• Title, Summary, Keyword: Estrus

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Effects of Days Open on the Subsequent Reproductive Performance Following to CIDR-Based Estrus Synchronization in Lactating Dairy Cows

  • Kang, Hyun-Gu;Kim, Ill-Hwa
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of days open on subsequent reproductive performance following to estrus synchronization in the 114 lactating dairy cows. The animals were divided into two groups according to the time of estrus synchronization; viz, ${\leq}$ 85 days, and > 85 days postpartum, respectively. The estrus synchronization protocol consisted of insertion of a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device containing 1.9 g progesterone with an injection of 250 ${\mu}g$ gonadorelin (Day 0), an injection of $PGF_2{\alpha}$ and removal of the device on Day 7, an injection of 250 ${\mu}g$ GnRH on Day 9, and TAI 17 h later. Pregnancy diagnosis was determined at 30 to 60 days after TAI using both ultrasonography and rectal palpation. The body condition score (BCS) gradually increased over the postpartum period. In estrus synchronized cows until 85 days, conception rate on first service, number of service per conception, interval from estrus synchronization to conception, and interval from calving to conception were not significantly different among two farms (P>0.05). In estrus synchronized cows after 85 days postpartum, conception rate on first service, number of service per conception and interval from calving to conception were significantly different ($P{\leq}0.05$) between herds A and B (26.8 vs 50.0%; $2.1{\pm}1.35$ vs $1.37{\pm}0.54$ times, $237.3{\pm}97.8$ vs $164.7{\pm}69.3$ days, respectively). In estrus synchronized cows after 85 days postpartum interval from estrus synchronization to conception was greater (P<0.01) in herd B than in herd A ($63.6{\pm}57.4$ vs $26.1{\pm}24.9$). These results indicate that the time of estrus synchronization for maximized the reproductive performance is before 85 days postpartum and feeding and management is important factor for high reproductive performance.

Mounting Activity Detection of Cows by Radiotelemetry (무선원격측정에 의한 소의 승가행위 검출)

  • 홍원표;조한근
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.481-486
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    • 2001
  • To increase the production efficiency in dairy industry, proper artificial insemination is the most important operation. For the successful artificial insemination, accurate estrus detection is required. The Korean dairy farmers usually depended on visual observation for estrus detection of cows. Mounting behaviour is one of major inidications observed when cows are at an estrus. A mounting activity detection system for cows using radiotelemetry was developed. This system included a transmitter with a pressure switch, a receiver, a serial communication interface, a personal computer and a computer software. All components and a whole system were tested both in a laboratory and in a farm. The results of this study are as follows: 1. All components including transmitter, receiver and serial interface were operated according to the design specification. 2. A whole system tested with simulated mounting activity of 400 times showed 100% of success rate. 3. In the farm test for 4 days with three cows expecting estrus, one cows experiencing mounting activities showed correct response with this system. However two cows did not show mounting activities because of weak estrus and cold weather during the testing period.

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Effect of Pregnancy Rate Following Timing of Artificial Insemination after Estrus of Hanwoo Female

  • Yang, Jung Seok;Heo, Young-Tae;Uhm, Sang Jun;Ko, Dae Hwan
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.75-77
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate optimal time of artificial insemination (AI) to Hanwoo female after natural estrus. AI was occurred 12 and 24 hours after natural estrus in both heifer and multiparous recipient then pregnancy and parturition rates were estimated. Results indicated that AI performed at 24 hours after natural estrus showed significant (p<0.05) higher pregnancy rate in both heifer and multiparous recipient groups with significantly (p<0.05) higher abortion rate. However, there are no significant differences of parturition rate, twin birth and sex ratio in both heifer and multiparous recipient groups. Therefore, our results may suggest that performance of AI at 24 hours after natural estrus promise higher pregnancy rate than AI at 12 hours after natural estrus in both heifer and multiparous recipient.

Embryo transfer in the dog in natural or induced estrus (자연발정견(發情犬) 및 인공발정유도견(人工發情誘導犬)에서 수정란이식(受精卵移植))

  • Kim, Yong-jun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.395-406
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    • 1994
  • To study the conditions to enhance success of embryo transfer in the dog, 20 mixed-breed bitches were used for the experiment along with 4 male dogs for mating. The bitches were paired according to synchronism of natural estrus, or the counterpart as donor or recipient was treated with gonadotropin as FSH (follicular stimulating hormone) or PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotropin) for induction of estrus to be synchronized with estrus of the other bitch in natural estrus. Embryo recovery was performed in two ways for comparison, either by flushing each uterine horn after ovariohysterectomy or by flushing each horn in the state of non-ovariohysterectomy. In addition, the result of pregnancy according to the embryo stage and the repeatability of the experimental animals as donor or recipient were also investigated. FSH or PMSG was administered to the bitches which had passed over 4 months from last estrus, resulting in estrus-positive in 3 dogs of 6 FSH-treated dogs (50.0%), and in 5 dogs of 9 PMSG-treated dogs (55.6%), determined by proestrus signs and vaginal smear test. Estrus-positive bitches induced with gonadotropin were used as donor or recipient resulting in one embryo-recovered bitch as donor and one offspring-delivered bitch as recipient in 5 PMSG-treated dogs, whereas no result was obtained from 3 FSH-treated dogs. The rate of embryo recovery to be compared with number of corpus luteum was 68.2% in ovariohysterectomized dogs and 55.2% in non-ovariohysterectomized dogs, respectively. The number of dogs from which embryo was collected were 4 dogs of 6 ovariohysterectomized dogs (66.7%) and 6 dogs of 7 non-ovariohysterectomized dogs (85.7%), respectively. The result of parturition was obtained from one dog of 5 estrus-induced recipients, whereas no result was obtained from 3 natural-estrus recipients. The only dog which delivered a male puppy had been transferred 3 morulae and 2 blastocysts. Of 6 repeat-used bitches in canine embryo transfer, 3 dogs showed repeatability either as donor or recipient. These results indicated that inducing estrus of a dog with gonadotropin is feasible in canine embryo transfer to be synchronized with that of a natural-estrus dog, that embryo recovery is also possible in non-hysterectomized dogs, that the estrus-induced dog is also usable as recipient to result in parturition, and that repeat-use of a bitch as donor or(and) recipient is possible in canine embryo transfer.

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Changes in s-GOT and s-ALP Activities in the Korean Native Cows Within Estrus Cycle (한우(韓牛)의 성주기(性週期)에 따른 혈청(血淸) GOT 및 혈청(血淸) ALP 활성도(活性度)의 변동상에 관하여)

  • Jo, Chung Ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.167-170
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    • 1981
  • Changes in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (s-GOT) activities, serum alkaline phosphatase activities and serum total protein amounts were investigated on seven Korean native cows having normal estrus cycle of 18~24 days after normal parturition, dividing estrus cycle into estrus (0~1 days), metestrus (2~6 days), diestrus (7~16 days), proestrus (17~20 days). The results were as follows. 1. Serum GOT activities at estrus ranged from 73.5 to 121.5 Ku with a mean of $89.14{\pm}17.16$ Ku, at metestrus 57 to 89 Ku with a mean of $67.01{\pm}10.81$ Ku, at diestrus 54 to 89.5 Ku with a mean of $67.05{\pm}10.05$ Ku and at proestrus 53 to 112 Ku with a mean of $73.00{\pm}20.05$ Ku. The activities were significantly increased at the estrus comparing with other stages (P<0.01). 2. Serum ALP activities at estrus ranged from 8.0 to 10.4 K-Au with a mean of $8.74{\pm}0.83$ K-Au, at metestrus 6.5 to 9.2 K-Au with a mean of$7.74{\pm}0.76$ K-Au, at diestrus 5.6 to 9.0 K-Au with a mean of $7.67{\pm}1.13$ K-Au, at proestrus 6.2 to 9.3 K-Au with a mean of $7.12{\pm}1.18$ K-Au. The significance was not recognized among the stages of estrus cycle. 3. Serum total protein amounts at estrus ranged from 6.45 to 8.0g/10dl with a mean of $7.25{\pm}0.57/100dl$, at metestrus, 6.37 to 7.9g/100dl with a mean of $7.65{\pm}0.50g/100dl$, fat diestrus, 6.56 to 8.67g/100dl, with a mean of $7.53{\pm}0.55g/100dl$ and at proestrus 5.94 to 7.71g/100dl with a mean of $6.54{\pm}0.65g/dl$. There was not significance among the stages of estrus cycle.

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Reproductive Performance according to Ovarian Status, Postpartum Uterine Treatment, and Calving Season in Estrus Synchronized Dairy Cows

  • Kang, Hyun-Gu;Kim, Ill-Hwa;Choi, Woo-Jae
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 2012
  • A study on estrus synchronized dairy cows using progesterone intravaginal device was done to classify each cow's reproductive status from calving to synchronization and to evaluate the reproductive performance according to ovarian and uterine status, and calving season. From calving to estrus synchronization, silent heat or error of estrus detection among ovarian status and endometritis among uterine disorders were exposed in the most distribution (75.4% and 48.3%, respectively). The pregnancy rate of cows with inactive ovaries was lower than those in the follicular and luteal phase. And according to the uterine status before estrus synchronization, the pregnancy rate was similar in three groups; normal, endometritis, and pyometra (70.9, 69.1 and 100%, respectively). The interval from calving to conception was shorter (p<0.05) in cows calved during autumn than in cows calved during spring and winter.

Selective Gene Express Profiles in Rat Uterus during Estrus Cycle

  • Kim, Do-Rim;Yu, Seong-Jin;Kim, Jee-Yun;Youm, Mi-Young;Lee, Chae-Kwan;Kang, Sung-Goo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Developmental Biology Conference
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    • pp.70-70
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    • 2003
  • The uterus undergoes dynamic changes during the cycle and displays many features typical of developmental process. In order to be prepared for implantation, endometrium undergoes predictable, sequential phases of proliferation and secretory changes. The uterus during estrus cycle synthesize a complex of signaling molecules with specific spatial and temporal modes of expression and which are critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. The purpose of this investigation was to use cDNA microarrays to evaluate the expression of genes of rat uterus in estrus cycle. Animals were sacrificed on proestrus, estrus, metestrus, diestrus. Differential gene expression profiles were revealed(growth-related c-myc reponsive protein RCL, heat shock 47-kDa protein (HSP47), cytochrome c oxidase polypeptide Vlc2 (COX6C2), calreticulin (CALR)). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to validate the relative expression pattern. Using this approach, we found several genes whose expression in rat uterus was altered with estrus cycle. Our long-term goal is to determine the role of these differentially expressed genes during estrus cycle. This study was supported by through the Biohealth Products Research Center(BPRC), Inje University.

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Progesterone assays as an aid for improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle I. Use of milk progesterone profiles in the confirmation of estrus detection and early pregnancy diagnosis (Progesterone 농도측정(濃度測定)에 의한 유우(乳牛)의 번식효율증진(繁殖效率增進)에 관한 연구(硏究) I. 유즙(乳汁)중 progesterone 농도측정(濃度測定)에 의한 발정확인(發情確認) 및 조기임신진단(早期姙娠診斷))

  • Kang, Byong-kyu;Choi, Han-sun;Choi, Sang-gong;Son, Chang-ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 1994
  • Milk progesterone concentrations were measured in 111 dairy cows for confirming the estrus observation and for the early pregnancy diagnosis. Of the 56 cows inseminated, 52 cows(92.8%) were an ovulatory estrus, 2 cows(3.6%) were an unovulatory estrus, and 2 cows(3.6%) were the error of estrus observation, respectively. Milk progesterone concentrations at 21 and 24 days after artificial insemination were significantly higher in 23 pregnant cows compared with those in 5 non-pregnant cows(P<0.05). The accuracy rate for early pregnancy diagnosis in 27 cows achieved when the discriminatory concentration at 21 days after artificial insemination was placed at 2.0 ng/ml skim milk, was 91.3% for positive diagnosis and 100% for negative diagnosis, respectively. These results indicated that milk progesterone determination at 0, 6 and 21 days after artificial insemination can be utilized for confirming the estrus observation and for early pregnancy diagnosis. In conclusion, milk progesterone determination is useful diagnostic tool for monitoring the reproductive performance.

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Implementation of unmanned cow estrus detection system for improving impregnation rate (번식률 향상을 위한 무인 발정발현 관찰시스템 구현)

  • Kim, Suc-June;Jee, Sun-Ho;Cho, Hyun-Chan;Kim, Chun-Su;Kim, Hyeon-Shup
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.6236-6246
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    • 2015
  • In the paper, we reduce non-pregnant conditions and improve impregnation rate by unmanned estrus detection and decide proper time for artificial insemination. It is too hard to detect estrus only by using activities, we develop unmanned estrus detection system that consist of RF activity sensors, cow management program and estrus detection algorithm that uses information of activities and breeding. We verify performance by experiments in four similar scale stockbreeding farmhouse. Each stockbreeding farmhouse breeds 87, 81, 93, 82 cows and expected estrus cows are 14, 19, 15, 17. In expected estrus cow, we fail in weak estrus detection - 3, 2, 1, 3 cows, but detect successfully normal estrus - 11, 17, 14, 14 cows. After artificial insemination, 10, 17, 13, 14 cows became pregnant successfully confirming that proposed unmanned estrus detection system is effective for deciding proper time for artificial insemination in normal estrus.

Changes of Vaginal Epithelial Cells in Korea Jin-do Bitches after Induction of Estrus with PMSG and hOG (PMSG와 hCG 병용투여에 의해 인공발정 유기된 진도개에서 질상피세포 변화상)

  • 이주환;김나리;박인철;오기석;김세라;박상국;문진산;배춘식;김성호
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.418-425
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    • 2002
  • Estrus was induced in 13 anestrus Korea Jin-do bitches by intramuscular injection of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) in a dose of 500 lU once daily for ten consecutive days, followed by an additional single intraveneous injection of 1,000 lU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on the tenth day. Day-changes of vaginal epithelial cells during the hormone treatment were investigated in each experimental bitches and compared with the those of spontaneous estrus bitches. The first days of vulval bleeding and male acceptance after PMSG treatment were on Day 6.0$\pm$ 1.5 (mean$\pm$ SD) and Day 9.0$\pm$ 1.9, respectively. And in all of 13 bitches, vulval swelling and perineal reflex were shown. The mean durations of proestrus and estrus were 2.9$\pm$ 1.4 (mean$\pm$ SD, range ; 1-6) and 11.5: 1.7 (range ; 8-14) days, respectively, that is, duration of proestrus was significantly shorter than that of the spontneous estrous bitches but duration of estrus was longer than that of the spontaneous estrous bitches. Characteristic features of vaginal cytology during the estrous cycle were the high proportions of large intermediate cell, superficial cell, anuclear cell and erythrocyte in proestrus, superficial cell and anuclear cell in estrus and parabasal cell, small intermediate, large intermediate cell, and leukocyte in diestrus, respectively. The comification index (Cl) was significantly high proportion in proestrus and estrus, when Day 0 was timed from the first day of male acceptance, the Cl was first increased above 80% on Day 0 and maintained above 80% until Day 0 to Day 5 during 6 days and showed a peak on Day 2. Also it was maintained above 90% until Day 2 to Day 3 during 2 days. These results indicated that all 13 ekperimental bitches showed positive estrus detection by the estrus behavior and vaginal smear test after treated with PMSG and hCC. It suggested that vaginal cytology was used to estimate the optimal mating and ovulation time, in consideration of the day when the Cl was maintained above 80% in estrus-induced Korea Jin-do bitches.