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Laparoscopy Application to Determine Estrous Cycle in Korean Black Goats (복강경을 이용한 한국흑염소의 성주기 판정)

  • Yang, H.S.;Jang, S.K.;Yong, H.W.;Cho, J.K.;Shin, S.T.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2007
  • This study was performed to determine the estrous cycles by macroscopic observation of the ovarian changes using the laparoscopy and to make use of these results for embryo transfer in Korean black goat (Copra hircus aegagrus). Laparoscopic examinations of the ovaries were performed from 2 days after $CIDR^(R)$ removal to 22 days after ovulation. The serial morphological changes of follicles and corpus luteum (CL) were observed. CL was classified corpus hemorrhagicum(CH), corpus luteum (CL) and corpus albicans (CA) by its maturation and regression. On the day before ovulation (Day 0), Graafian follicles (GF) were found on one or both ovaries. On the day (Day 1) and $2^{nd}$day (Day 2) of ovulation, and ovulation depression (OD) and an early stage corpus hemorrhagicum $(CH_1)$ were observed at the site of GF, respectively. On Days 3 to 4, more developed and enlarged corpus hemorrhagicum $(CH_2\;and\;CH_3)$ arised from the ovulation of the GF with well vascularization. On Days 5 to 6, it was identified that mature corpus luteum $(CL_3)$ was grown on the ovary, and fully developed CL with adjacent follicles were occupied most part of the ovary on Days 17 and 18. Then the size of CL was diminished, and completely luteal regression $(CL_1\;or\;CA)$ with new large follicle was identified on Days 20 and 22. From these results, the 4 stages of the estrous cycle in Korean black goats were 1) estrus (Day 0) for 1 day, 2) metestrus $(Day\;1{\sim}4)$ for 4 days (stage of CH development), 3) diestrus $(Day\;5{\sim}16/17)$ for 12 or 13 days (luteal stage), and 4) proestrus $(Day\;17/18{\sim}20/22)$ for 4 or 5 days (stage of luteal regression and follicular growing). Laparoscopy for observation of ovarian changes was invasive than laparotomy. Additionally, it had advantages of reduced adhesion and quick operation time. It was considered that laparoscopic examination of ovarian changes will be useful for embryo transfer in the Korean black goats.

Survey on Reproductive Traits of Average and High Yielding Holstein Cattle (젖소의 산유 능력에 따른 번식 성적 조사 연구)

  • Baek, K.S.;Lee, W.S.;Park, S.B.;Ahn, B.S.;Park, S.J.;Kim, H.S.;Kang, S.J.;Jeon, B.S.;Kim, S.B.;Son, J.K.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.111-114
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to investigate the reproductive performance of average (less than 10,000 liters milk in 305 days) and high yielding (more than 10,000 liters milk in 305 days) Holstein cattle at commercial dairy herds (n=22). Data on milk progesterone (10 to 60 days postpartum), days to post-partum estrous, days to post-partum conception, service per conception and calving interval were recorded for two consecutive years. Post-partum milk progesterone concentration and days to reach peak milk progesterone concentration were similar in high and average yielding cows. High yielding cows took more days to show signs of first postpartum estrous than average yielding cows. Post-partum conception was 20 days earlier in average yielding cows than high yielding cows. Artificial insemination per conception was similar between average and high yielding cows. Calving interval was 26.9 days longer in high yielding cows compared to average yielding cows. In conclusion, better reproductive and feeding management may help improve the reproductive performance of high yielding dairy cattle in commercial dairy farms.

Effects of PEG on Embryo Production in Superovulated Hostein Cows (젖소 과배란 처리시 PEG(Polyethylene Glycol) 처리가 수정란 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi S. H.;Ryu I. S.;Han M. H.;Cho S. R.;Choe C. Y.;Kim H. J.;Son D. S.;Kim Y. K.;Lee J. W.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.317-322
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to improve the efficiency of embryo recovery and to establish the protocols of superovulation in Holstein cows. Sixteen Holstein cows were used the test the efficacy of three superovulation regimens using Folltropin. In the case of regimen 1, CIDR plus with E2 capsule was inserted in cows at the random stage of estrous cycle and the total of 400 mg Folltropin V was adminstered twice a day for 4 days(Folltropin V group). In regimen 2, CIDR was inserted and 3.0 mg estradiol benzoate was administered i.m. next day and the total of 400 mg Folltropin was adminstered twice a day for 4 days(Folltropin V+EB group). For regimen 3, CIDR insertion was same as in the regimen 2 and the total of 400 mg Folltropin diluted with $10\%$ PEG 8,000 was administered once(Folttropin V+PEG 8,000 group). In all the regimens, CIDR were removed on 12th day and 45 mg dinoprost was administered i.m. simultaneously. The heat detected donors were administered 200 ug LH-RH and inseminated twice with 2 straws of frozen semen 12 hours apart. Embryo were collected using Foley catherter in each uterine homs on 6${\~}$8 days after inseminations. The evaluation of collected embryos were according to the IETS manual. The CL responses according to the superovulation treatments were 5.8, 20.6, 24.0 in the Folltropin V, Folltropin+EB and Folltropin V+PE 8,000 groups, respectively and there were significant different among the treatments(p<0.01). Transferable embyos collected were 3.6$\pm$2.4, 3.3$\pm$l.8 and 2.8$\pm$2.3, in the Folltropin V, Folltropin+EB and Folltropin V+PE 8,000 groups, respectively. Degenerated and unfertilized embryos in regimen 2 and 3 than regimen 1. These results indicates that superovulation treatments with both multiple injections and a single injection using PEG of Folltropin combined with CIDR insertion at the random stage of estrus cycle can be used to produce Holstein embryos.

Case Report on Improvement of Reproduction Rate in Hanwoo Farms (한우 농장별 번식기록 분석을 통한 번식률 제고 사례 연구)

  • Kim, Ui Hyung;Chung, Ki Yong;Lee, Seung Hwan;Ryu, Il Sun;Kang, Hee Seol
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 2014
  • This work was conducted to study the improvement of reproduction rate from the breeding data collected from four farms from January 2007 to October 2010. The average numbers of service per conception were 1) A farm $1.7{\pm}0.1$ times, 2) B farm $1.5{\pm}0.1$ times, 3) C farm $1.5{\pm}0.1$ times, 4) D farm $1.4{\pm}0.1$ times. The average days from calving to conception was $77.4{\pm}4.8$ days in A farm, $150.8{\pm}11.2$ days in B farm, $90.4{\pm}4.5$ days in C farm, and $71.4{\pm}2.5$ days in D farm. Number of artificial insemination (AI) service per conception was higher at the 30 days before first AI ($2.1{\pm}0.2$ times) than at the 31 days after first AI, and the days from calving to conception were shorter at the 90 days before first AI than at the 91 days after first AI. After timed AI (TAI) treatment, the pregnancy rate was 60.3% for the 58 cows with reproductive disorder. In order to improvement of reproduction rates, the farms has to improve the accuracy of estrus detection, pregnancy diagnosis, check-up for reproductive health, and control of day for first AI periods after calving. The result suggests that farmers need the careful management and reproductive examination of farm animals to improve of reproductive efficiency.

Effect of Body Condition Score (BCS) on In Vivo Embryo Production and Pregnancy Rate Following Superovulation in Hanwoo (한우에서 신체충실지수(BCS)가 다배란 처리 시 체내 수정란 생산과 수태율에 미치는 영향)

  • Yeom, Gyu-Tae;Park, Hae-Geum;Kim, Nam-Tae;Kim, Sung-Woo;Kim, Hyun;Do, Yoon-Jung;Kim, Young-Sin;Park, Soo-Bong;Kim, Jae-Hwan;Cho, Sang-Rae;Cho, Jae-Hyeon;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 2013
  • Body condition score (BCS) is a useful management tool for distinguishing differences in nutritional needs of cows in the herd. Although it is not always possible to quantify the nutrient content of the feed supplied to the donor cow, the nutritional status can be determined by the BCS. The objective of this study was to evaluate in vivo embryo production, return to estrous of donor and pregnancy rate of recipients following BCS in Hanwoo superovulation. Sixty nine Hanwoo donor cows were flushed on day 7 of estrus cycle with same FSH and artificial insemination by the same technicians. Embryos were recovered on 7 days after the third insemination by flushing the uterus with Embryo Collection Medium. The results obtained were as follows: No differences were observed in the efficiency of superovulation rates regardless of BCS ($${\leq_-}2.0$$, 2.5 to 3.0, and $${\geq_-}3.5$$). The mean number of total embryos was each $5.20{\pm}0.86$, $11.56{\pm}1.04$, and $6.23{\pm}1.07$. The mean number of transferable embryo from $${\leq_-}2.0$$, 2.5 to 3.0, and $${\geq_-}3.5$$ of BCS was $2.60{\pm}0.87$, $7.94{\pm}0.89$, and $4.75{\pm}1.32$, respectively (p<0.05). Return to estrous regardless of donor BCS was no difference. The pregnancy rates of recipient were BCS $${\leq_-}2.0$$ 11.76%, 2.5 to 3.0 40.79%, and $${\geq_-}3.5$$ 11.11%, following transfer of fresh embryos produced in vivo, respectively. These results indicate that if the Hanwoo with BCS 2.5 to 3.3 are used for donor and recipient, the embryo production and the conception rate will be greater.

Possibility of Repeated Use of Elite Donor Cows for Mass Production of OPU-Derived Embryos (OPU 유래 수정란의 대량생산을 위한 고능력 공란우 반복사용 가능성에 관한 연구)

  • Jin, Jong-In;Choi, Byung-Hyun;Kim, Seong-Su;Park, Bun-Young;Lee, Jung-Gyu;Kong, Il-Keun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.149-159
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    • 2015
  • This study was designed to know the possibility in repeat uses of elite donor cows for getting mass production of OPU-derived embryo production (OPU-IVP). Ultrasound transvaginal ovum pick-up (OPU) performed in 6 Korean native cows was aged 4 to 10 years old. The aspiration of immature oocytes for OPU derived embryo was carried out 2 times per week, and OPU-IVP of $1^{st}$ period was carried out 22~48 sessions from each donors. And the break time for OPU-IVP of $2^{nd}$ period after $1^{st}$ OPU from each donors were 2~25 months. The OPU-IVP of $2^{nd}$ period each donors conducted total 15~65 times for 2~8 months by an ultrasonographic, was guided follicular aspiration system. The average numbers of collected oocytes, grade 1 + grade 2(G1+G2) oocytes and cleavage embryo from $1^{st}$ period OPU-IVP were significantly differences between donors (p<0.05). Total collected oocytes of donor D were significantly higher compared with donors of A, B, C, E and F (average 17.0 per session vs. 11.2, 10.1, 8.5, 10.2 and 9.6; p<0.05) and also oocytes of G1+G2 were significantly higher compared with r A and D and subsequently to donors of B, C, E and F (average 7.9 and 8.5 per session vs. 5.0, 2.7, 6.0 and 1.6; p<0.05). Cleavage rate of donor D was significantly higher compared with donors of A, B, C, E and F (average 13.1 per session vs. 10.1, 9.1, 6.9, 8.9 and 6.7; p<0.05). The average numbers of OPU-IVP for $1^{st}$ period was significantly higher from donors of B, D and E than those from donors of A, C and F (average 6.5, 7.1 and 6.5 per session vs. 3.5, 4.2 and 2.8; p<0.05). The possibility investigation of $2^{nd}$ OPU-IVP was carried out after 2~25 months rest periods from $1^{st}$ period OPU session. Total average numbers of collected oocytes, cleavages and blastocyst development rates were significantly higher from $1^{st}$ period OPU compared with $2^{nd}$ period one (p<0.05). The OPU-IVP efficiency by break for more embryo production from elite cow was analysis comparing without rest of donor A, under 6 months rest period as B and over 6 months rest period as C and then the average numbers of collected oocytes, cleavages and blastocysts were significantly higher from A group (11.8, 9.5 and 5.2 per session) than those from B and C groups (7.9, 6.2 and 2.6 vs. 9.2, 7.5 and 3.9, p<0.05), and also C group was significantly higher than B group. In conclusion, $1^{st}$ period OPU-IVP was more efficient compared with $2^{nd}$ period repeated uses of donor, and the break times for additional production of embryo on donor were needed more than over 6 months after $1^{st}$ period OPU-IVP. This repeating uses of elite donor cows given more emphasis for getting the opportunity on mass production of elite cow OPU-IVP embryo should be increased G1+G2 possibility of genetic improvement of livestock within short period.

Application of Chemiluminescence Enzyme Immunoassay Method to Collect in vivo Matured Oocyte in Dog Cloning (개 복제 시 체내 성숙 난자 회수를 위한 화학발광효소면역분석기법의 적용)

  • Kim, Min-Jung;Oh, Hyun-Ju;Kim, Geon-A;Jo, Young-Kwang;Choi, Jin;Lee, Byeong-Chun
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.267-271
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    • 2014
  • Accurate determination of in vivo oocyte maturation is particularly critical for dog cloning compared to other assisted reproductive technologies because oocytes in metaphase II stage have to be recovered in order to undergo somatic cell nuclear transfer right after its recovery. The aim of present study was to evaluate the reliability and to set a reference range of a chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) compared to radioimmunoassay (RIA) method to retrieve in vivo matured oocytes. Serum progesterone concentration during proestrus and estrus was analyzed by RIA and CLEIA to determine ovulation day (Day 0). On Day 3, in vivo oocytes were recovered surgically and evaluated microscopically maturation status after staining nucleus with bisbenzimidazole dye. Mean progesterone concentration by CLEIA ($7.64{\pm}0.06ng/ml$) was significantly higher than by RIA ($6.46{\pm}0.04ng/ml$, P < 0.0001). It was not different between CLEIA ($10.01{\pm}0.34ng/ml$) and RIA values ($7.91{\pm}0.14ng/ml$, P < 0.05) on Day 0, but significantly higher CLEIA level on Day -1 and Day 1 ($6.41{\pm}0.15$ and $14.25{\pm}0.44ng/ml$) was assessed compared to RIA ($4.95{\pm}0.10$ and $11.29{\pm}0.34ng/ml$). However, with both methods, progesterone level was significantly increased from Day -1 to Day 2. To determine oocyte maturation with CLEIA method, a wider and higher reference range has to be considered.

Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Reproductive Traits in Yorkshire (요크셔종의 번식형질에 대한 유전모수 추정)

  • Song, Kwang-Lim;Kim, Byeong-Woo;Roh, Seung-Hee;Sun, Du-Won;Kim, Hyo-Sun;Lee, Deuk-Hwan;Jeon, Jin-Tae;Lee, Jung-Gyu
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.55-64
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits using multivariate animal models in Yorkshire breed. For the study, 4,989 records for litter traits collected between the year 2001 and 2005 from Yorkshire pigs in K GGP were used. The effects of environmental factors such as farrowing year, parity, weaning to estrus interval (WEI), and suckling period were statistically significant (p<0.05), but farrowing season was not significant, for reproductive traits. The estimates genetic correlations and phenotypic correlations in total number of born and number of suckling, was shown to highly correlated. The genetic correlations were higher than phenotypic correlation. The estimates of heritabilities for reproductive traits, considering permanent environment effects (PE) were much lower than those obtained when permanent environment effects were not considered (NPE) in the model. The estimates of heritabilities were 0.240 and 0.076 for total number of born and 0.187 and 0.096 for number of suckling in NPE, and PE, respectively. These results itivcate that PE should be considered in the statistical mode to estimate more acco ate breeding values.

The Effects of Polyampholyte on Vitrification Process for cryopreservation of Bovine Oviduct Epithelial Cell (Polyampholyte가 소난관상피세포의 초자화 동결방법에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung Woo;Lee, Jae-Yeong;Kim, Chan-Lan;Yu, Yeonhee;Lee, Sung Soo;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.527-535
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to establish a simple vitrification protocols to preserve animal cell lines derived from tissues of livestock that could be recultured. Bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC) were used for the vitrification process using a 0.25 ml straw to increase cryopreservation efficiency. BOEC was cultured from the oviduct of 3.5-day estrus state, and the commercially available polyampholyte StemCell KeepTM was used as a cryoprotective agent. Using different concentrations, the viability rates of BOEC in 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100% in freezing media were investigated. Survivability was determined using a differential staining technique using a trypan blue test and a CYTO-13/PI staining protocol. The viability rates of BOEC in the trypan blue test were 5.6±11.8, 12.5±7.2, 53.0±2.7, 85.1±6.9, 79.8±0.6, and 60.7±6.7% with a respective concentration of StemCell KeepTM. The viability rates in CYTO-13/PI staining were 4.6±2.5, 30.8±12.1, 58.4±2.5, 85.5±1.2, 79.8±0.6, and 71.2±1.2%, respectively. These results indicate that BOEC could be preserved with StemCell KeepTM without toxicity in a 0.25-ml straw. The optimal concentration of vitrification solution with StemCell KeepTM was determined to be 50% and can be considered as a proper preservation method for cryobanking.

Studies on the Utilization of Woodland for Livestock Farming II. Problem and Its Improvement Followed by the Join Cattle Grazing in king Won Do (임지의 축산적 이용에 관한 연구 제2보. 강원도의 새마을 "소" 임간공동방목사업의 문제점과 개선책)

  • 맹원재;윤익석;유제창;정승헌
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.100-111
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    • 1983
  • The research results reported herein had the objectives to understand and analyze the present problems of saemaeul woodland joint cattle grazing system in Kang Won Do and to take steps of improvement. The study results on actual management conditions, problems analyzed and improvement plan of total 208 joint cattle grazing area which was established 105 area in 1981 and 103 area in 1982 were summarized as follows: 1. the effectiveness of joint cattle grazing projects 1) Average daily weight gain of cattle during joint cattle grazing period was 0.4kg, showing higher daily than the conventional feeding of 0.33kg. 2) Increase of total farm income over the conventional feeding system were \1,031,357,320 during the grazing period from May to October in 1982 by adapting the 208 joint cattle grazing system, of which effectiveness of weight gain was \293,075,300 and labor saving was \543,838,750. 3) According to the results of questionaire investigation from 208 joint cattle grazing area, effectiveness of joint cattle grazing system over the conventional system were (1) labor saving, (2) feed cost saving, (3) reduced diseases, (4) increase of number of feeding, (5) inspiration of joint endeavor, (6) effect of more gain, (7) easiness of feeding and feed cost savings. 2. Problems of joint cattle grazing system. 1) Shortages of grass were a problem at second year of joint cattle grazing period due to the low regrowth rate of wild grass. 2) Proper land for woodland joint cattle grazing is belonging to land of Government ownership and it is very hard to get the permission from office of forestry for cattle grazing purpose. 3) It is also difficult to find a proper time of breeding in grazing area by the difficulty of estrus detection. 4) There are a difficulty to give a proper vaccination and medical examination for the grazing cattle. 3. Improvement plans for woodland joint cattle grazing projects. 1) Obtain sufficient roughages by hoof cultivation and oversowing pasture from the second year of joint cattle grazing period. 2) In order to increase the beef production and to use for a calf production area, Government should arrange that all proper grazing land of Government owned in Kang Won Do convert into woodland joint cattle grazing area. 3) Make a good reproductive record by mixed grazing with a excellent breeding cow in a remote area. And carry out the collective artificial insemination with synchronous puberty induced by injection of puberty stimulation hormone. 4) Make a preventive injection for blackleg, twice medication of fasciola hepatica in a year, and spray and medication of tick insecticide. 4. A policy towards upbringing of woodland joint cattle grazing area. 1) Government should thoroughly investigate about a proper land for woodland joint cattle grazing from all forests. 2) When the area is suitable for the woodland joint cattle grazing, though it is national forest or restricted area, government should make it possible to establish a grazing area. 3) On the proper land foe joint cattle grazing in the remote place, Government should support for the road construction and electric fence equipments by using of national funds. 4) There should be an administrative consideration for well promotion of the project that make woodland joint cattle grazing suitable to the characteristics of Kang Won Do. 5) In order to improve the reproduction record, Government should reform the insufficiency of artificial insemination in the joint cattle grazing area. 6) In order to maintain a proper price of cow, Government should carry out the price plan. 7) When there is any request for grassland formation in the woodland joint cattle grazing area, Government should permit it with preference.

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