• Title, Summary, Keyword: Estrus

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Natural vs synchronized estrus: determinants of successful pregnancy in ewes using frozen-thawed Suffolk semen

  • Rahman, Md. Mahbubur;Naher, Nazmun;Isam, Md. Mofijul;Hasan, Moinul;Naznin, Farhana;Bhuiyan, Mohammad Musharraf Uddin;Bari, Farida Yeasmin;Juyena, Nasrin Sultana
    • Journal of Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.183-189
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    • 2020
  • The pregnancy rate in indigenous ewes inseminated with frozen-thawed Suffolk semen following natural and synchronized estrus was determined. The serum Progesterone and Estrogen concentration and vaginal electrical resistance (VER) of ewes at the time of Artificial Insemination (AI) were observed as successful pregnancy determinants. 21 healthy ewes were selected for this experiment during January-April, 2017. 10 ewes were inseminated in natural estrus. Whereas, 11 ewes were inseminated after estrus synchronization using intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate. Trans-cervical Al (TCAI) was performed in all ewes within 12-16 hours of observed heat. Prostaglandin E1 analogue impregnated vaginal sponge was used for cervical relaxation 6-8 hours before insemination. Pregnancy was diagnosed through trans-abdominal ultrasonography after 40 days of AI. The pregnancy rate of ewes in synchronized estrus was higher (54.5%) than in natural estrus (30%). Higher serum Progesterone level (0.90 ± 0.02 ng/mL) and significantly (p < 0.001) lower VER (257.78 ± 10.11 ohm) were observed at the time of AI in ewes becoming pregnant. Results suggest that higher Progesterone concentration and lower VER could be considered as pregnancy indicators. Oestrous synchronization could be implemented to increase the pregnancy rate in ewes.

Study on behavioral change of estrus in Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) (한우 발정기 행동변화에 대한 연구)

  • Cheon, Si Nae;Yoo, Geum Zoo;Kim, Chan Ho;Jung, Ji Yeon;Kim, Dong Hun;Jeon, Jung Hwan
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.825-832
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    • 2020
  • The detection of estrus is very important for the successful reproductive efficiency of cattle. This has prompted the development of electronic estrus detection techniques by using the characterization of estrus behavior. The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in physical activity, mounting behavior and vocalization during estrus in Hanwoo (Korean native cattle). Bio-telemetry devices were attached to 4 multiparous Hanwoo and physical activity was compared, namely mounting behavior and vocalization for 6 days (from 2 days before the day of estrus to 3 days after the day of estrus). Physical activity rapidly increased on the day of estrus (p<0.001) and was frequently observed at night time. Mounting behavior gradually increased, starting from 2 days before the day of estrus and reached its highest level on the day of estrus (p<0.01). The circadian rhythm showed irregularities during this entire period (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in vocalization during the experiment period (p>0.05). In conclusion, we assumed that mounting behavior is an early indicator to detect estrus in Hanwoo and if both mounting behavior and physical activity are considered together it would be possible to detect estrus with a higher probability. Further studies with more information from different sources regarding the measuring of estrus in Hanwoo are needed.

Changes in Plasma Levels of Inhibin and Follicle Stimulating Hormone in Buffaloes Superovulated with eCG

  • Singh, Baljit;Dixit, V.D.;Dixit, V.P.;Singh, P.;Georgie, G.C.;Lohan, I.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1205-1209
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    • 2000
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of stimulation of follicular development with eCG on the peripheral levels of inhibin and FSH in Murrah buffaloes. Estrus was synchronized in five normally cycling females by insertion of Crestar (Intervet, Boxmeer, Holland) implants for nine days. Estradiol valerate was administered i.m. on the day of implant insertion. On the 10th day of the induced estrous cycle a single dose of 3000 IU eCG (Folligon, Intervet, Boxmeer, Holland) was given, followed by treatment with 25 mg of $PGF_2$ alpha (Lutalyse, Upjohn, Belgium) 48 h later. Blood samples were obtained during the induced estrus, on cycle day 10 (luteal phase), at the superovulatory estrus (43 h after PGF) and during the periovulatory period (64 h after PGF). Ultrasonography was done daily to monitor follicular development. Plasma concentrations of inhibin and FSH were determined by specific radioimmunoassays. Differences between $mean{\pm}SEM$ values of different phases of the cycle were compared by ANOVA. The mean number of small (2-5 mm), medium (6-9 mm) and large (>10 mm) follicles observed two days after eCG treatment and on the day of superovulatory estrus was $2.8{\pm}0.31$, $5.2{\pm}0.30$ and $1.4{\pm}0.09$ and $1.9{\pm}0.21$, $2.8{\pm}0.40$ and $5.0{\pm}0.83$, respectively. The mean number of ovulations was $3.6{\pm}0.37$ and the mean number of unovulated follicles was $6.1{\pm}0.47$. Most of the follicles >10 mm in diameter had ovulated (72%). The mean ${\pm}SEM $ of plasma inhibin concentration $(2584.15{\pm}17.92pg/ml)$ during the superovulatory estrus was significantly higher $(p{\leq}0.05)$ than during the induced estrus $(749.87{\pm}17.29pg/ml)$, the luteal phase $(1099.54{\pm}24.98pg/ml)$ and periovulatory period $(1682.71{\pm}29.88pg/ml)$, respectively. $Mean{\pm}SEM$ plasma FSH concentration during the induced estrus $(10.35{\pm}0.41ng/ml)$ was not different from that during the superovulatory estrus $(8.52{\pm}0.39ng/ml)$, but was significantly higher $(p{\leq}0.05)$ than during the luteal phase $(2.81{\pm}0.42ng/ml)$ and periovulatory period $(5.7{\pm}0.28ng/ml)$. These data indicate that treatment with eCG in buffaloes for inducing superovulation results in a significant elevation in plasma inhibin levels and a decrease in plasma FSH levels during the superovulatory estrus. Thus, we suggest that the elevated plasma inhibin coming from fully developed follicles continued for a long time which results in inhibition of FSH leading to poor ovulation in the remaining follicles, which may be the cause of suboptimal superovulatory response.

Induction of fertile estrus without the use of steroid hormones in seasonally anestrous Suffolk ewes

  • Miguel-Cruz, Erika Elizabeth;Mejia-Villanueva, Octavio;Zarco, Luis
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.11
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    • pp.1673-1685
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    • 2019
  • Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of treatments based on gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), GnRH-prostaglandin $F2{\alpha}$ ($PGF2{\alpha}$), and/or intense exposure to novel rams to induce fertile estrus without the use of steroid hormones in seasonally anestrous Suffolk ewes. Methods: In the first experiment, ewes were treated with one injection of GnRH, two injections of GnRH administered 7 days apart, or a sequence of GnRH-$PGF2{\alpha}$-GnRH (GPG). In the second experiment anestrous ewes were exposed, for 36 days starting on the day of weaning, to groups of four rams of three different breeds that were alternated every day. Besides exposure to the male effect (ME), the ewes were injected with saline solution (ME group, n = 20), with GnRH (ME-GnRH group, n = 20) or with a sequence of GnRH-$PGF2{\alpha}$-GnRH (ME-GPG group, n = 20). The rams used for male-effect were fitted with aprons to prevent mating, and ewes detected in estrus were bred to selected fertile rams. Ovarian activity was monitored by progesterone determinations in both experiments. Results: In the first experiment sustained induction of ovarian activity was not achieved and no ewe was detected in estrus. In the second experiment induction of sustained ovarian activity was achieved in all groups. Most of the ewes were detected in estrus, 76.7% of the ewes were mated during a 36-d breeding period and 71.7% of all the ewes became pregnant during that period. No significant differences between groups were found for any of these variables. However, estrus detection efficiency was higher in the ME-GnRH group than in the ME group (p<0.05). Conclusion: An intense male-effect, that included the continuous presence and frequent alternation of several rams of different breeds, was sufficient to induce ovarian activity and fertile estrus in Suffolk ewes during the period of deep anestrus without the use of hormones, although addition of GnRH improved the efficiency of estrus detection.

Confirmation of Estrus Induction using Vaginal Cytology in Shih-tzu Bitches (시츄견에서 질세포 검사를 이용한 발정 유기 효과의 확인)

  • Park, Chul-Ho;Lee, Suk-Kyung;Kim, Bang-Sil;Bae, Jae-Han;Ryu, Jae-Sun;Kim, Sang-Il;Lee, Ju-Hwan;Park, Sang-Guk;Park, In-Chul;Kim, Jong-Taek;Suh, Guk-Hyun;Oh, Ki-Seok;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2010
  • To investigate the change of vaginal epithelial cell in estrus-induced Shih-tzu bitch, estrus was induced by PMSG (50 IU/kg, for 10 days) and hCG (1,000 IU, on Day 10) in 12 anestrus Shih-tzu bitches. Day-changes of vaginal epithelial cells during the whole period of hormone treatment were investigated in each experimental bitches. The first day of vulvar bleeding and the first day of male acceptant was on $6.72{\pm}1.38$ days ($Mean{\pm}S.D.$), and $10.44{\pm}1.63$ days after the first PMSG treatment. The duration of proestrus and estrus was $4.36{\pm}1.20$ days, and $7.58{\pm}1.43$ days. Characteristic features of vaginal cytology during the estrous cycle were the high proportion of large intermediate cell, superficial cell, anuclear cell and erythrocyte in proestrus, superficial cell and anuclear cell in estrus, and parabasal cell, small and large intermediate cell, and leukocyte in diestrus, respectively. When it was timed from the first day of PMSG administration (Day 0), the cornification index (CI) was the high proportion in proestrus and estrus. The CI peak was maintained above 80% between Day 11~14 (4 days) and CI showed a peak at Day 12. These results indicated that the 12 Shih-tzu bitches showed positive estrus induction by vaginal smear test and observation of clinical estrus sign.

Numerical and morphologic changes of ovarian follicles in each stage of estrus cycle in rats (Rat의 성주기에 따른 난포의 수와 형태변화)

  • Lee, Yoi-joo;Kwak, Soo-dong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.455-462
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    • 1999
  • This study was designed to investigate the number of the growing and mature follicles in each stage of estrus cycle in mature rats. Eighteen mature rats(Sprague-Dawley, initially 190~230gm) were randomly alloted into 4 groups(proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus) according to estrus cycles. The uteri and ovaries of rats were collected and then alternative sections of paraffin embedding ovaries were stained with H-E. Numbers of large, middle and small follicles or only large and middle follicles from secondary and tertiary follicles were investigated by LM photography of preparations. Small follicles were defined as secondary follicles with 2~5 cell layers of granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte, and middle follicles were defined as secondary follicles with more than 5 cell layers or with early signs of antral cavity or with more than one small cleft on either side of the oocytes and large follicles were defined as tertiary follicles with a single medium or large antral cavity. The number of follicles in a pair ovary per rat was appeared to be ranged from 207 to 370 and the mean number of these follicles was $270.4{\pm}52.6$ and the mean number of follicles per ovary was $134.9{\pm}32.0$. The mean number of large, middle and small follicles per ovary was appeared to be $16.4{\pm}4.4$($12.2{\pm}3.3%$), $36.2{\pm}8.6$($26.8{\pm}6.4%$), and $82.7{\pm}24.0$($61.3{\pm}17.8%$), respectively. The mean number of large and middle follicles in each stage group of estrus cycle was appeared to be $17.8{\pm}2.1$ and $38.3{\pm}7.4$ at proestrus stage group, $15.7{\pm}5.2$ and $38.0{\pm}10.0$ at estrus stage group, $16.5{\pm}3.5$ and $33.8{\pm}7.0$ at metestrus stage group, $16.7{\pm}5.8$ and $29.7{\pm}5.5$ at diestrus group, respectively. In histological findings of large follicles during each estrus cycle, the large follicles in proestrus group contain single small antrum, thick granulosa cell layers, and were $300{\sim}500{\mu}m$ in diameter and were growing follicles with PCNA-positive cells in the granulosa cell layers, and other luteinizing follicles of proestrus cycle stage were decreased in size and were thicker in wall thickness and more luteinized than those in metestrus and diestrus stage groups. The large follicles in estrus stage group contain thick granulosa cell layers and nonprominent cumulus-oocyte complexes in antrum, and were $400{\sim}700{\mu}m$ in diameter and were growing follicles with PCNA-positive cells in the granulosa cell layers. The large follicles in metestrus and diestrus stage groups contain enlarged antrums, thinner layers of walls and prominent cumulus-oocyte complexes, and were $700-950{\mu}m$ in diameter, and were nongrowing follicles without PCNA-positive cells or another large follicles contain cells with dark stainability and distinct boundary.

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Protein Patterns on a Vaginal Mucus during Spontaneous and Estrus Synchronization using CIDR in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

  • Chung, Hak-Jae;Kim, Nam-Kuk;Lee, Hwi-Cheul;Yoon, Hyun-Il;Lee, Suk-Dong;Ko, Jin-Sung;Kwon, Hyeok-Jin;Oh, Hae-Ryong;Choy, Yun-Ho;Choi, Seong-Bok;Jeon, Gi-Jun;Im, Seok-Ki;Lee, Myeung-Sik
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.251-255
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    • 2008
  • The aim of the present recent study was to compare the protein patterns in the vaginal mucus of Hanwoo cattles during spontaneous and CIDR induced-estrus. Ten cattles, who had been observed in estrus, received no treatment and served as the group of cattles with normal spontaneous estrus. Thirteen cattles in the CIDR received an CIDR insert on day 14 were removed and cattles were injected GnRH on day 15. Vaginal mucus samples were collected from all cattles at the same time the single AI in cattles with spontaneous estrus and the AI in cattles with induced estrus. Spontaneous and CIDR-induced estrus vaginal mucus samples were analyzed on two different array surfaces: cation-exchange (CM10), anion-exchange (Q10). In addition, using the NaCl solution by which the proteins combined after washing are 0.5, 1 and 2 M, it was fractionated and a protein was collected successively. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Ionic surfaces chemistries (Q10 and CM10) gave the best results in terms of detectable protein peaks, with more than 100 protein peaks in the two fractions and under each condition. 2) Protein mass spectrometer using 11 different proteins in protein identification of 7 were able to determine the protein. List of identified proteins as follows; Ribosome-binding protein 1, GRIP 1-associated protein 1, Katanin p60 ATPase-containing subunit A-like 1, Protein FAM44A, DUF729 domain-containing protein 1, Prolactin precursor, Dihydrofolate erductase. Conclusively, on the basis of this study, protein expression in the vaginal mucus could be used as an indicator for time of estrus manifestation in order to increase conception rates by applying AI at an optional time.

Ovarian Structure and Hormonal Changes, and Conception Rate after Estrus Induction using $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ in Korean Native Cows (한우에서 $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ 투여에 의한 발정유도 후 난소 구조물 및 호르몬의 변화와 수태율)

  • Park, Chul-Ho;Ryu, Jae-Sun;Yu, Dae-Jung;Park, In-Chul;Kim, Jong-Taek;Suh, Guk-Hyun;Oh, Ki-Seok;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to develop the useful inducing method of estrus for Korean native cows. Under the condition of estrus induction by administering $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ for the cows in which corpus luteum (CL) in ovaries was detected by ultrasonography, ovarian responses and the changes of progesterone ($P_4$) concentration against $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ compared with conception rate were observed in cows and heifers. In inducing estrus administering $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$. to the cows which has corpus luteum in ovaries, ovarian reponses, the changes of progesterone concentration, and conception rate were identified and compared. The results attained from the studies were as follows. Significant decreases of CL in size over time after $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ administration were detected in both cow and heifer groups (p<0.001), but not different between groups in the CL regression rate (p>0.05). In addition, the percentage changes relative to the plasma $P_4$ concentration on day 1 after $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ treatment were decreased to below 1ng/ml. The growth rate of follicle was observed as 31% on day 1 and 42% on day 2 in cows, and 34% on day 1 and 97% on day 2 in heifers, resulting that growth of heifers are faster than that of cows (p<0.05). The conception rate after $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ treatment were 60.5% and 64.2% in cows and heifers, respectively. It also indicated that the conception rate after estrus observation with $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ injection was as high as 66.6% while that with timed-artificial insemination (TAI) regardless of the estrus observation was 56%, which means the pregnancy rate of artificial insemination after estrus observation was higher than that of TAI (p<0.05). In the result of all above, there were significant decreases in CL size and the plasma $P_4$ concentration by days but rapid growth in follicles, which has no differences in cows and heifers. The conception rate was commonly high after estrus observation and more than 50% under TAI.

Influences of Rate of Artificial Insemination Following Estrus Induction in Dog (개에서 발정유도가 인공수정효율에 미치는 영향)

  • 이영락;강태영;최상용
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2003
  • Considerable attention has been focused on the cryopreservation of semen and estrus induction in dog, as consequence of poor productivity caused by long anestrus period, in order to enhance the productivity of youngs and to preserve the breeds. The objectives of this study were to improve reproductive efficiency of artificial insemination with fresh- and frozen-semen following estrus induction in dog. Fifty infertilie dogs (age 2~3 years) were selected fur the study and divided into three different estrus induction treatment groups. Group 1 : dogs (n=15) were given clomifene (0.1 mg/kg) orally f3r five days at 12 hr intervals. Croup 2: dogs (n=15) were given bromocriptine (50 $\mu$g/kg) orally for five days at 12 hr intervals, followed by single injection intravenously of 500 IU GnRH (Croup 3, n=20) when pro-estrus occurred. After being treated, the dogs were evaluated fur the rates of estrus induction and time interval lapses from treatment to beginning of the pro-estrus. The rates of pregnancy in estrus inducted dogs mated naturally compared to those inseminated artificially with ejaculated fresh semen and frozen-thawed semen. Estrus detection was performed using the method of vaginal smear and confirmed by the plasma progesterone assay. Pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasonograpy on day 25, 35 and 55 post insemination. The ejaculated semen was exposed to a mixture of Tris extender with cryoprotectant (Trisma, 81 mM; TES, 209 mM; citric acid, 6 mM; glucose, 5 mM; glycerol, 8%) and cryopreserved gradually by slow-cooling at 17 co above the surface of liquid nitrogen (L$N_2$) for 23 min. The use of fresh semen, the pregnancy rates were observed 66.6, 66.6, 75.0 and 83.3% in natural estrus, clomifene induced, bromocriptine induced and a combination of GnRH and bromocriptine, respectively. The use of frozen-thawed semen, the pregnancy rates were observed 66.6, 33.3, 50.0 and 60.0% in natural estrus, clomifene induced, bromocriptine induced and a combination of GnRH and bromocriptine, respectively. No difference was observed in the number of offspring produced among natural estrus and treated groups inseminated with fresh or frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, there was no significant differences in the pregnancy rate of dogs between group treated with a combination of GnRH and bromocriptine and group treated clomifene or bromocriptine only. However, frozen-thawed semen can be used successfully fur artificial insemination in dog.

A Study on the Stage of Embryos Non-Surgically Recovered from Heifers and Cows in Natural Heat (자연배란된 처녀우와 경산으로부터 비외과적으로 회수한 수정란의 발육단계에 관한 연구)

  • 정구민;김종국;임경순
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.41-45
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    • 1989
  • Total thirty of flushing were attempted on day 4 to 15 of estrus cycle with S heifers and 9 cows by nonsurgical method. The flushed or recovered rate among flushings was 86.7% (26/30) or 88.5% (23/26), respectively. There was no difference in the recovered rate between heifers (85.7%,6/7) and cows (89.5%, 17119). The embryo was recovered on day 4 to 15 of estrus cycle from the donors in natural heat without any technical difficulties.The I2FG Foley catheter used for pubertal heifers had sometimes plug in it with uterine mucus during flushing of uterine horn. But the problem could be overcomed by pumping the catherter with fluthing solution or by changing the catheter. Three normal embryos were recovered from 3 pubertal (10-11 month old) heifers. The rate of normal and abnormal eggs was 60.9% (14123) and 39.1% (9/23), respectively. The abnormal eggs were on degenerating except one unfertilized egg and were mostly recovered from heifers or cows flushed consecutively during the estrus cycle. The developmental states of normal embryos were l6-cells on day 5, 32-cells on day 6, compacted-morula on day 7, early-to expanded-blastocyst on day 8-to 9, and hatching-to hatched-blastocyst on day 10 to 11 of estrus cycle. The stage of embryos on day 8 to 10 showed varities among donors. On day 8 to 9 of estrus cycle hatching-blas tocyst was recovered from some donors.

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