• Title, Summary, Keyword: Estrus

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Studies on the Non-surgical Embryo Collection by Shortening of Uterine Horn in Swine II. Effect of Uterus Shortening on the Estrus Cycle and the Level of Progesterone and Prostaglandin Fao in Serum (돼지에 있어서 자궁각 단축술에 의한 수정란의 비외과적 채란에 관한 연구 II. 자궁각 단축이 발정주기 및 혈청 중 호르몬 수준변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 김희석
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.94-99
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to determine the effects of uterus shortening on the duration required for estrus, the number of ovulation and the level of serum progesterone and prostaglandin $F_{2}{\alpha} (PGF_{2}{\alpha} $). The duration required for estrus after the surgical shortening of uterine horns and the interval between the following estrus was not affected by the surgical treatment but affected by luteal and follicular phase. The number of ovulations were increased by induction of superovulation to gilts with shortened uterine horns compared to the control. Serum progesterone concentration during the luteal phase was higher than that during the follicular phase with no difference between the control and me horns than that of the control. Findings of this study indicate that luteal formation and regressions and estrus cycle were normal when the unconnected parts of uterine horns were left in abdominal cavity. Therefore surgical shortening of uterine horns of sows helps embryo collections by non-surgical methods.

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Design and Implementation of Cattle Estrus Detection System based on Wireless Communication and Internet of Things (무선 통신과 사물인터넷 기반의 소 발정 관찰 시스템 설계 및 구현)

  • Lee, Ha-Woon
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.1309-1316
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    • 2018
  • Cattle estrus detection system based on Internet of Things is designed and implemented by using Arduino pro-mini, gyroscope, acceleration sensor, bluetooth master and slave module. The implemented system measures cattle's moving and the measured data are transmitted to the computer connected to RX module by bluetooth TX module. They are plotted in 2-dimensional graph on the computer monitor and the number of transition at each sensor axis are calculated from the graph. The detected and gathered data from the system are analyzed by the proposed algorithm to decide which cows are in the estrus or not. The method to apply bluetooth scatternet is shown and the proposed system can be used to increase the success rate of artificial insemination in normal estrus by detecting the cow's behaviors such as the number of jumping. In this paper, the implemented cattle behavior detecting the system(TX module) are strapped on cattle's leg and it measures the cattle behaviors for determining where that a cattle is estrus or not by the proposed algorithm.

Changes of plasma progesterone concentrations during the gestation and peripatum period, and return to estrus after parturition in Korean native goats (한국재래산양(韓國在來山羊)의 임신(姙娠) 및 분만전후(分娩前後)의 혈장(血漿) progesterone 농도변화(濃度變化)와 분만후(分娩後) 발정재귀시기(發情再歸時期))

  • Park, Young-jun;Kang, Byong-kyu;Choi, Han-sun;Park, Bum-jun;Son, Chang-ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.267-273
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    • 1992
  • The purpose of present study was to investigate the progesterone concentrations throughout gestation and peripartum period, and the return to the first estrus postpartum for improvement of reproductive efficiency in Korean native goats. The average length of gestation was 148 days(range : 144~154 days) and the average number of live births was 2 kids(range : 1~5 kids) in 12 Korean native goats. Progesterone concentrations were measured in blood samples taken from 12 goats every 5 days during gestation period. Plasma progesterone concentrations were 0.10 ng/ml at Day 0 of pregnancy and increased gradually until Day 20(6.58 ng/ml). Then they decreased slightly from Day 30 to 40(range : 4.32~4.82 ng/ml), increased again after Day 40 and remained thereafter until Day 140(range : 4.32~10.36 ng/ml). The progesterone levels declined sharply to basal levels at parturitum. Plasma progesterone concentrations during the pestpartum were 6.98 ng/ml at 10 days, 4.86 ng/ml at 6 days 3.18 ng/ml at 2 days before parturition, and 0.10 ng/ml at parturition, respectively. The basal levels were maintained until the first estrus postpartum. The mean intervals from parturition to the first estrus postpartum on the basis of progesterone determination and estrus detection were $100{\pm}64(mean{\pm}S.D.)$ days in 7 Korean native goats.

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Estrus Synchronization and Pregnancy Rate Using Ovsynch Method in Uganda Dairy Farms (우간다 낙농가에서 Ovsynch 방법에 의한 발정동기화 및 수태율)

  • Kwon, Dae-Jin;Im, Seok Ki;Kim, Hyun;Lee, Hak-Kyo;Song, Ki-Duk
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.159-163
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    • 2017
  • The artificial insemination (AI) is one of the best assisted reproductive technologies for increasing reproductive capacity and facilitating the genetic improvement in farm animals. AI has been used in Uganda for over 60 years, but a small population of the total herd has been used. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of AI with estrus synchronization technique and to propose ways of improving the productivity of dairy farms through AI services in Uganda. In total, 78 cows from 11 dairy farms were selected for timed-AI. Synchronization was performed according to the ovsynch programs followed by AI using frozen semen from Korean Holstein (0.5 ml straws). Pregnancy rate was varying among farms (0-50%) and the overall pregnancy rate was 28.2%. Cows in luteal phase at the time of treatment was 40.0% whereas that in follicular phase was 20.8%. After treatment, cows that showed normal estrus signal were 45.5% (25/55). Abnormal estrus was categorized into pre-estrus (9.1%), cystic ovaries (21.8%), anestrus (18.2%) and delayed ovulation (5.5%), respectively. These results imply that an assured protocol for timed-AI should be developed to improve the productivity of dairy farms through AI services in Uganda.

Optimization of Estrus Synchronization Protocol for Target Breeding to Decrease Voluntary Waiting Period in Lactating Cows

  • Kabir, Md. Parvez;Islam, Md. Rashedul;Maruf, Abdulla Al;Shamsuddin, Mohammed;Bari, Farida Yeasmin;Juyena, Nasrin Sultana;Rahman, Md Saidur
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 2017
  • Effective estrus detection and artificial insemination (AI) are necessary for profitable management of dairy herd. In current study, 45 crossbred lactating cows have been selected with the complaint of unobserved oestrus for more than sixty days postpartum. All cows had functional corpus luteum as examined by transrectal ultrasonography. Cows were treated with $PGF_2{\alpha}$ analogue and AI was performed with observed oestrus and then single dose of GnRH was administered. Similar synchronization protocol has been repeated after 14 days in cows that did not repose to first treatment. Remaining cows received additional $PGF_2{\alpha}$ after 14 days of second treatment and timed AI was performed following GnRH administration. Among 45 cows, 28.89% showed estrus after first treatment and 78.79% responded to second hormonal intervention. A higher conception rate (88.89% vs 26.66 and 72.72%) was observed in cows after triple administration of $PGF_2{\alpha}$ and timed AI. We noticed a significant differences in body condition score (BCS, 1~5 scale), postpartum period, and daily milk production between cows that either responded of non-responded following first and second hormonal treatment. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between daily milk production and BCS, age and postpartum days, milk production and estrus/BCS, and milk production/BCS/estrus and conception rate. Depending upon the findings we conclude that hormonal intervention with $PGF_2{\alpha}$ and GnRH enhances postpartum ovarian cyclicity and help decreasing the days open of dairy herd. Therefore, this finding might provide an excellent guideline for target breeding system for profitable dairy herd management.

Influence of Reproductive Status, Serum Type and Estradiol-17β Supplementation on the in vitro Maturation of Canine Oocytes

  • Heru, Fibrianto Yuda;Kim, Min-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.167-176
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    • 2008
  • Supplementation of serum and estrogen in in vitro maturation(IVM) medium was shown to improve embryo development and quality in several species. This study investigates the effect of ovarian estrus stage on canine oocyte quality and supplementation of medium with canine serum or estrogen on IVM of canine oocytes. As results, in experimental 1, IVM oocytes collected from follicular stage ovaries to MII stages($10.2{\pm}1.5%$) was higher (p<0.05) with 10% canine estrus stage serum than control($1.3{\pm}1.6%$), anoestrus stage serum($4.0{\pm}1.6%$), luteal stage serum($2.7{\pm}1.7%$) and 10% FBS($1.3{\pm}1.6$). In experimental 2, 10% canine estrus stage serum supplementation has highest maturation rate to MII stages($10.0{\pm}1.8%$) and there were significant differences(P<0.05) with another treatment in follicular stages group. In order to investigate the synergic effect of estrous serum and estrogen supplementation, different estrous stage groups of oocytes were cultured with 2 ug/ml estrogen plus various concentrations of different reproductive stage serum and FBS(experimental 3). As results, the rate of maturation to metaphase II(MII) stage was significantly higher(p<0.05) in oocytes from the follicular stage supplemented with estrogen and 10% canine estrus stage serum(11.5%) compared to the other groups(6.0 - 8.8%). The present study was demonstrated that canine serum and the estrus cycle of the bitch affect the meiotic competence of oocytes. Hormonal influences within the follicle may be one of the factors responsible for the greater proportion of maturation of oocyte to MII from bitches at the follicular phase.

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Efficacy of a Cue-Mate Intravaginal Insert and Injection of Prostaglandin $F_{a{\alpha}}$ for Synchronizing Estrus in Hanwoo Cattle

  • Cho, Sang-Rae;Kumar, Kuldeep;Yeon, Seong-Heum;Lee, Sung-Hwan;Kim, Ui-Hyung;Chung, Ki-Yong;Kim, Hyeon-Shup;Lee, Myeung Sik;Park, Chang-Seok;Yang, Byoung-Chul
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.321-325
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    • 2014
  • The present study was performed on farm animals to test the effectiveness of progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (Cue-Mate$^{(R)}$ 1.56 g) and injection of prostaglandin $F_{2{\alpha}}$ ($PGF_{2{\alpha}}$) for synchronization estrus in Hanwoo cattle. The cattle were at random stage of the estrus cycle. The cows were artificially inseminated at day 7 after Cue-Mate withdrawal, using commercial semen from Korean native bulls. There was a season effect on the estrus synchronization rate. It was higher in spring (94.3%) followed by winter (93.3%), autumn (90.4%) and summer (67.2%). In summary, The results of this study revealed that season has influences on estrus behavior of cattle with no significant effect on pregnancy rate. In summary, we suggest summer reproductive management to alleviate the effects of heat stress. It should be based on intensive cooling combined with hormonal treatment. Given that different subgroups of cows benefit differently from the treatments, selective hormonal administration should be considered.

Changes in Concentrations of Reproductive Hormones during Estrus Synchronization in Dairy Heifers (젖소 미경산우의 발정동기화 처리 시 번식호르몬 변화)

  • Choe, Changyong;Hur, Tai-Young;Jung, Young-Hoon;Jo, Yong-Il;Baek, Kwang-Soo;Jung, Yeon-Sub;Han, Tai-Seok;Lee, Kyung-Seok;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Kang, Dawon;Son, Jun-Kyu
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.29-33
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this work was to analyze the concentrations of progesterone (P4) and estrogen (E2) hormones changed during estrus synchronization in dairy heifers. Estrus synchronization was carried out with CIDR$^{(R)}$ (Controlled Intravaginal Drug Release) devices. Corpus luteum (CL) was classified into three grades based on its size and palpable characteristics. The concentrations of P4 and E2 were measured by enzyme-amplified chemiluminescence. Serum P4 concentration was markedly low at the estrus stage (36 hrs after removal of CIDR) compared to other stages, while E2 concentration was kept high during estrus stage. The serum P4 concentration was highest in the CL classified into grade I. These results indicate that P4 concentration could be used as a criteria for determining recipients for artificial insemination or embryo transfer in dairy cattle.

Differential Expressions of Adhesion Receptor Genes in the Rat Uterus Associated with Ovarian Steroid Hormone (흰쥐 자궁에서 난소 스테로이드 호르몬에 의한 Adhesion 수용체 유전자 발현조절에 대한 연구)

  • Kang Han Seung;Lee Chae Kwan;Moon Deog Hwan;Kang Sung Goo
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2003
  • This report aimed at investigating the differential gene expressions of the adhesion receptors between ovariectomized (OVX) and estrus stage rat uteri (OVX vs. estrus pair) using the cDNA expression away analysis. In addition, this report aimed at confirming of the differential gene expressions of the adhesion receptors between OVX and progesterone (P$_4$) injected OVX rat uteri (OVX vs. OVX+P$_4$ pair). RNA samples were extracted from the uterus and reverse-transcribed in the presence of [$\alpha$$^{32}$ P]-dATP. Membrane sets of Rat Atlas array 1.2 II (Clontech) were hybridized with CDNA probe sets. RT-PCR was employed to validate the relative gene expression patterns obtained by the cDNA array. The results were well consistent to cDNA array analysis data except the fold changes of gene expression. Among a total of 1176 cDNAs, 5 genes of adhesion receotor including embigin protein, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, afadin, neuroligin 2, semaphorin Z showed significant (more than 2-fold) changes in the OVX vs. late estrus pair. All of these genes were up regulated in estrus stage than OVX rat uterus. In the OVX vs. OVX+P$_4$ pair, 4 genes including osteonectin, afadin, neuroligin 2, semaphorin Z showed significant changes. All of these genes were also up regulated in OVX+P$_4$ injected rat uterus than OVX control. Three genes including afadin, neuroligin 2, semaphorin Z which were up regulated in estrus and OVX+P$_4$ injected rat uteri of both experimental pairs than OVX rat uteri. These genes seem to be under the control of P$_4$.

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Uterine Contractility during Estrus Cycle: Effects In Vitro of Sex Steroids, Oxytocin and Prostaglandin $F_{2{\alpha}}$ (성주기에 따른 자궁근 수축력의 변화에 관한 연구 : 성홀몬 및 약물들의 영향)

  • Kim, In-Kyo;Park, Hye-Soo;Koo, Bon-Sook;Lee, Ek-Ho
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.35-46
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    • 1987
  • It has been well known that estrogens stimulate the uterine contractility and progestins inhibit it. Then, one may expect that the uterine contractility and sensitivities to oxytocin (OT) and prostaglandin $F_{2{\alpha}}\;(PGF_{2{\alpha}})$ would be different among the estrus cycle. These hypotheses were tested using the mature female rat. Spontaneous isometric contractions of isolated uterine strips $(1{\times}0.3\;cm)$ from cyclic rats in various stages of the estrus cycle, bilateral ovarectomized rats and hypophysectomized rats were recorded in absence or presence with $estradiol-17{\beta}\;(E_2)$, progesterone $(P_4)$, OT and $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$. The results were summarized as follows: 1) The spontaneous uterine contractile force was the highest in the estrus rat and the lowest in the ovarectomized or the hypophysectomized rat. In the proestrus rat, the contractile frequency was the lowest (2.7 beats/10 min) and the contractile duration was the longest (70 sec). In the other groups, there were no any differencies in frequency (9 beats/10 min) and in duration (30 sec). 2) OT and $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ stimulated the uterine contractility in all groups tested except in the hypophysectomized rat in which OT failed to stimulate the uterine contraction. $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ was more effective in stimulating the uterine contraction than OT in all groups tested except in the estrus rat. OT-induced contraction was the highest in the estrus rat and $PGF_{2{\alpha}}-induced$ contraction was the lowest in the hypophysectomized rat. 3) Uterine contractilities were not changed by the in vitro treatments of $E_2$ or $P_4$ under the influence of endogenous steroids, however, $E_2$ and $P_4$ stimulated the uterine contraction in the ovarectomized rat in which endogenous steroids were almost abolished. 4) Increased uterine contraction by the treatment of OT was suppressed by in vitro $E_2$ or $P_4$ in the estrus rat, while it was potentiated by the $P_4$ in the proestrus rat. In other groups, exogenous $E_2$ or $P_4$ did not affect the OT-induced uterine contraction. 5) $PGF_{2{\alpha}}-induced$ uterine contraction was suppressed in the ovarectomized rat by $E_2$ and $P_4$, in the diestrus and proestrus rats by $P_4$ and in the hypophysectomized rat by $E_2$. In other groups, exogenous $E_2$ or $P_4$ was ineffective in altering the $PGF_{2{\alpha}}-induced$ uterine contraction. According to the above results, it may conclude that the mechanisms of the different uterine contractility and the different uterine sensitivity to OT or $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ according to the estrus cycle are not explicable with only the serum concentrations of steroids, OT and $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ but also other unknown factors.

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