesel vehicles and contribute to the improvement of air pollution in urban area.

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