• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ethnomedicine

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The Inhibiton Effects of Hypercholesterolemia and Platelet in Fermented and Non-Fermented Preparation of Garlic

  • Kim, Hyun-Kyoung
    • International Journal of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2019
  • This Dietary cholesterol augments lipid profile and primes production and activation of platelets, leading to development of atherosclerosis which produce several detrimental effects on cardiovascular health. Ethnomedicine and Mediterranean diet are natural sources and cost effective modes against several ailments including cardiovascular diseases while fermented foods have gained interest due to their increased nutrient profile, enhanced bioavailability and efficacy. Garlic has been known to reduce cholesterol and inhibit platelet activation. We examined whether fermented garlic ameliorates effects of hypercholesterolemia and platelet functions in rats. Methodology: Male SD rats were fed with hypercholesterolemia diet and treated with spirulina, fermented and non-fermented preparations of garlic for one month. Platelet aggregation and granule secretion were assessed to evaluate platelet activation. Liver and kidney weights, lipid and enzymatic profile of serum and whole blood analysis was performed. Expressions of SREBP, ACAT-2 and HMG-CoA were assessed using RT-PCR while liver and adipose tissues were analyzed for histological changes. Both fermented and non-fermented garlic inhibited platelet aggregation and granule secretion while fermented garlic showed greater inhibitor tendency. Fermented garlic significantly reduced liver weight and triglycerides concentrations than non-fermented garlic. Similarly, fermented garlic greatly abrogated the detrimental effects of steatosis on liver and adipose tissues. Fermented garlic significantly improved lipid profile and modulated platelet functions, thereby inhibiting atherosclerosis and platelet related cardiovascular disorders.

Evaluation of analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of Ophiorrhiza nicobarica, an ethnomedicine from Nicobar Islands, India

  • Chattopadhyay, Debprasad;Das, Sonali;Mandal, Asit Baran;Arunachalam, G;Bhattacharya, SK
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.395-408
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    • 2007
  • This study reports the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and membrane-stabilizing property of alcoholic extract of Ophiorrhiza nicobarica (ON), a wild herb, used as an anti-infective ethnomedicine of Nicobarese and Shompen tribes of Great Nicobar Island, India. We for the first time investigated the analgesic and antiinflammatory potential of this herb in acute, subacute and chronic model of inflammation in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, along with sheep RBC-induced sensitivity and membrane stabilization. The acetic acid induced writhing, tail flick and tail immersion tests are used as a model for evaluating analgesic activity; while the carrageenin-induced paw oedema was used as the model for acute inflammation, dextran-induced oedema as sub-acute and cotton-pellateinduced granuloma as chronic inflammatory model. The probable mode by which ON mediate its effect on inflammatory conditions was studied on sheep RBC-induced sensitivity and membrane stabilization. The in vitro results revealed that the ON extract possesses significant (P < 0.05) dose dependent analgesic and antiinflammatory activity at 200 and 300 mg/kg and its fractions at 50 mg/kg, p.o. respectively, compared to the control groups. However, the extract failed to exhibit membrane-stabilizing property as it unable to reduce the level of haemolysis of RBC exposed to hypotonic solution. The acute toxicity studies of ON extract in rats and mice revealed that the extract was nontoxic even up to 3.0 g/kg body weight of the animals, with a high safety profile. We have isolated ursolic acid, ${\beta}$-sitosterol and harmaline respectively, from the bioactive part of the extract. The results indicated that the O. nicobarica is indeed beneficial in primary health care, and suggest that its anti-inflammatory activity may not be related to membrane-stabilization.

Indigenous Knowledge on the Utilization of Medicinal Plant Diversity in the Siwalik Region of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand

  • Gaur, R.D.;Sharma, Jyotsana
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2011
  • Ever since the dawn of civilization, the ambient vegetation and the resources constituted major source of human existence for various substantial requirements. Our present knowledge on plant resources emerged from the traditional heritable knowledge descended from generation to generation. However, traditional knowledge pertaining to several aspects remained untapped from various remote localities or populations. Furthermore, with the present trends of excessive exploitation of natural resources and degradation of habitats, conservation and ecological management require coherence of traditional skills and modern approaches. Therefore, the present study is to record traditional plant based knowledge among the inhabitants of Siwalik region of Uttarakhand Himalaya. Extensive field survey was made for the collection of data on the medicinal aspects of plant species in the study area covering the parts of districts Pauri, Dehradun and Haridwar. During the course of study 130 plant species belonging to 65 families are reported, used as traditional medicine by the local inhabitants of this region.

Natural products traditionally used by the tribal people of the Purulia district, West Bengal, India for the abortifacient purpose

  • Maiti, Amaresh;Madhu, Nithar Ranjan;Manna, Chanchal Kumar
    • CELLMED
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.14.1-14.4
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    • 2013
  • The paper provides a brief account of 11 plant species used by the tribal people of the district Purulia, West Bengal, India. Most of the plant species are common in this district and some have not been reported earlier for abortive purposes, pharmacology for preparation of medicines for antifertility. All these data were obtained from the tribal medicine men (ojha). At least 10 interview reports of various tribal medicine men were recorded. Parts of various medicinal plants were observed personally, collected and preserved as herbarium specimens for proper identification. The reports of various indigenous methods may help to give some clue in searching the potent contraceptives.

Trace elements analysis in some medicinal plants using graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy

  • Anal, Jasha Momo H.;Chase, Petevino
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.247-255
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    • 2016
  • Ten trace elements (Mg, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Cd) were determined in seven traditionally used wild medicinal plants of the Nagas in the North-East India viz Cynoglossum furcatum Wallich, Elsholtzia blanda Bentham, Lycopodium cernuum Linnaeus, Potentilla fulgens Wallich ex Hooker, Swertia macrosperma C.B. Clarke, Thalictrum foliolosum DC and Valeriana jatamansi Jones. Plant samples were dried, weighed, digested and analyzed for their mineral distribution level ranging from trace to major elements by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy. All the medicinal herbs studied were found to contain the ten elements analyzed. The elemental concentration is given in mg/kg. Mg and Ca are present in high concentrations in both the roots and leaves of the plant samples. Among trace transition metals Fe had the highest concentration, followed by Mn, Cr, Cu, V, Zn, and Mo. Analysis showed that the toxic Cd element was at a lower concentration and is within the permissible limit of FAO/WHO, California standards and United States Pharmacopeia Limit for Nutritional Supplements.

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Flavonoids from Populus davidiana

  • Zhang, XinFeng;Hung, Tran Manh;Phuong, Phuong Thien;Ngoc, Tran Minh;Min, Byung-Sun;Song, Kyung-Sik;Seong, Yeon-Hee;Bae, Ki-Hwan
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.12
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    • pp.1102-1108
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    • 2006
  • An in vitro bioassay-guide revealed that the methanol (MeOH) extract of the stem bark of Populus davidiana showed considerable inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase (COX-1, COX-2). Continuous phytochemical study of the MeOH extract of this plant led to the isolation of ten flavonoids; sakuranetin (1), rhamnocitrin (2), 7-O-methylaromadendrin (3), naringenin (4), eriodictyol (5), aromadendrin (6), kaempferol (7), neosakuranin (8), sakuranin (9) and sakurenetin-5,4'-di-${\beta}$-D-glucopyranoside (10). Their structures were identified on the basis of their physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses. The isolated compounds, 1-10, were tested for their inhibitory activities against COX-1 and COX-2. Compound 7 was found to have potent inhibitory effect on COX-1 and a moderate effect on COX-2, meanwhile, compounds 1-6 showed moderate inhibition against COX-1 only. Moreover, compounds 5-8 exhibited suppressive effects on xanthine oxidase (XO). These results may explain, in part, the traditional uses of P. davidiana in ethnomedicine.

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) as Resources of Phytoestrogen and Anticancer Substances. (석류(Punica granatum)의 Phytoestrogen 및 항암 활성 성분)

  • Song, Bang-Ho;Tran, Hoang Ngoc Ai;Bae, Soo-Young
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.81-97
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    • 2007
  • Punica granatum, L. (Pomegranate) has 613 seeds which accidentally corresponds to the 613 commandments in the Bible. Accordingly, the fruit has been worshipped by the Jewish and other religious people from the ancient. Pomegranate's seed, peel and juice contain a variety of ethnomedical components so much as the sum of three kinds of other common fruits. The number of published papers related to the pomegranate in recent 7 years flourished 7 times more than before at the bases of Medline record. Since the containments of estrogen, as $17{\alpha}-estradiol,\;17{\beta}-estradiol$, estrone, and estradiol, etc., in pomegranate have been reported, public interests and commercial values of pomegranate arose considerably. The report was disproved later, however, merits of this fruit remained yet; clinical efficacy for preventing and remediating cancers including breast and prostate cancers by oral administration of the juice, seed oil, and peel extract is still believed to be true. In this review, target components of pomegranate such as antioxidants, anticancers, antiestrogens and ethnomedical components were analyzed and discussed along with examining its pharmaceutical efficacy and prescription to postmenopausal lesion, cardiosclerosis, cosmetic beautification, viral and allergic symptoms, and diabetes mellitus, etc.

Inhibitory Actions of Steppogenin on Platelet Activity Through Regulation of Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and Ca2+ Mobilization (Glycoportein IIb/IIIa와 칼슘동원의 조절을 통한 Steppogenin의 혈소판활성 억제효과)

  • Shin, Jung-Hae;Ha, Ju-Yeon;Kwon, Hyuk-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.100-106
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    • 2020
  • The extract of Cudrania tricuspidata is used in ethnomedicine throughout Eastern Asia in China, Korea and Japan. In Korean traditional medicine, Cudrania tricuspidata has been used to treat eczema, mumps, tuberculosis, contusions, insomnia and acute arthritis. In addition, it has been reported that root extract of Cudrania tricuspidata has anti-platelet effects. Therefore, we investigated which compound in Cudrania tricuspidata has inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. In this study, we tried to explain the inhibitory mechanism of steppogenin from Cudrania tricuspidata on human platelet aggregation. Collagen-induced human platelet aggregation and [Ca2+]i mobilization were dose-dependently inhibited by steppogenin and we determined the inhibition by steppogenin is due to the down regulation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase(ERK) and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type I(IP3RI) phosphorylation. In addition, steppogenin inhibited collagen-induced fibronectin adhesion to αIIb/β3 and thromboxane A2 generation. Thus, in the present study, steppogenin showed an inhibitory effect on human platelet aggregation, suggesting its potential use for preventing platelet-induced cardiovascular disease.

Ginsenoside F4 inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation by dephosphorylation of IP3RI and VASP

  • Shin, Jung-Hae;Kwon, Hyuk-Woo;Lee, Dong-Ha
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.62 no.1
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 2019
  • The root of Panax ginseng is used in ethnomedicine throughout eastern Asia and various recent studies have proved that Panax ginseng has inhibitory effects on cardiovascular disease. Each factor causing cardiovascular disease is known to have a very complex process which is achieved by a diverse number of mechanisms. Among these factors, platelets are the most important because they directly participate in thrombogenesis. Therefore, inhibiting the activity of platelets is an essential element for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study showed the antiplatelet effects of Korean red ginseng extract and two of its components, ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenoside Ro. However, the inhibitory mechanism of other ginsenosides remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the inhibitory mechanism of ginsenoside F4 (G-F4) from Korean red ginseng on the regulation of signaling molecules involved in human platelet aggregation. With the use of G-F4, collagen-induced human platelet aggregation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and it suppressed collagen-induced elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ mobilization through elevated phosphorylation of inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor I ($Ser^{1756}$). In addition, G-F4 inhibited fibrinogen binding to ${\alpha}IIb/{\beta}_3$ during collagen-induced human platelet aggregation. Thus, in the present study, G-F4 showed an inhibitory effect on human platelet activation, suggesting its potential use as a new natural medicine for preventing platelet-mediated cardiovascular diseases.

Toxicological Evaluation of Phytochemical Characterized Aqueous Extract of Wild Dried Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Mushroom in Rats

  • Ugbogu, Eziuche Amadike;Akubugwo, Iroha Emmanuel;Ude, Victor Chibueze;Gilbert, James;Ekeanyanwu, Blessing
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.181-190
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    • 2019
  • Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) is an edible wild mushroom with tough fruiting body that belongs to the family Polyporaceae. It is used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of ulcer, anaemia, cough and fever. Recent studies have demonstrated its anticancer, anti-diabetic and antioxidant properties. However, little or no information is available regarding the bioactive components and toxicological study of wild dried L. squarrosulus. Therefore, this study investigated the bioactive components of aqueous extract of boiled wild dried L. squarrosulus and its toxicological effects in rats. The extract of L. squarrosulus was subjected to GC-MS analysis. The acute toxicity test was performed by oral administration of a single dose of up to 5,000 mg/kg extract of L. squarrosulus. In subacute study, the rats were orally administered extract of L. squarrosulus at the doses of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg/kg body weight daily for 14 days. The haematological, lipid profile, liver and kidney function parameters were determined and the histopathology of the liver and kidney were examined. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds; 1-tetradecene, fumaric acid, monochloride, 6-ethyloct-3-yl ester, 9-eicosene, phytol, octahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine and 3-trifluoroacetoxypentadecane. In acute toxicity study, neither death nor toxicity sign was recorded. In the sub-acute toxicity study, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed on creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Whilst no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed on packed cell volume, heamoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell and alkaline phosphatase, in all the tested doses. No histopathological alterations were recorded. Our findings revealed that aqueous extract of L. squarrosulus may have antimicrobial, antinocieptive and antioxidant properties based on the result of GC-MS analysis. Results of the toxicity test showed no deleterious effect at the tested doses, suggesting that L. squarrosulus is safe for consumption at the tested doses.