• Title, Summary, Keyword: Exhaust emissions

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Effect of Recirculated Exhaust Gas on Exhaust Emissions of Boiler with FGR System (FGR 시스템 보일러의 배기 배출물에 미치는 재순환 배기의 영향)

  • Bae, Myung-Whan;Kim, Jung-Min;Kim, Yi-Suk;Cho, Yong-Soo;Choi, Seung-Chul
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.390-395
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    • 2003
  • The effect of recirculated exhaust gas on exhaust emissions under four kinds of nozzle tip with the different fuel consumption rate are experimentally investigated by using an once-through boiler with FGR system. The purpose of this study is to develop the FGR control system for reducing NOx in a boiler. Intake and exhaust oxygen concentrations, and equivalence ratio are applied to discuss the effect of FGR rate on exhaust emissions at various fuel consumption rates. It is found that NOx emissions are decreased, while soot emissions are increased owing to the drop of intake and exhaust oxygen concentrations, and the rise of equivalence ratio as FGR rates are elevated.

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A Study on the Effect of Recirculated Exhaust Gas upon Exhaust Emissions of Boiler with a FGR System (FGR 시스템 보일러의 배기 배출물에 미치는 재순환 배기의 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Kwang-Ho;Cho, Yong-Soo;Bae, Myung-Whan
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.405-415
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    • 2007
  • The effects of recirculated exhaust gas on exhaust emissions under four kinds of nozzle tip with the different fuel consumption rates are experimentally investigated by using an once-through boiler with a FGR system. The purpose of this study is to develop the FGR control system for reducing $NO_x$ emissions in boilers. Intake and exhaust oxygen concentrations, and equivalence ratio are considered to figure out the effect of FGR rate on exhaust emissions at various fuel consumption rates. It is found that $NO_x$ emissions are markedly decreased, while soot emissions are increased owing to the drop of intake and exhaust oxygen concentrations, and the rise of equivalence ratio as FGR rates are elevated. One can also conclude that the reduction in $NO_x$ emissions is more considerably influenced by the variation of equivalence ratio due to the FGR rate than the fuel consumption rate.

IDLE PERFORMANCE OF AN SI ENGINE WITH VARIATIONS IN ENGINE CONTROL PARAMETERS

  • Kim, D.S.;Cho, Y.S.
    • International Journal of Automotive Technology
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    • v.7 no.7
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    • pp.763-768
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    • 2006
  • Emission reduction in the cold start period of SI engines is crucial to meet stringent emission regulations such as SULEV Emissoin reduction is the starting point of the study in the which the variable valve timing (VVT) technology may be one promising method to minimize cold start emissions while maintaining engine performance. This is because it is possible to change valve overlap and residual gas fraction during cold start and idle operations. Our previous study showed that spark timing is another important factor for reducing cold-start emissions since it affects warm-up time of close-coupled catalysts (CCC) by changing exhaust gas temperature. However, even though these factors may be favorable for reduction of emissions, they may deteriorate combustion stability in these operating conditions. This means that the two variables should be optimized for best exhaust emissions and engine stability. This study investigated the effects of valve and spark timings in idle performance such as combustion stability and exhaust emissions. Experiments showed that valve timings significantly affected engine stability and exhaust emissions, especially CO and $NO_x$, due to change in residual gas fraction within the combustion chamber. Spark timing also affects HC emissions and exhaust gas temperature. Yet it has no significant effects on combustion stability. A control strategy of proper valve timing and spark timing is suggested in order to achieve a reduction in exhaust emissions and a stable operation of the engine in a cold start and idle operation.

The Experimental Investigations of Recirculated Exhaust Gas on Exhaust Emissions in a Diesel Engine

  • Kim, Hyeong-Nam;Bae, Myeong-Wan;Park, Jae-Yun
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.1588-1598
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    • 2001
  • The effects of recirculated exhaust gas on the characteristics of NOx and soot emissions under a wide range of engine loads were experimentally investigated by using a four-cycle, four-cylinder, sw irl chamber type, water-cooled diesel engine operating at three engine speeds. The purpose of this study was to develop the EGR-control system for reducing NOx and soot emissions simultaneously in diesel engines. The EGR system is used to reduce NOx emissions, and a novel diesel soot removal device with a cylinder-type scrubber for the experiment system was specially designed and manufactured to reduce soot contents in the recirculated exhaust gas to the intake system of the engine. The experiments were performed at the fixed fuel injection timing of 4$^{\circ}$ ATDC regardless of experimental conditions. It was found that soot emissions in exhaust gases were reduced by 20 to 70% when the scrubber was applied in the range of the experimental conditions, and that NOx emissions decreased markedly, especially at higher loads, while soot emissions increased owing to the decrease in intake and exhaust oxygen concentrations, and the increase in equivalence ratio as the EGR rate is elevated.

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An Experimental Study on the Analysis of Exhaust Gas Concentration by Using DMC in Diesel Engine (디젤엔진에서 DMC를 사용한 경우의 배기가스의 농도분석에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 최승훈;오영택
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2000
  • Recently, Our planet is faced with very serious problems related to the air pollution due to the exhaust emissions of the diesel engine. So, lots of researchers have studied to reduce the exhaust emissions of diesel engine that influenced the environment strong. But most researchers have mainly studied and suggested the solution of reduction on the total exhaust emissions of diesel engine. In this study, the quantities of the low and high hydrocarbon among the exhaust emissions in diesel engine have been investigated by the quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon C1~C6 using the gas chromatography. This study carried out by comparing the chromatograms with diesel fuel and mixed fuel which are blended the diesel and DMC(dimethyl carbonate)that includes the oxygen of about 53%. The results of this study show that the hydrocarbon C1~C6 among the exhaust emissions of the mixed fuel are exhausted lower than those of the diesel fuel at the all load.

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The Effect of EGR on Exhaust Emissions in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine (직분식 소형 과급 디젤엔진에서 EGR이 배기배출물에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Se-Ho;Koh, Dae-Kwon
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.188-194
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    • 2005
  • The direct injection diesel engine is one of the most efficient thermal engines. For this reason DI diesel engines are widely used for heavy-duty applications. But the world is faced with very serious problems related to the air pollution due to the exhaust emissions of diesel engine. So, that is air pollution related to exhaust gas resulted from explosive combustion should be improved. Exhaust Gas Recirculation(EGR) is a proven method to reduce NOx emissions. In this study, the experiments were performed at various engine loads while the EGR rates were set from $0\%$ to $30\%.$ The emissions trade-off and combustion of diesel engine are investigated. The brake specific fuel consumption rate is very slightly fluctuated with EGR in the range of experimental conditions. The ignition delay increased with increasing EGR rate. The maximum value of premixed combustion for the rate of heat release is increased with increasing EGR rate. NOx emissions are decreased with increasing EGR rate at high load and high speed. It was found that the exhaust emissions with the EGR system resulted in a very large reduction in oxides of nitrogen at the expense of higher smoke emissions.

A Study on Effects of Recirculated Exhaust Gas upon $NO_x$ and Soot Emissions of a Marine Diesel Engine with Scrubber EGR System (박용 디젤기관의 $NO_x$ 및 매연 배출물에 미치는 스크러버형 EGR 시스템 재순환배기의 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 배명환;하정호
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.70-78
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    • 2000
  • The effects of recirculated exhaust gas on the characteristics of ;$NO_x$ and soot emissions under a wide range of engine load have been experimentally investigated by a water-cooled, four-cylinder, indirect injection, four cycle and marine diesel engine operating at two kinds of engine speeds. The purpose of the present study is to develop the EGR control system for reducing $NO_x$ and soot emissions simultaneously in diesel engines. The EGR system is used to reduce NOx emissions, and a novel diesel soot removal apparatus with a cylinder-type scrubber for the experiment system which has 6 water injectors(A water injector is made up 144 nozzles with 1.0mm in diameter) is specially designed and manufactured to reduce the soot contents in the recirculated exhaust gas to intake system of the engines. The intake oxygen concentration obtained by the intake air flow and the oxygen concentration in the recirculated exhaust gas, and the exhaust oxygen concentration measured in exhaust manifold are used to analyse and discuss the influences of EGR on NOx and soot emissions. The experiments are performed at the fixed fuel injection timing of $15.3^{\circ}$ BTDC regardless of experimental conditions. It is found that $NO_x$ emissions decrease and soot emissions increase owing to the drop of intake oxygen concentration and exhaust oxygen concentration as EGR rate rises. Also, one can conclude that it is sufficient for the scrubber EGR system with a novel diesel soot removal apparatus to reduce $NO_x$ emissions, but not to reduce soot emissions.

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Study on Shortening Light-Off Time of Three Way Catalyst and Reduction of Harmful Emissions with Exhaust Synthetic Gas Injection(ESGI) Technology during Cold Start of SI Engines (가솔린 기관의 냉간시동 조건에서 합성가스 배기분사 기술에 의한 촉매의 활성화 온도 도달시간 단축 및 유해배출물 저감에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Yong-Seok;Lee, Seang-Wock;Won, Sang-Yeon;Song, Chun-Sub;Park, Young-Joon
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.94-101
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    • 2008
  • Since regulations of exhaust emissions are continuously reinforced, studies to reduce harmful emissions during the cold start period of SI engines have been carried out very extensively worldwide. During the cold start period, raising the temperature of cold exhaust gas is a key strategy to minimize the light-off time of three way catalysts. In this study, a synthetic gas containing a large amount of hydrogen was injected into the exhaust manifold to raise the exhaust gas temperature and to reduce harmful emissions. The authors tried to evaluate changes in exhaust gas temperature and harmful emissions through controlling the engine operating parameters such as ignition timings and lambda values. Also the authors investigated both combustion stability and reduction of harmful emissions. Experimental results showed that combustion of the synthetic gas in the exhaust manifold is a very effective way for solving the problems of harmful emissions and light-off time. The results also showed that the strategy of retarded ignition timings and increased air/fuel ratios with ESGI is effective in raising exhaust gas temperature and reducing harmful emissions. Futhermore, the results showed that engine operating parameters ought to be controlled to lambda = 1.2 and ignition timing = $0{\sim}3^{\circ}$ conditions to reduce harmful emissions effectively under stable combustion conditions.

A Study on Effect of Intake Mixture Temperature upon Fuel Economy and Exhaust Emissions in Diesel Engines with a Scrubber EGR System

  • Bae, Myung--Whan;Ryu, Chang-Seong;Yoshihiro Mochimaru;Jeon, Hyo-Joong
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.315-331
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    • 2004
  • The effects of intake mixture temperature on performance and exhaust emissions under four kinds of engine loads were experimentally investigated by using a four-cycle. four-cylinder. swirl chamber type. water-cooled diesel engine with scrubber EGR system operating at three kinds of engine speeds. The purpose of this study is to develop the scrubber exhaust gas Recirculation (EGR) control system for reducing $\textrm{NO}_{x}$ and soot emissions simultaneously in diesel engines. The EGR system is used to reduce $\textrm{NO}_{x}$ emissions. And a novel diesel soot-removal device of cylinder-type scrubber with five water injection nozzles is specially designed and manufactured to reduce soot contents in the recirculated exhaust gas to the intake system of the engine. The influences of cooled EGR and water injection. however. would be included within those of scrubber EGR system. In order to survey the effects of cooled EGR and moisture on $\textrm{NO}_{x}$ and soot emissions. the intake mixtures of fresh air and recirculated exhaust gas are heated up using a heater with five heating coils equipped in a steel drum. It is found that intake and exhaust oxygen concentrations are decreased, especially at higher loads. as EGR rate and intake mixture temperature are increased at the same conditions of engine speed and load. and that $\textrm{NO}_{x}$ emissions are decreased. while soot emissions are increased owing to the decrease in intake and exhaust oxygen concentrations and the increase in equivalence ratio. Thus ond can conclude that $\textrm{NO}_{x}$ and soot emissions are considerably influenced by the cooled EGR.

The Effect of EGR on Exhaust Emissions in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine (직접 분사식 디젤엔진에서 EGR이 배기배출물에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, S.H.
    • Journal of Power System Engineering
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.18-23
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    • 2004
  • The direct injection diesel engine is one of the most efficient thermal engines. For this reason DI diesel engines are widely used for heavy-duty applications. But the world is faced with very serious problems related to the air pollution due to the exhaust emissions of diesel engine. So, that is air pollution related to exhaust gas resulted from explosive combustion should be improved. Exhaust Gas Recirculation(EGR) is a proven method to reduce NOx emissions. In this study, the experiments-were performed at various engine loads while the EGR rates were set from 0% to 20%. The emissions trade-off and combustion of diesel engine are investigated. Hot and cooled EGR are achieved without cooling and with cooling respectively. It was found that the exhaust emissions with the EGR system resulted in a very large reduction in oxides of nitrogen at the expense of higher smoke emissions. Also, the reduction rates of NOx emissions for hot and cooled EGR are similar at load 20%.

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