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Evaluation of dietary behavior and nutritional status of elementary school students in Jeju using nutrition quotient (어린이 영양지수 (nutrition quotient)를 이용한 제주 지역 일부 초등학생의 식습관 및 영양 상태 평가)

  • Boo, Mi Na;Cho, Su Kyung;Park, Kyong
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.335-343
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the food behavior and nutritional status of elementary school students in the Jeju area using Nutrition Quotient (NQ). Methods: The subjects were 440 students (235 boys and 205 girls) in the fifth and sixth grade at four elementary schools located in Jeju. Demographic, lifestyle, and environmental information was collected using a self-reported questionnaire. The food behavior checklist for children's Nutrition Quotient (NQ), consisting of 19 items, and nutrition education related information were also obtained. Results: The mean score of the children's NQ was poor, reaching 60.3 points. The percentage distribution of NQ grade was 19.8% (lowest), 18.6% (low), 45.0% (medium), 10.7% (high), and 5.9% (highest) and the factor scores for balance, diversity, abstinence, regularity, and practice were 56.6, 68.4, 71.3, 57.4, and 54.8 points, respectively. Compared with the NQ cut-off points for defining malnutrition (balance; 57, diversity; 87, abstinence; 66, regularity; 69, and practice; 67 point), average score of abstinence factor was only above the cut-off point and scores of the other factors were below the cut-off point. Subjects with higher NQ scores tended to have higher levels of exercise activity (p < 0.001), frequency of family meals (p < 0.01), and father's educational levels (p < 0.01) compared to those with lower NQ score. NQ score showed positive association with nutrition education experience and practice (p < 0.001). Conclusion: NQ score of elementary school students residing in Jeju was lower than the national average. More opportunities should be provided for participation in nutrition education, which incorporates a range of program strategies, as well as communication and education activities.

Review of 2014 Major Medical Decisions (2014년 주요 의료판결 분석)

  • Jeong, Hye Seung;Lee, Dong Pil;Yoo, Hyun Jung;Lee, Jung Sun
    • The Korean Society of Law and Medicine
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.155-190
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    • 2015
  • The court sentenced meaningful decisions related to the medical service in 2014. The court assumed the negligence of medical staff in the accident if being broken while using the medical equipment for not an original purpose at the time of surgery and ruled that the compensation for damage can be recognized in recognition of the causal relationship between the explanation duty violation and side effect's happening when unproven surgery on safety is implemented regarding the duty of explanation, that in the case of cosmetic surgery, the subject on the duty of explanation needs to be expanded compared to the general medical practice and that the duty of explanation cannot be accepted for the range that cannot be expectable. Also, the court has provided the requirement and limitation of self-determination exercise in case of the crash between patient's self-determination and doctor's duty of care and has ruled that as automobile insurance contract is a contract with the insurance company to pay regarding liability for car accidents, treating patients and taking the insurance money is not illegal activity even for the unlicensed hospital violating the medical law while established. The judgment stating the opinion that medical practitioners cannot be punished according to the medical law prohibiting the receiving of rebate in case that medical practitioners did not receive benefit while the medical institution itself gained an unfair economic benefit also stands out. And the court has ruled that even if the medical institution who received a business suspension is closed, the suspension is still effective in case that the same operator opens a new medical institution in the same place, ruled on the requirement to conduct a medical service outside of the medical institution that the doctor opened and ruled that the administrative penalty cannot be conducted prior to the conviction on charge of violating the medical law.

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Preparation of Functional Healthy Drinks by Acanthopanax senticosus Extracts (가시오가피를 이용한 기능성 건강음료의 제조)

  • Sung, Mi-Sun;Jung, Hoe-Yune;Choi, Jun-Hyeok;Lee, Sung-Cheol;Choi, Bo-Hwa;Park, Sung Sun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.9
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    • pp.959-966
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to develop a functional healthy drink using 60% ethanol of dried Acanthopanax senticosus stem extract (ASE). The preparation, physical activity, anti-oxidant activity, and sensory properties of ASE were investigated. The moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, and ash contents of dried ASE were $6.50{\pm}0.12%$, $5.89{\pm}0.16%$, $1.18{\pm}0.11%$, and $3.03{\pm}0.40%$ respectively. The 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was $87.42{\pm}1.63%$ at 1/10 folds diluted ASE. In total, 40 male ICR mice were divided into five groups including the control (PBS), positive control (Red ginseng 200 mg/kg/day), and ASE-treated groups at doses of 35, 70, and 140 mg/kg/day for five weeks, respectively. ASE was administrated orally one time per day for five weeks before treadmill exercises, and normal and positive controls were fed PBS and red ginseng extract. In the treadmill test, ASE-treated mice (140 mg/kg/day) could run 1.4 times longer than the control mice. Healthy drinks were prepared with the addition of ASE at levels of 0.97% or 0.49% (A, B, and C type). Among the healthy drinks, the B type (ASE, 0.97%) was revealed to have the highest level of taste and overall acceptability through a sensory evaluation. The brix and pH of the ASE health drink (B type) were 14.9 and 4.51, respectively. These results indicated that the dried stem of Acanthopanax senticosus could be used as a functional material in the health drink industry.

The Impacts of Dietary Habits on Self-perceived Health-related Physical Fitness in Middle-aged Women -Focused on Changwon Province- (일부 중년여성의 식습관이 인지된 건강관련 체력에 미치는 영향 -창원지역을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Hye-Jin;Lee, Kyung-Hea
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.916-925
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to compare dietary and lifestyle habits in middle-aged women based on their self-perceived health-related physical fitness (SPF) level as well as investigate the effects of dietary and lifestyle habits on SPF. The study subjects were divided into two groups, 'High' group (${\geq}3.2$, n=64) and 'Low' group (<3.2, n=69), based on average SPF value (3.2). Women in the 'High' group showed a greater lean mass (P<0.05), whereas women in the 'Low' group had higher triglycerides (P<0.05). In analyzing characteristics of lifestyle habits, it was found that the 'High' group showed significantly higher scores for 'vitality level (P<0.001)', 'self-rated health status (P<0.001)', 'regular medical checkups (P<0.05)', and 'regular exercise (P<0.05)'. The average score for dietary habits was significantly high in the 'High' group (P<0.05). Furthermore, ordinary dietary habits showed a significant positive correlation (P<0.001) with SPF in the regression analysis after adjusting for disturbance factors. From these results, ordinary desirable dietary habits were shown to be an important factors having positive effects SPF. Therefore, healthy dietary and lifestyle habits should be practiced to improve the SPF of middle-aged women. For this purpose, related educational programs should be developed for the middle-aged women to take interest in their dietary habits.

Antifatigue Effect of Eel and Plant Mix Extracts during Aerobic Running Training in Sprague Dawley Rats (붕장어와 식물류 추출 복합조성물의 투여가 유산소성 트레이드밀 운동에 의한 흰쥐의 피로회복 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Min-Jung;Hwang, Cho-Rong;Lee, Soo Jung;Shin, Jung-Hye
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.728-736
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to improve and strengthen the function of eel extract prepared with 5 brix eel extract (EE), 5 brix eel and plant mix (black garlic, ginseng, black jujube) 0.35 ml extracts prepared and treated with the extract (EIM-1), and 0.7 ml (EIM-2) divided group. The extracts were administered to rats for five weeks during running training, and the lipid profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities were tested. The lipid content in liver and serum were lower than the normal group difference was not significant between groups. Serum total cholesterol was lower in the experimental group than the control group the mixed extract significantly lower level. HDL-cholesterol levels in the eel extract and eel mixed extract significantly increased by feeding the EIM-1 is 2.0 times, EIM-2 is increased by 2.3 times. Liver glycogen content in the experimental group performed the exercise group compared with the normal control group was significantly lower than in EIM is significantly higher than the control group. The TBARS content in the liver and serum was significantly higher than the normal group was lower than the control group. GOT and GPT were significantly decreased compared to the control group. Hepatic catalase activity was significantly increased in the EIM-1 group, and SOD and GSH-px activities were increased in the EIM-1 and EIM-2 groups. Supplementation with the eel and plant mix extract increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Thus, intake of the eel and plant mix extract could improve the antioxidant status and combat different types of oxidative stress.

Antiobesity Effect of Citrus Peel Extract Fermented with Aspergillus oryzae (Aspergillus oryzae로 생물전환한 감귤박의 항비만 효과)

  • Jeon, Hyun Joo;Yu, Sun Nyoung;Kim, Sang Hun;Park, Seul Ki;Choi, Hyeun Deok;Kim, Kwang Yeon;Lee, Sun Yi;Chun, Sung Sik;Ahn, Soon Cheo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.827-836
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    • 2014
  • There is a rising trend in obesity due to various factors, including changes in eating habits, lack of exercise, and genetic and psychological factors. Citrus peel has been reported to prevent obesity via antioxidative, antihypertensive, and LDL cholesterol-lowering effects. This study investigated the effects of citrus peel extract fermented with or without Aspergillus oryzae in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. The animals were divided into four groups: a high-fat diet group (HFD), a normal fat diet (NFD) group, a citrus peel extract (CP) group, and a citrus peel extract fermented with A. oryzae (CPA) group. The citrus peel extract improved lipid metabolism and weight loss in the high-fat diet-induced obese mouse model. As expected, the body weight was higher in the HFD group compared with the NFD, CP, and CPA groups. However, the concentrations of total cholesterol (TG) and triglyceride (TC) in the serum and liver of the CP and CPA groups were lower than in the HFD group. There were no significant differences in the HDL cholesterol concentration among the groups. Taken together, our results suggest that extract of citrus peel biotransformed with A. oryzae had more antiobesity activity than citrus peel not transformed by A. oryzae through the fermentation of metabolites.

Lifestyle, Diet, Self-care, and Diabetes Fatalism of Diabetic Patients with and without Diabetic Foot (당뇨병성 족부질환 여부에 따른 당뇨병 환자의 생활습관, 식습관, 자가관리 및 Diabetes fatalism)

  • Choi, Jungha;Kang, Juhee;Lee, Hongmie
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.241-249
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: This study was to determine diabetes fatalism of diabetic patients with and without diabetic foot and its association with lifestyle, diet, and self-care. Methods: The subjects were diabetic patients with (male/female 48/21) and without diabetic foot (male/female 33/26). We administered the questionnaires which were designed to determine diabetes fatalism, lifestyle, diet, and self-care. Diabetes fatalism was determined by Diabetes fatalism scale (DFS), which consisted of total 12 items in three subscales namely, emotional stress, religiou spiritual coping, and perceived self-efficacy. Results: The patients with diabetic foot had undesirable diets more frequently (1.37 and 0.91 days/week respectively) and their desirable diets (2.74 and 3.61 days/week respectively) and foot care (4.61 and 5.53 days/week respectively) were less frequent than those without diabetic foot (p < 0.05). An item analysis of the 12 DFS items revealed a Chronbach' ${\alpha}$ of 0.614 and 0.869, respectively in diabetic patients with and without diabetic foot. Perceived self-efficacy related DFS of subjects without diabetic foot was positively associated with smoking (r=0.350, p<0.01), undesirable diet (r=0.295, p<0.05), and drinking (r=0.257, p<0.05), while its negative association with exercise (r=-0.224, p<0.088) and foot care (r=-0.247, p<0.059) did not reach to statistical significance. Conclusions: This work was the first study reporting the potential usefulness of DFS, especially perceived self-efficacy related subscale as a predictor of lifestyle, diet and self-care on the Korean diabetic patients, at least those without severe diabetic foot to screen those who should be the first target for diabetes education.

Polygenic Association of ACE and ACTN3 Polymorphisms with Korean Power Performance (ACE와 ACTN3의 다중유전형질과 근력운동 경기력간의 관계)

  • Kim, Chul-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.398-406
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    • 2012
  • This study aimed to examine whether the polygenic profile of ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms is associated with muscle power performance in Korean athletes. For this study, 106 top-class power athletes (top-class group), 158 elite power athletes (elite-class group), and 676 healthy adults (control) aged 18-39 yrs were recruited and their genotypes were analyzed. The top-class group showed higher frequencies of the II genotype and I allele in ACE, as well as higher frequencies of the RR genotype and R allele in ACTN3 (top-class vs. control: 41.4% vs. 32.1% for II genotype, 67.1% vs. 57.7% for I allele, p<0.05; 42.3% vs. 29.0% for RR genotype, 65.3% vs. 54.8% for I allele, p<0.05). In the polygenic profile, the top-class group had significantly higher frequencies of combined-II/ID+RR/RX genotype than the control group (top-class vs. control: 82.9% vs. 66.7% for II/ID+RR/RX, p<0.05), and there was even a sharp increase in total genotype score (TGS) in this group compared to the elite-class and control groups ($66{\pm}0.9$ vs. $58{\pm}1.9$ vs. $56{\pm}2.3$, p<0.05). The combined-II/ID+RR/RX genotype showed the possibility of succussion in the top-class muscle power performance with an odds ratio of 2.3 (CI:1.4-4.1, p<0.05). These results suggested that ACE and ACTN3 need to interact with each other to affect muscle-power performance in an additive form. Furthermore, the polygenic profile of ACE and ACTN3 can predict muscle performance with high success in a homogeneous dominant combined genotype (II/ID+RR/RX). A further study could identify and combine other genes into ACE and ACTN3 for muscle strength.

The Need for Modernization of the Tokyo Convention(1963) on the Issue of Unruly Passengers and the Inadequacy of Korean Domestic Legal Approaches (기내 난동승객관련 도쿄협약의 개정필요성과 한국국내법적 접근의 한계)

  • Bae, Jong-In;Lee, Jae-Woon
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.3-27
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    • 2012
  • Although aviation safety and security have been improving, which has made air transportation more reliable, the international aviation community has witnessed a steady increase in the number of unruly passenger incidents. Under international law, the Tokyo Convention (The Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft of 1963) is applicable to unruly passenger issues. While the Tokyo Convention has been a successful convention which 185 member states have ratified, it has its shortcomings. Three major shortcomings are related to definition, jurisdiction, and enforcement. Firstly, the Tokyo Convention does not provide for a definition of unruly passengers, thereby resulting in a situation where conduct that may be considered to be a criminal offence in the country of embarkation may not be a criminal offence in the country where the aircraft lands. Having different definitions may lead to ineffective action on the part of air carriers. Secondly, the fact that the state of landing does not bear jurisdiction produces circumstances in which it is impossible to punish an unruly passenger who clearly committed an offence on board. Thirdly, the Tokyo Convention only recognizes the competence of the state of registry to exercise criminal jurisdiction but does not impose the duty to actually use that competence in any specific case. Along with ratifying the Tokyo Convention, Korea enacted the Aviation Navigation Safety Act in 1974 as a domestic legal approach to dealing with the problem of unruly passengers. Partially reflecting the ICAO's model legislation, Circular 288, the Aviation Safety and Security Act was enacted in 2002. Although the Korean Aviation Safety and Security Act is a comprehensive act which has been constantly updated, there is no provision with respect to jurisdiction and only the Korean criminal code is applicable to jurisdiction. The Korean criminal code establishes its jurisdiction in connection with territoriality, nationality and registration, which is essentially the same as the jurisdictional principles of the Tokyo Convention. Thus, the domestic legal regime cannot close the jurisdictional gap either. Similarly, Korean case law would not take an active posture to jurisdiction unless the offence in question is a serious one, such as hijacking. A Special Sub Committee of the ICAO Legal Committee (LCSC) was established to examine the feasibility of introducing amendments to the Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft of 1963 with particular reference to the issue of unruly passengers. The result of the ICAO's findings should lead to the modernization of the Tokyo Convention, thereby reducing the number of incidents caused by unruly passengers and enabling all parties concerned to respond to unruly passengers more effectively.

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Development and Evaluation of a Community Staged Education Program for the Cardiocerebrovascular Disease High-risk Patients (심뇌혈관질환 고위험군을 위한 지역사회 단계별 교육프로그램 개발 및 효과 평가)

  • Lee, Hye-Jin;Lee, Jung-Jeung;Hwang, Tae-Yoon;Kam, Sin
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.167-180
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    • 2012
  • Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate an education program for cardiocerebrovascular high-risk patients. Methods: This program was developed according to Tyler's model for curriculum development. To evaluate the effects of this program, we measured clinical outcome change (weight, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure) and behavior change stages (checking blood pressure, blood sugar levels, doing physical activity, consistent maintenance of food intake, eating low amounts of salt, abstention from tobacco and alcohol) before and 4 weeks after participation in the education program. The group of subjects consisted of High-risk group patients who attended basic program(32 patients), and staged program(37 patients) during KHyDDI meetings from Oct. 2009 to May 2010. Results: The staged educational program was developed three aspects(disease, nutrition and exercise)and three stages(basic, in-depth and individual education). In the staged education program, the evaluations were made by measuring clinical outcome and stage of behavior before and after education. Significant differences were found in waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, consistent maintenance of food intake(p<0.05), and eating low salt(p<0.001)and their self efficacy. Conclusion: In the practice-oriented staged education program, significant differences were found in the clinical outcomes and stage of behavior before and after education. Possible limitations of the study include the small number of participating subjects and the short follow-up management period, but the results indicate that continued application of this program could contribute to the prevention of cardiocerebrovascular diseases for the elderly patients with long periods of chronic diseases.