• Title, Summary, Keyword: Estrus

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Studies on the Improvement of Embryo Transfer Efficiency in Korean Cattle III. Effect of Pregnancy Rate after Embryo Transfer by Condition of Transfer Time (한우에서 수정란 이식의 효율 증진에 관한 연구 III. 이식 시기의 조건이 수정란 이식 후 수태율에 미치는 영향)

  • 김흥률;김덕임;김진호;박철진;이문성;김창근;정영채
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to establish an effective system for embryo transfer techniques by analyzing several factors affecting in-vivo embryo transfer in Korean cattle Embryos were transferred into a toral of 301 recipients. The results obtained in studies on the factors affecting pregnancy rate after embryo transfer by condition of transfer time were as follows ; 1. The pregnancy rate by the seasons of transferred fresh and frozen embryos were not different, but the pregnancy rate was slightly higher in summer(80.8%). 2. The pregnancy rate by the days of embryo transfer after estrus were not different when fresh embryos were transferred, but the pregnancy rate was highest at 8 days when frozen embryos were transferred(P<0.01, 40.0%). 3. The pregnancy rate at estrus synchronization was remarkably higher with PGF$_2$$\alpha$ treated than natural (P<0.05, 70.4%, 43.4%). 4. The pragnancy rate by the degree of estrus synchronization was best when the estrus was synchronized in both fresh and frozen embryos (83.3% and 29.7%, respectively), but the pregnancy rate was not different among $\pm$2 days. But the pregnancy rate of frozen embryos were slightly higher when the recipients exhibited estrus earlier than donors.

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Effects of Breeds on Body Weight, Age, Body Conformation, Backfat Thickness and Steroid Hormone Concentrations at First Estrus and Mating of Gilts (첫 발정과 종부시 체중, 연령, 체형, 등지방 두께 및 스테로이드 호르몬 농도에 미치는 종빈돈 품종의 영향)

  • 김종상;김홍기;손동수;양창범;이성호;이영주;박창식
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.163-167
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to get a fundamental information fur improvement of reproductive performance in gilt. We investigated the effects of breeds on body weight, age, body length, wither's height, girth and backfat thickness, and the serum concentrations of estradiol-17$\beta$, cortisol and progesterone at first estrus and mating of gilts. A total of 47 gilts of Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire, produced at Livestock Experiment Station, Chungnam Livestock Sanitation Research Institute from 2000 through 2002, were used for this experiment. Body weight, age and girth of Duroc at first estrus and mating were higher than those of Landrace and Yorkshire. There were no differences on body length among the three breeds at first estrus and mating. Wither's height of Duroc and Yorkshire at first estrus and mating was higher than that of Landrace. Backfat thickness of Yorkshire was thinnest among the three breeds at first estrus, but there were no differences on backfat thickness among the three breeds at first mating. Serum estradiol-17$\beta$ concentration of Landrace (45.0 pg/ml) at first estrus was higher than that of Yorkshire (27.4 pg/ml) and Duroc (21.8 pg/ml), but there were no differences on estradiol-17$\beta$ concentration (from 18.5 to 31.9 pg/ml) among the three breeds at first mating. Serum cortisol concentration of Duroc at first estrus and mating was higher than that of Landrace and Yorkshire. There were no differences on serum progesterone concentration among the three breeds at first estrus and mating of gilt.

Effects of Different Hormone Treatments on the Estrus Synchronization and Superovulation of Gilts I. Effects of Altrenogest and PG600 Treatments on the Estrus Synchronization of Gilts (미경산돈의 발정 동기화 및 과배란시 호르몬 처리간의 효과 I. 미경산돈의 발정 동기화에 있어 Altrenogest와 PG600 처리 효과)

  • 장원경;박진기;이장형;김도형;이훈택;정길생
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the estrus synchronization and superovulation of pigs with hormone treatments. Three different kinds of procedures for synchronization and superovulation were used as follow: I) gilts in natural estrus behavior (control): 2) gilts synchronized with 20mg altrenogest for 9 days regardless of the estrus cycle; 3) gilts received PG600 (400IU PMSG + 200 IU hCG) in 15 day of the estrus cycle; and then gilts administrated with PMSG (1,500 IU) and hCG (750 IU) after altrenogest and PG600 treatment for superovulation. Estrus was checked daily with a boar, in estrus synchronization, the intervals from hormone treatment to estrus were different between PG600 (43/47) and altrenogest (13/53) within 6 days. The percentage of animals displaying a estrus response were not different by hormone treatments. The average number of corpora lutea (C.L) and ovulated embryos were similar between PG600 25.4${\pm}$13.1, 19.0$\pm$12.8 and altrenogest 25.5${\pm}$0.7, 15.0${\pm}$4.2, respectively, but was increased (P<0.05) by hormone treatment compared to that 12.9${\pm}$1.8, 12.7${\pm}$3.9 in the control. The number of normal embryos after ovulation was higher in the control than hormone treatment. Therefore, these results suggest that altrenogest and PG600 treatment could be a valuable for cut down the labour and cost by synchronization.

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Programmed Reproductive Management Including Presynch-Ovsynch-Resynch Protocol in Dairy Cows (젖소에서 일련의 Presynch-Ovsynch-Resynch Protocol을 이용한 번식관리 예)

  • Kim, Ill-Hwa;Francisco, Nilo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.397-401
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    • 2010
  • This study was to evaluate the usefulness of a programmed reproductive management including Presynch-Ovsynch-Resynch protocol in lactating dairy cows. Nine hundred and thirty four cows calved during February to May 2008 were used for this study. Cows received im injections of 25 mg $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ at $45{\pm}3$ and $59{\pm}3$ days in milk (DIM). Fourteen days later, Ovsynch was initiated with an im injection of $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH ($73{\pm}3$ DIM), 25 mg $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ 7 days later ($80{\pm}3$ DIM), $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH 56 h later and timed artificial insemination (TAI) 16 h after the GnRH injection. Cows showed estrus during the Presynch-Ovsynch, were inseminated artificially according to am-pm rule. Pregnancy was determined on 32 days after AI using ultrasonography. Cows diagnosed pregnant were re-examined for pregnancy by rectal palpation at 60 days after AI. Non-pregnant cows were resynchronized by receiving $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH, 25 mg $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ 7 days later, $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH 56 h later and TAI 16 h after. Cows with estrus since the first AI before the completion of Resynch protocol were also inseminated artificially according to am-pm rule. Pregnancy was determined by the same manner as following the first AI. Fifty five percents of the cows treated showed estrus and received AI before completion of the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, while 45% received TAI, regardless of estrus exhibition following the completion of the protocol. The pregnancy rate following the first AI was higher in cows that showed estrus and received AI (43.3 and 38.5%) during the Presynch-Ovsynch than cows with TAI (34.6 and 29.6%) on 32 and 60 days after AI (P < 0.01). Sixty six percents of cows diagnosed non-pregnant following the first AI showed estrus before the completion of Resynch protocol and received AI, while 34% received TAI, regardless of estrus exhibition following the completion of the protocol. The pregnancy rate following the second AI was higher in cows that showed estrus before the completion of Resynch protocol and received AI (40.2 and 36.8%) than cows with TAI (21.2 and 18.2%) on 32 and 60 days after AI (P < 0.01). The cumulative pregnancy rates following the first and second AIs were 60.8 and 53.9% on 32 and 60 days after AI, respectively. These data suggest that inclusion of Presynch-Ovsynch-Resynch protocol and estrus detection into the programmed reproductive management might be an alternative option to control dairy cattle breeding.

The Recovery, In Vitro Maturation and Fertilization of Nili-Ravi Buffalo Follicular Oocytes

  • Samad, H.A.;Khan, I.Q.;Rehman, N.U.;Ahmad, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.491-497
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    • 1998
  • Four types of serum supplements viz. estrus cow serum (ECS), estrus buffalo serum (EBS), pro-estrus buffalo serum (PrBS) and post-estrus buffalo serum (PtBS), added to TCM-199, were evaluated for in vitro maturation and fertilization of buffalo follicular oocytes. The oocytes were recovered from buffalo ovaries after slaughter, using either aspiration or scoring (multiple incisions) method. The recovered oocytes were categorized as A, B and C based on their cumulus investment and ooplasm homogeneity and cultured in four media. The in vitro matured oocytes were inseminated with $1{\times}10^6$ spermatozoa washed in 2.9% sodium citrate solution. The scoring method yielded greater number of morphologically good oocytes than the aspiration method (3.85 vs 1.76 per ovary, p < 0.01). The maturation rates of three categories of oocytes did not differ from one another. The maturation rates of 80.00, 82.08, 78.77 and 66.23%, while the fertilization rates of 54.54, 55.38, 52.80 and 36.76% were recorded for media containing ECS, EBS, PrBS, and PtBS, respectively. The medium containing PtBS gave lower maturation, as well as fertilization, rates than the other three media (p < 0.05). Thus, the scoring method was better than the aspiration method for the recovery of follicular oocytes. The oocytes categorized A, B and C had similar maturation capabilities. The TCM-199 containing buffalo/cow serum collected at pro-estrus or estrus appeared better for in vitro maturation and fertilization of buffalo follicular oocytes than that containing serum collected at post estrus.

Effect of Superovulatory Regimens on Ovarian Response and Embryo Production in Fine Wool Sheep in Tropics

  • Naqvi, S.M.K.;Gulyani, R.;Pareek, S.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.595-599
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    • 2000
  • Fine wool sheep (n=18) maintained in a tropical environment were allocated to three treatment groups. Estrus was induced with two injections of $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ (10 mg. im) at 10 days interval. Superovulation treatment started 2 days prior to the second injection of $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$. Each ewe was treated with a total dose of 25 units FSH (Super-OV) i.m. every 12 hover 3 days; Group 2 were also injected i.m. with 200 IU PMSG at the first injection of FSH; Group 3 was treated as in Group 2 and also with GnRH ($4{\mu}g$ Buserelin) at the onset of estrus. The ewes in estrus were mated with a fertile ram. Ovarian examination and recovery of embryo and ova were performed at laparoscopy and laparotomy on day 3 or 4 after mating. Data for onset of estrus, duration of estrus, number of corpora lutea (CL), number of unnovulated large follicle (LF), embryo recovery rate, embryo quality and fertilization recorded for the 3 groups. Ewes in the Group 1 set in estrus later (p<0.05; $50.0{\pm}7.29h$) than the ewes in Group 2 ($24.5{\pm}3.58$) and 3 ($32.5{\pm}3.58h$). The duration of estrus, ovarian size and ovarian response (number of CL and LF) did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among the 3 groups. The proportion of ewes with a superovulatory response (${\geq}2$ CL) was the lowest (50%) in Group 1 treated with FSH alone but ova/embryo recovery (100%) and fertilization (100%) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Group 2 (58.3 and 85.7%, respectively) and Group 3 (48.6 and 50%, respectively). It is concluded that in tropical fine wool sheep, there is no difference in the 3 treatments for yield of good quality embryos but ovarian response and ovulation rate increased on additional use of PMSG and GnRH respectively to FSH alone.

The use of infrared thermography to detect the stages of estrus cycle and ovulation time in anatolian shepherd dogs

  • Olgac, Kemal Tuna;Akcay, Ergun;Cil, Beste;Ucar, Burak Mehmet;Daskin, Ali
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.59 no.10
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    • pp.21.1-21.6
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    • 2017
  • Background: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of thermographic monitoring, using the temperature changes of perianal and perivulvar areas for the determination of estrus in Anatolian Shepherd bitches. Fifteen bitches were used in the study. Blood and vaginal smear samples were collected and thermographic monitoring of perianal and perivulvar areas were carried out starting from proestrus to early diestrus. Also, external signs of estrus were investigated. Smear samples were evaluated by light microscopy after Diff-Quik staining method and superficial and keratinized superficial cells were determined as percentage (S + KS%). Progesterone and luteinizing hormone measurements were done by radioimmunoassay. The difference in temperature between perianal and perivulvar areas was evaluated through thermographic images by FLIR ResearchIR Software. Results: According to the results obtained from the study, differences between progesterone and S + KS% were statistically significant (P < 0,05). Although temperature showed increase and decrease with progesterone and S + KS%, the differences were not important statistically (P > 0,05). Serum luteinizing hormone levels did not sign any difference (P > 0,05). Conclusions: As a result, thermographic monitoring alone is not enough for estrus detection in Anatolian Shepherd bitches. However, it can be used to assist the actual estrus detection technique in terms of providing some foreknowledge by evaluating the differences in temperature.

Relationship between the Conception Rate after Estrus Induction using CIDR and Other Parameters in Dairy Cows (젖소에서 CIDR 투여에 의한 발정 유도 후 수태율과 다른 인자와의 관계)

  • Park, Chul-Ho;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between conception rate and other parameters (body condition score; BCS, progesterone concentrations and follicle size) before estrus induction with CIDR(intravaginal progesterone-releasing controlled internal drug release). The conception rate in cows with < 2.75, 2.75 to 3.25, and 3.25 <, BCS regardless of AI (artificial insemination) time was 46.6%, 63.3%, and 46.6% at CIDR insertion, respectively. The conception rate regardless of BCS was 54.9% in cows inseminated based on detected estrus, and 48.7% in cows inseminated at 72 to 80 hours (timed artificial insemination, TAI) after removal of CIDR. The conception rate regardless of AI time was 40.0% in cows with low progesterone concentrations (less than 1.0 ng/ml), and 56.6% in cows with high progesterone concentrations (more than 1.0 ng/ml) at CIDR injection. The conception rate regardless of progesterone concentrations was 53.8% in cows inseminated based on detected estrus, and 38.0% in cows of TAI after removal of CIDR. The conception rate regardless of AI time was 43.3% in cows with small follicle (less than 5 mm), 53.3% in cows between 5 mm to 10 mm of follicle, and 63.3% in cows with large folliclc (more than 10 mm) at CIDR injection, respectively. The conception rate regardless of follicle size was 58.4% in cows inseminated based on detected estrus, and 45.9% in cows of TAI after removal of CIDR. These results indicated that if the cows with BCS 2.75 to 3.25, active corpus luteum, and/or large dominant follicle (more than 10 mm) are used for estrus induction, the conception rate will be greater.

Estrus Detection in Sows Based on Texture Analysis of Pudendal Images and Neural Network Analysis

  • Seo, Kwang-Wook;Min, Byung-Ro;Kim, Dong-Woo;Fwa, Yoon-Il;Lee, Min-Young;Lee, Bong-Ki;Lee, Dae-Weon
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.271-278
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    • 2012
  • Worldwide trends in animal welfare have resulted in an increased interest in individual management of sows housed in groups within hog barns. Estrus detection has been shown to be one of the greatest determinants of sow productivity. Purpose: We conducted this study to develop a method that can automatically detect the estrus state of a sow by selecting optimal texture parameters from images of a sow's pudendum and by optimizing the number of neurons in the hidden layer of an artificial neural network. Methods: Texture parameters were analyzed according to changes in a sow's pudendum in estrus such as mucus secretion and expansion. Of the texture parameters, eight gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) parameters were used for image analysis. The image states were classified into ten grades for each GLCM parameter, and an artificial neural network was formed using the values for each grade as inputs to discriminate the estrus state of sows. The number of hidden layer neurons in the artificial neural network is an important parameter in neural network design. Therefore, we determined the optimal number of hidden layer units using a trial and error method while increasing the number of neurons. Results: Fifteen hidden layers were determined to be optimal for use in the artificial neural network designed in this study. Thirty images of 10 sows were used for learning, and then 30 different images of 10 sows were used for verification. Conclusions: For learning, the back propagation neural network (BPN) algorithm was used to successful estimate six texture parameters (homogeneity, angular second moment, energy, maximum probability, entropy, and GLCM correlation). Based on the verification results, homogeneity was determined to be the most important texture parameter, and resulted in an estrus detection rate of 70%.

Real-time Temperature Monitoring to Enhance Estrus Detection in Cattle Utilizing Ingestible Bio-Sensors : Method & Case Studies

  • Kim, Heejin;Oh, Seeun;Ahn, Sehyeok;Choi, Byoungju
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Information Technology
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.65-75
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    • 2017
  • In the case where stock farms fail to detect estrus, a 21-day non-pregnant period arises, causing additional feed costs for fertile cows, additional artificial insemination costs, and a decrease in calf productions and milk yield. Thus, accurately detecting cattle estrus and predicting the optimum time of insemination is very important as it is directly linked to the profit and production improvement of stock farms. In this paper, we propose a real-time temperature monitoring method for effective estrus detection and also applies it to cattle for case analysis. The ingestible bio-sensor utilized in this research settles in the cattle's rumen and measures the core temperature without any external interference, which makes it possible to collect consistent and reliable data in real-time. With the proposed method the farm owner can detect a cattle's estrus without fail, and predict the optimum time of insemination by confirming the onset point of estrus.