• Title, Summary, Keyword: Evans Blue Dye

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CHANGES IN AUTONOMIC RESPONSES AND JAW MUSCLE ACTIVITY INDUCED BY TOOTH PULP STIMULATION IN THE RAT (쥐의 치수자극에 의해 유발되는 자율신경 반응과 악안면 근육활동의 변화)

  • Yu, Mi-Kyung;Park, Soo-Joung
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.657-665
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    • 1999
  • The effects of application of mustard oil (MO), a small-fiber excitant and inflammatory irritant into the rat maxillary molar tooth pulp on arterial blood pressure and heat race, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the jaw muscles were assessed in the anesthetized rats. In addition, Evans blue extravasation following pulpal MO application was measured. Application of MO into the tooth pulp produced a significant increase in mean arterial pressure and heat rate which gradually returned to baseline level. Application of MO into the tooth pulp induced a significant and short-lasting increase in EMG activity of digastric masseter and tongue muscle. Application of MO into the tooth pulp significantly increased the plasma extravasation of Evans blue dye. However, Application of mineral oil into the tooth pulp did not produce any significant changes in EMG activity of the digastric, masseter and tongue muscles, mean arterial pressure and heart rate, and plasma extravasation of Evans blue dye. These findings indicate that changes in arterial blood pressure, heart rate, jaw muscle activity and plasma extravasation accompanying noxious tooth pulp stimulation call be utilized as indirect measure of orofacial pain and inflammation.

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Effect of Sopung-san Extracts on the Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis of Wistar Rats (Type I Allergic Dermatitis) (소풍산(消風散) 추출물이 수동 피부 아나팔락시스(1형 알러지 피부염)에 미치는 효과)

  • Ryu, Ji-Chul;Lee, Jae-Geun;Ku, Sae-Kwang;Jee, Seon-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : The objective of present study is to detect the effect of Sopungsan aqueous extracts (SPS) on the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA; type I allergic dermatitis) Method : 500, 250 and 125mg/kg of SPS were orally administered 12 hr-interval before antigen challenge (total 4 times administered). PCA reactions were induced using rat anti-ovalbumin (OVA) serum contain IgE (titer 1:32) as sensitization and OVA as antigen challenge. 30 min after antigen challenge, the diameter of blue-dye spots (evans blue) and leaked amount of dye were observed with histology and histomorphometry at the PCA induced sites. In addition, serum total IgE and histamine levels were also observed by ELISA, respectively. The effects of SPS were compared with dexamethasone 1mg/kg treated rats in the present study. Results : As results of PCA reaction, vasodilation related increase of diameter of blue-dye spot and amount of leaked dye were observed with swelling and edematous changes in the dermis of PCA induced sites. However, these changes on PCA reactions were dramatically and dose-dependently decreased by treatment of SPS as compared with vehicle control. In addition, serum elevations of IgE and histamine were also dose-dependently inhibited by treatment of SPS as compared with vehicle control respectively. The effects of SPS 500mg/kg were similar to that of dexamethasone 1mg/kg in the present study. Conclusion : Base on the results of the present study, it is concluded that SPS has favorable effect on the PCA-induced allergic dermatitis, and SPS 500mg/kg showed similar favorable effects as compared with dexamethasone 1mg/kg. The present findings demonstrate that SPS can be effective for the prevention and treatment of allergic dermatitis.

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Sentinel lymph node mapping using tri-modal human serum albumin conjugated with visible dye, near infrared fluorescent dye and radioisotope

  • Kang, Se Hun;Kim, Seo-il;Jung, So-Youn;Lee, Seeyoun;Kim, Seok Won;Kim, Seok-ki
    • Journal of Radiopharmaceuticals and Molecular Probes
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.62-73
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    • 2015
  • We developed an evans blue-indocyanine green-$^{99m}Tc$-human serum albumin conjugate for sentinel lymph node mapping and we describe its unique potential usage for clinical implications. This conjugate has combined the strengths of visible blue dye, near-infrared fluorescence and radioisotope into one single conjugate without any additional weakness/disadvantage. All the components of evans blue-indocyanine green-$^{99m}Tc$-human serum albumin are safe and of low cost, and they have already been clinically used. This conjugate was stable in the serum, it showed a long retention time in the lymphatic system and the lymph nodes showed a much higher signal-to-noise ratio after the conjugate was injected intradermally into the paw of mice. Both the single-photon emission computed tomography and near-infrared fluorescent images of the mice were successfully obtained at the same time as the excised sentinel lymph nodes showed blue color. The visual color, near-infrared fluorescence and gamma ray from this agent could be complementary for each other in all the steps of sentinel lymph node sampling: exploring and planning sentinel lymph node before excision with visualization of the exact sentinel lymph node location during an operation. Therefore, the triple modal agent will possibly be very ideal for sentinel lymph node mapping because of the high signal-to-noise ratio for non-invasive imaging and its complementary multimodal nature, easy preparation and safety. It is promising for clinical applications and it may have great advantages over the traditional single modal methods.

Antihistamine Effects of Triprolidine from the Transdermal Administration of the TPX Matrix in Rats

  • Shin Sang-Chul;Choi Jun-Shik
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.111-114
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    • 2005
  • The antihistamine effects of the triprolidine were studied in rats to determine the feasibility of their enhanced transdermal delivery from the poly (4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) matrix system containing penetration enhancer and plasticizer. The antihistamine effects were determined by the Evans blue dye procedure by comparing the changes in vascular permeability increase following the transdermal administration. The vascular permeability increase was significantly reduced by transdermal administration of the triprolidine-TPX system containing triethyl citrate (TEC) and polyoxyethylene-2-oleyl ether (POE). Both the plasticizer and penetration enhancer played an important role in the skin permeation of triprolidine and increased the antihistamine effects. These results showed that the triprolidine-TPX matrix system containing plasticizer and penetration enhancer could be a transdermal delivery system providing the increased antihistamine effects.

DIFFERENCE IN DYE PENETRATION INTO DENTINAL TUBULES IN VIVO AND IN VITRO (In vivo와 in vitro에서 상아세관을 통한 색소침투의 차이)

  • Jang, In-Ho;Kim, Myung-Su;Lee, Kwang-Won;Son, Ho-Hyun
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.242-253
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    • 1996
  • Penetration degree of several dyes into dentinal tubules in vivo was compared with in vitro, and experimental sensitivity of those dyes was investigated in 64 canines of 16 cats. Dentin 1mm below cusp tip was exposed by cross-sectioning with diamond disc. Pulp of 32 canines were extirpated through cervical cavities. In the presence of smear layer or after add-etching with 37% phosphoric acid to the exposed dentin surface, acrylic collar and resin cap was attached to keep dyes. 52 mmol/$\ell$ Evans' blue, 2% Methylene blue, 10 % Silver nitrate and 5% Fluorescene were then applicated on each 4 canines respectively for 30 minutes. After rinsing, the canines were ground-sectioned longitudinally and linear dye penetration was measured under microscope. The results obtained were as follows ; 1. Evans' blue and Methylene blue penetrated significantly(P<0.05) more in vitro than in vivo only in the cases that exposed dentin surfaces were not etched with acid. 2. Silver nitrate penetrated significantly(P<0.05) more in vitro than in vivo in both cases that exposed dentin surfaces remained intact and were etched with acid. 3. The penetration degree of Fluorescene did not show statistical significance between in vivo and in vitro or in acid-etched and in not acid-etched cases.

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A PREDICTION OF BODY WATER COMPARTMENTS OF GROWING CATTLE IN VIVO

  • Sekine, J.;Fujita, K.;Asahida, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 1992
  • Body water compartments in vivo were determined in Holstein cattle with age ranging from 5 to 521 days to obtain an equation to estimate volumes of body water. Live weight ranged from 47 to 480 kg. Compartments were determined as antipyrine space for total body water (TBW), thiocyanate space for extracellular water (ECW) and Evans blue dye space for plasma water (PW). Body water compartments expressed as a percentage of live weight decreased as age in days increased and significantly correlated with age in days. Regression analyses revealed that prediction equations had low accuracy. Regression equations of body water compartments on live weight (WT, kg) were useful for the prediction of body fluid with a high accuracy. Live weight significantly regressed on age in days (Day), which was inferred to be utilized for estimation of standardized live weight in case animals were emaciated by certain causes such as severe diarrhea or dehydration. In conclusion, following equations were presented to estimate body water compartments of cattle in vivo : TBW in liters = $0.556({\pm}0.007)WT+10$, r = 0.993, $SE{\pm}0.7$ ECW in liters = $0.321({\pm}0.008)WT+10$, r = 0.978, $SE{\pm}0.8$ PW in liters = $0.0502({\pm}0.0012)WT+1.6$, r = 0.0983, $SE{\pm}0.1$ WT (kg) = $0.772({\pm}0.018)Day+24$, r = 0.982, $SE{\pm}2.3$.

A Blockade of the Central MAPK Pathway Attenuates Referred Pain in Rats with Complete Freund's Adjuvant -Induced Inflammation of the Temporomandibular Joint

  • Won, Kyoung-A.;Lim, Nak-H.;Lee, Min-K.;Park, Min-K.;Yang, Gwi-Y.;Park, Yoon-Yub;Ahn, Dong-K.;Bae, Yong-C.
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2010
  • We investigated the role of the central MAPK pathways in extra-territorial (referred) pain resulting from inflammation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Experiments were carried out on male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 220-280 g. Under anesthesia, these animals were injected with $50\;{\mu}L$ of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the TMJ using a Hamilton syringe. In the control group, saline was injected into the TMJ. To identify the extent of inflammation of the TMJ, Evans blue dye (0.1%, 5 mg/kg) was injected intravenously at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days after CFA injection. The concentration of Evans blue dye in the extracted TMJ tissue was found to be significantly higher in the CFA-treated animals than in the saline-treated group. Air-puff thresholds in the vibrissa pad area were evaluated 3 days before and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 days after CFA injection into the TMJ. Referred mechanical allodynia was established at 3 days, remained until 12 days, and recovered to preoperative levels at 18 days after CFA injection. This referred mechanical allodynia was observed in contralateral side area. To investigate the role of central MAPK pathways, MAPK inhibitors ($10\;{\mu}g$) were administrated intracisternally 9 days after CFA injection. SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, significantly attenuated referred mechanical allodynia, as compared with the vehicle group. PD98059, a MEK inhibitor, also reduced CFA-induced referred mechanical allodynia. These results suggest that TMJ inflammation produces extra-territorial mechanical allodynia, and that this is mediated by central MAPK pathways.

Effects of injection route, volume and concentration of mannitol on blood-brain barrier disruption (Mannitol의 주입 경로와 양 및 농도가 혈-뇌 장벽 손상에 미치는 효과)

  • Cha, Myeoung-Hoon;Lee, Kyu-Hong;Lee, Chul-Hyun;Chung, Myung-Ae;Sohn, Jin-Hun;Cheong, Chae-Joon;Lee, Bae-Hwan
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.565-574
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    • 2008
  • Functions of human brain including sensibility and emotion may be affected by drugs mediated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The present study was performed to evaluate whether injection route, volume and concentration of mannitol could alter the degree of disruption of the BBB. Under urethane anesthesia, female Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with 20% mannitol into the right internal carotid artery (ICA). In the other group, intravenous injection of mannitol through the femoral vein was performed. Evans blue(EB) dye was used as a marker of BBB disruption. When mannitol was injected via the ICA, the content of EB dye in the ipsilateral hemisphere was markedly increased. However, the content of EB in the brain was not increased when mannitol was injected via the femoral vein, even though the volume or concentration of mannitol was increased. These results suggest that the BBB was disrupted only through ICA injection route and this may provide a useful strategy for transient opening of the BBB to control the functions of human brain.

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A staining method to determine marine microplanktonic organism viability and investigate the efficacy of a ship's ballast water treatment system (선박평형수 처리장치 효율 검증을 위한 해양미소부유생물 생사판별기법)

  • Baek, Seung Ho;Shin, kyoungsoon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.4328-4334
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    • 2015
  • We determined a method to determine marine planktonic organism viability using Evan's blue, Aniline blue, and 5-choromethyfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA). The Evan's blue and Aniline blue methods produced bright blue light for dead phytoplankton and zooplankton and were the best dyes to detect dead cells. The staining efficiency of Evan's blue and Aniline blue were ${\geq}90%$ of the original field sample. However, it was difficult to test the efficiency of a ship's ballast water treatment system because detection of living cells. In contrast, the CMFDA method, which is based on measuring cell esterase activity using a fluorimetric stain, was the best dye to detect live cells of almost all phytoplankton species, and staining efficiency was 70%. The CMFDA method is similar to the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) staining method. Therefore, we estimated viability of phytoplankton species using a double-staining method by combining CMFDA and FDA to determine optimum staining efficiency. As a result, the frequency of dying cells based on the double-staining method was 95%, which was significantly higher than that of single CMDFA staining. Our results suggest that a CMDFA + FDA assay is more effective to determine survival of marine plankton and that this method was applicable to investigate the efficacy of a ship's ballast water treatment system.

Studies on the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Clerodendron trichotomum Thunberg Leaves

  • Choi, Jung-Ho;Whang, Wan-Kyun;Kim, Hong-Jin
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.189-193
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    • 2004
  • Clerodendron trichotomum Thunberg Leaves (CTL) have been used for centuries in Chinese folk medicine for their anti-inflammatory properties. We have studied the anti-inflammatory effects of CTL extracts in rats, mice and in Raw 264.7 cells. 1 mg/kg solutions of the 30% and 60% methanol extracts of CTL were used and a 1 mg/kg of indomethacin was used as a positive anti-inflammatory standard; these were then administrated to rats. Carrageenan was injected subcutaneously to induce hind paw edema in rats. The result of carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema showed that a 1 mg/kg of the 30%, and 60% methanol fraction of CTL and 1 mg/kg of indomethacin inhibited the hind paw edema by 19.5%, 23.0%, and 20.5% respectively. The effect of CTL on inflammation in mice by a capillary permeability assay was examined by detecting Evans blue leakage from capillaries after the intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid, a potent inflammatory stimulus. The 60% methanol fraction of CTL inhibited Evans blue dye leakage by 47.0%, which was 10% higher than that of the inhibition of 1 mg/kg of indomethacin. Also, the 60% methanol fraction of CTL suppressed the prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) generation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by as much as the inhibition of 1 mg/kg of indomethacin and this led to the synthesis of $PGE_2$ by COX-2 induction. The inhibition of the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, vascular permeability and the $PGE_2$ generation demonstrates that the 60% methanol fraction of CTL contains a potent anti-inflammatory activity.