• Title, Summary, Keyword: Estrus

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MHC Class II+ (HLA-DP-like) Cells in the Cow Reproductive Tract: I. Immunolocalization and Distribution of MHC Class II+ Cells in Uterus at Different Phases of the Estrous Cycle

  • Eren, U.;Sandikci, M.;Kum, S.;Eren, V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2008
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the distribution of major histocompatibility complex class II positive (MHC II+) (HLA-DP-like) cells in the cow uterus (cervix, corpus and cornu uteri) and to compare these cells between the estrus and diestrus phases of the estrous cycle. Twenty-nine multiparous cows were used. Tissue samples from the middle of the cervix, the corpus and the right cornu were taken immediately after slaughter at the estrus or diestrus phase. Streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex staining was used to detect MHC II+ cells. The number of MHC II+ cells per unit area of tissue was counted using image analysis software under a light microscope. Numerous MHC II+ cells were found in the endometrium (cervix, corpus and cornu uteri) in both estrus and diestrus. MHC II+ cells were found in the surface epithelium of the cervix uteri in diestrus, but in the corpus uteri in both estrus and diestrus and in the cornu uteri in estrus. MHC II+ cells were also found freely in the lumen of the glands and between the gland epithelia of the corpus and cornu uteri in both estrus and diestrus. There were also MHC II+ cells in the connective tissue of the myometrium and perimetrium (outside the endometrium) and around the blood vessels. Endothelial cells were frequently positive for MHC II staining. More MHC II+ cells were found in the endometrium than outside the endometrium in both estrus and diestrus (p<0.001). However, there was no difference in the numbers of positive cells between estrus and diestrus either in the endometrium or outside it. These results are the first evidence for HLA-DP-like MHC II+ cells in the bovine uterus. They indicate that antigen presentation by HLA-DP-like MHC II+ cells of the uterus is not influenced by hormonal status.

Effects of breeds on body weight, age, body conformation, backfat thickness and steroid hormone concentrations at first estrus and mating of gilts (첫발정과 종부시 체중, 연령, 체형, 등지방 두께 및 스테로이드 호르몬 농도에 미치는 종빈돈 품종의 영향)

  • Kim, Hong-Ki;Kim, Jong-Sang;Kim, Hong-Zoo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.151-156
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to get a fundamental information for improvement of reproductive performance in gilt. We investigated the effects of breeds on body weight, age, body length, wither's height, girth and backfat thickness, and the serum concentrations of estradiol-17${\beta}$, cortisol and progesterone at first estrus and mating of gilts. A total of 47 gilts of Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire, produced at Livestock Experiment Station, Chungnam livestock sanitation research institute from 2000 through 2002, were used for this experiment. Body weight, age and girth of Duroc at frist estrus and mating were higher than those of Landrace and Yorkshire. There were no differences on body length among the three breeds at frist and mating. Wither's height of Duroc and Yorkshire at first estrus and mating was higher than that of Landrace. Backfat thickness of Yorkshire was thinnest among the three breeds at first estrus, but there were no differences on backfat thickness among the three breeds at first mating. Serum estradiol-17${\beta}$ concentration of Landrace(45.0 pg/ml) at first estrus was higher than that of Yorkshire(27.4 pg/ml) and Duroc(21.8 pg/ml), but there were no differences on estradiol-17${\beta}$ concentration (from 18.5 to 31.9 pg/ml) among the three breeds at first mating. Serum cortisol concentration of Duroc at first esturs and mating was higher than that of Landrace and Yorkshire. There were no differences on serum progesterone concentration among the three breeds at first estrus and mating of gilt.

Reproductive Monitoring and Estrus Induction Using Ultrasonography and Hormone Assay in Dairy Cows III. Estrus Induction Using $PGF_2{\alpha}$ (초음파검사 및 호르몬검사에 의한 젖소 번식검진과 발정유도 III. $PGF_2{\alpha}$ 제제에 의한 발정유도)

  • 오기석;박상국;김방실;고진성;신종봉;백종환;홍기강;문광식;임원호
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.384-388
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    • 2003
  • To establish the method of estrus induction using the injection of PGF$_2$$\alpha$ㆍ the 60 dairy cows treated by PGF$_2$$\alpha$ㆍ at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 day of estrous cycle, recpectively. The plasma progesterone concentrations at day of injection of PGF$_2$$\alpha$ㆍ were $1.5\pm$1.3 (mean$\pm$SD) ng/ml at 6 days of estrous cycle, 3.7$\pm$1.4 ng/ml at 8 days, 6.5$\pm$1.8 ng/ml at 10 days, 7.9$\pm$2.0 ng/ml at 12 days, 6.5$\pm$2.5 ng/ml at 14 days, and 2.5$\pm$1.2 ng/m] at 16 days, respectively. The percentages of induction of estrus after PGF$_2$$\alpha$ㆍ treatment were 52.8% at 3th day after treatment, 21.7% at 4th day, 8.3% within 2th day, and ] 7.2% after 5th day, respectively. The percentages of cows conceived at first service after induction of estrus were 73.3% on 16 days of estrous cycle at treatment, 66.7% on 10 and 14 days, 63.3% on 8 and 12 days, and 53.3% on 6 day, respectively. The percentages of cows conceived on first service were 70.5% at 3th day after induction, 66.7% at 4th day and 65% at 5th day, respectively. These results suggest that the PGF$_2$$\alpha$ㆍ treatment at regressing stage of corpus luteum showed high induction of estrus and pregnancy rate, and there were high induction of estrus and pregnancy rate at 3th and 4th day after PGF$_2$$\alpha$ㆍ treatment.

Studies on Pregnancy Diagnosis of Dairy Cows based on Hormone Concentrations in Blood Serum and Milk (유우(乳牛)의 혈청(血淸)과 유즙중(乳汁中)의 호르몬수준(水準)에 의한 임신진단(姙娠診斷)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Sang-keun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.120-125
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    • 1984
  • The study was carried out to find out the changes of hormone levels in blood serum and milk of Holstein cows during the estrous cycle. The progesterone, estradiol-$17{\beta}$ from the blood serum and milk samples were assayed by radioimmunoassay methods. The results of this study were summarized as follows; 1. The progesterone levels in blood serum during the estrous cycles began to decline rapidly at 2 days before estrus, decreased to $0.27{\pm}0.18ng/ml$ at on the day of estrus, and reached a peak mean level of $3.33{\pm}0.47ng/ml$ at 15 days after estrus. 2. The progesterone levels in milk during the estrous cycles began to decline rapidly at 2 days before estrus, decreased to $0.80{\pm}0.18ng/ml$ on the day of estrus, and increased a peak mean level of $3.80{\pm}0.36ng/ml$ at 15 days after estrus. 3. The estradiol-$17{\beta}$ levels in blood serum during the estrous cycles showed a peak mean level of $9.79{\pm}1.72pg/ml$ on the day of estrus, and decreased from $4.79{\pm}1.82pg/ml$ to $5.73{\pm}0.96pg/ml$ at luteal phase. 4. The estradiol-$17{\beta}$ levels in milk during the estrous cycles showed a peak mean level of $36.80{\pm}2.04pg/ml$ on the day of estrus, and decreased from $18.93{\pm}0.84pg/ml$ to $19.50{\pm}1.12pg/ml$ at luteal phase. 5. During 20 to 25 days after artificial insemination, the accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis from the blood serum progesterone levels were 87.5% for non pregnant cows (<2.0ng/ml), and 83.3% for pregnant cows ($${\geq_-}$$3.0 ng/ml). The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis from the milk progesterone levels were 75.0% for non-pregnant cows (<2.4 ng/ml), and 94.4% for pregnant cows ($${\geq_-}$$3.2 ng/ml).

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Studies on Vaginal Cytology after Induction of Estrus in the Bitch (인공적(人工的) 발정유기견(發情誘起犬)의 질세포상(膣細胞像)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kang, Byong-kyu;Choi, Han-sun;Na, Jin-su;Son, Chang-ho;Oh, Ki-seok;Lee, Cha-bum
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.203-211
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    • 1988
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the estrous behavior and vaginal smear after induction of estrus with exogenous hormones in the premature, metestrous and anestrous bitches. A total of 21 bitches(Mixed breed: 16, Jindo breed: 5), from 10 months to 5 years of age and weighing 8 to 15 kg was studied the change of vaginal smear and the estrous behavior before and after induction of estrus. The results obtained are as follows: 1. In the treatment A(They were given the $PGF_2{\alpha}$, estrone, estradiol-$17{\beta}$, PMSG and HCG) proestrus commenced in $10.16{\pm}1.44$($Mean{\pm}SEM$) days after treatment, The mean duration of proestrus, and estrus was $7.50{\pm}1.44$ and $13.50{\pm}3.44$ days, respectively. In the treatment B(They were given the PMSG and HCG) proestrus commenced in $5.53{\pm}0.59$ days after treatment. The mean duration of proestrus and estrus was $6.60{\pm}0.71$ and $14.60{\pm}1.14$ days, respectively. 2. All of the 6 bitches in the treatment A showed vulval swelling and vaginal discharge, 14 of the 15 bitches in the treatment B showed vulval swelling and vaginal discharge. However, all of the treatment A and B showed male acceptance. 3. The main change of vaginal smear in proestrus and estrus after induction of estrus was a increase in the proportion of anuclear and superficial cells associated with a decrease in small intermediate and parabasal cells. By the estrous behavior and vaginal smear the estrus was induced in all the premature, metestrous and anestrous bitches.

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Comparison of Various Methods for Estrus Stage Determination in Bitch (개의 발정 진단 방법에 따른 효율 비교)

  • Ko, Young-Jin;Kang, Eun-Ju;Lee, Sung-Lim
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.131-137
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    • 2009
  • In dogs, correct diagnosis of estrus is important and the exact time of ovulation can be determined by variouse methods. Vaginal cytology has commonly used in conjunction with the physical examination, clinical history, vaginoscopy, and hormonal assays to determine the stage of the reproductive cycle. This study was therefore investigated the effectiveness of direct ovulation detector designed by changes of electrical resistance in vaginal mucus following different estrus cycles with several methods; vaginal cytology, concentration of plasma estrogen and progesterone, and direct examination by laparotomy. A total of 12 bitches was selected for the study and observed estrus signs. The bitches were evaluated clinical sign (vulvar swelling and bleeding), cytological examination (keratocyte and RBC), electrical resistance, plasma estrogen and progesterone concentration for estrus assessment. Accuracy of ovulation detection by vaginal cytology was significantly (p<0.05) lower than those by electrical resistance and plasma progesterone concentration, based on the confirmation by laparotomy. Vaginal smear is not confidential method compared to detection of electrical resistance and plasma progesterone concentration at ovulation. Although the value of electrical resistance was varied at the same points of estrus in individuals, ovulation was occurred at the first day which shown the peak of electrical resistance and mating time was third day after peak. In conclusion, ovulation detector designed by changes of electrical resistance is an effective and economic instrument for predicting estrus and ovulation in bitches.

Development of Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Method of Reproductive Disorders Using Ultrasonography in Cows IV. Confirmation of Estrus Detection and Early Pregnancy Diagnosis (초음파검사에 의한 소의 번식장애 감별진단 및 치료법 개발 IV, 발정확인 및 조기 임신진단)

  • 손창호;강병규;최한선;강현구;김혁진;오기석;서국현
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.128-137
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    • 1999
  • Plasma progesterone (P$_4$) concentrations were measured for confirming the estrus observation and for the early pregnancy diagnosis in 130 cows of small farmers. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed from day 30 after artificial insemination to establish the characteristic ultrasonographic appearances of gestational structures in each pregnant stages. Of the 130 cows inseminated, 111 cows (85.4%) were an ovulatory estrus, 12 cows (9.2%) were an unovulatory estrus, and 7 cows (5.4%) were the error of estrus detection, respectively. The accuracy for early pregnancy diagnosis in 111 ovulatory estrus cows achieved when the discriminatory concentration at day 21 after artificial insemination was placed at 3.0 ng-/ml in plasma, was 86.7 % for positive diagnosis and 100% for negative diagnosis, respectively. Pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonography were performed to evaluate gestational structures from day 30 after artificial insemination in 83 cows. Pregnant cows were 72 of 83 cows. The characteristic ultrasonography of gestational structures in each gestational stages was as follows. The embryo proper was observed within anechoic fetal fluid between 28 and 40 days after insemination, and amnion and embryonic heartbeat was also detected in this period. Between days 41 and 50, embryo proper was detected as an discriminated from head and body, and forelimb buds and hindlimb buds were also observed in this period. Between days 51 and 60, an embryo proper was clearly discriminated from head and body, and fetal movement, forelimb buds and hindlimb buds were observed in this period. Between days 61 and 70, fetus was completely developed, and fetal skeleton, organs and cotyledon were observed. After day 71, each organs of fetus were rapidly developed and a fetus was partially observed in screen because fetus was too big and larger, These results indicate that plasma P$_4$ determination at days 0,6 and 21 after artificial insemination can be utilized for confirming the estrus observation and for early pregnancy diagnosis. Also, ultrasonography was reliable method for early pregnancy diagnosis at day 30 after artificial insemination.

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Physiological Difference of Estrus and Pregnant Ovary in Korean Water Deer (한국산 고라니의 발정기와 임신기 난소의 생리학적 차이)

  • Kim, Sang-Hwan;Lee, Ho-Jun;Lee, Joo-Yong;Park, Yong-Su;Yoon, Jong-Taek
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 2014
  • To describe the macroscopic anatomy and ovarian-physiological difference of the genital organs of the female Korean water deer, organs from captured animals in a wild area of Korea were dissected. The ovary of estrus group was about $1.10{\pm}0.02mm$ long and weighed about $0.50{\pm}0.02g$. And pregnant group was about $1.3{\pm}0.10mm$ long and weighed about $0.40{\pm}0.05g$. And the crowns of corpora lutea were found in the estrus group, but we couldn't find crowns at the pregnant group. Especially, the estrus ovaries tended (p=0.04) to be heavier than the ovaries during pregnancy. The MMP-9 activity was higher at the Graafian follicles of pregnant group than that in estrus group. However, with regard to follicles of estrus group, MMP-2 level was higher than that in pregnant group. Furthermore, apoptosis detection marker (Casp-3) was highly expressed in Graafian follicle of the pregnant group and the corpora lutea of estrus group. Thus, the differential expression of MMPs observed in this study suggests that the reflected the mechanisms underlying of monovulatory in estrus and/or pregnancy. Our results may be very useful as it provides with information that may be considered for the development of reproductive biotechnologies in endangered animals.

Evaluation of Application of Possibility of Visual Surveillance System for Cow Heat Detection

  • Park, Heesu;Roy, Pantu Kumar;Noh, Youngju;Park, Hyuk;Lee, Joongho;Shin, Sangtae;Cho, Jongki
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.137-143
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to evaluate a visual surveillance system. The advancement of recording technology and network service make it easy to record and transfer the videos. Moreover, progressed recognition technology help to make a distinction each other. Cows show distinguishing behaviors during their estrus period. The mounting is one of the behaviors. The result was different depending on the breed of the cows and the size of the farm. In the case of Korean native cattle, the estrus detection rate was 71.15%, however, dairy cows, the estrus detection rate was 39.38%. At the farms having below 6 modules, the estrus detection rate was 87.41%. On the other hand, at the farms having over 6 modules, the estrus detection rate was 77.78%. With the proper progress, the visual surveillance system can be used to detect heat detection.

Studies on Induction of Superovulation and Embryo Transfer in Cattle (소의 다배란유기 및 수정란이식에 관한 연구)

  • 김희석;오성종;양보석;유승환;김종국;백순용;이근상
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 1986
  • These studies were carried out to investigate the induction of superovulation, the synchroniration and the effect of the number of embryos transferred, the developmentai stage of embryos and the donor-recipient synchrony on pregnancy rate in cattle. The results obtained in these studies were as follows: 1. The number of oorpus leuteum(CL) and the embryos reoovered were higher in FSH treated animals than in PMSG treated (9.4 vs 8.1 and 6.1 vs 4.5) and showed the same trend in recovery rate (64.9% vs 55.6%). 2. Two shots of cioprostenol at 11 days showed significantly high no. of animals in estrus in order of crossbred, Holstein and Korean native cattle. No significant differencies were noted in the seoond shots groups. And the interval to estrus and response were shorter and better in second shot group than that in first shot group. 3. The pregnancy rate when additional one embryo was transferred after Al at estrus (52.8%) was higher than the group transferred one (32.8%) or two (36.9%) embryos. 4. The pregnancy rate of embryo in morula stage was better than that in blasto cyst stage (39.3% vs 32.5%). 5. The pregnancy rate in the recipients exhibited estrus later than the donor (66.7%) was the higher than those exhibited estrus (40.3%) or exhibited estrus before the donor (37.5%).

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