• Title, Summary, Keyword: Estrus

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Observation of Estrus and Control of Abnormal Estrus in Cattle and Pig (소와 돼지에서 발정관찰과 이상발정의 대책)

  • 김창근
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.72-85
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    • 1983
  • This presentation firstly is discussed the characteristics of estrus, the time of first postpartum estrus, and the relative accurate of various estrus detection aids and secondly discussed the abnormalities of estrus and ovarian function and its control by treatment of exogenous hormones in cattle and pig. Longer estrus cycles as well as the shorter than 18 day cycles showed the lowered conception rates as compared to the normal cycles of 18 to 25 days. Other characteristics of est겨s such as duration of estrus, intensity of estrus and time of estrus are reviewed to affect fertility. The first postpartum ovulation and estrus in cows usually occurs about 20 to 30 days and 40 to 50 days after parturition, respectively. Irregularities in estrus cycle length have been conducted during early postpartum period. In sows, weaning is followed by ovulation and estrus although there is some individual variation. The most common method of estrus detection is direct visual observation on standing estrus behavior, but various aids of estrus detection have been empolyed with varying degree of effectiveness. The results from heat detector devices are about as accurate as twice-daily observation(about 90%). The abnormal estrus can be classified into three types; irregular or continuous estrus, silent estrus and anestrus. Cystic ovarian disease, follicular cysts and luteal cysts, is a serious cause of reproductive failure in cattle and pig. The follicular cysts are much more common than luteal cysts and the incidence of ovarian cysts in dairy cattle is higher than beef cattle and pig. The occurrences of ovarian cysts have been closely associated with levels of milk production, stages of postpartum period, nutritional levels and seasons. The luteal cysts and persistent corpora lutea are responsive to the luteolytic effects of the recently synthetic analogues of PGF2$\alpha$ in cows and sows and recently GnRH or LH-RH has been successfully used as a treatment for cows and sows with ovarian follicular cysts.

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Effects of PMSG and $PGF_{2\alpha}$ treatments on the induction of estrus fromthe anestrus sows (PMSG 및 $PGF_{2\alpha}$ 처리에 의한 무발정빈돈의 발정유기에 관한 연구)

  • 임경순
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.56-59
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    • 1981
  • The sows which had not returned estrus since 15 to 152 days after weaning were treated with PMSG or PGF2$\alpha$ to induce estrus and inseminated to conceive on that estrus. 1. Eight (83%) among 12 sows treated with PMSG came into estrus on average 5.3 days after treatment. 2. The one sow which didn't show any estrus by treatment of PMSG showed an estrus by intramuscular use of 10mg PGF2$\alpha$ and the other one showed an estrus by another intramuscular use of 1000 I.U. of PMSG at 15 days after first injection of PMSG. 3. The one sow injected with Vit. A.D.E. complex(Injacom) (Vit. A 500,000 I.U., Vit. D. 75,000 I.U., and Vit. E. 50 I.U. per ml) on 6 days before PMSG injection showed an estrus on 6 days after PMSG injection and farrowed 8 piglets. 4. Five among 10 sows showed an estrus by treatment of PMSG or PGF2$\alpha$ were pregnant and litter size of the four farrowed sows averaged 9.5.

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Effect of Prostaglandin $F_2\alpha$ on Infertility Cows (Prostaglandin $F_2\alpha$에 의한 불임우 치료)

  • 고광두
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.3-14
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    • 1983
  • Estrus was induced and the therapeutic effect was examined with 25mg of PGF2$\alpha$ intramuscular injection and 3mg of PGF2$\alpha$ intraovarian injection to Holstein and Simmental cows which were raised in the large size stockfarms and the dairy farms, and were diagnosed to anestrus. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The estrus inducing effect observed in the cows treated by PGF2$\alpha$ was 83.3% with 25/30 heads in the intramuscular injection group, and 86.7% with 26/30 heads in the intraovarian injection group. 2. Average duration from PGF2$\alpha$ administration to the onest of estrus was 2.7 day in the intramuscular injection group, and 2.6 days in the intraovarian injection group. 3. In status of estrus in the cows treated by PGF2$\alpha$, vigorous estrus was 12.0%, normal estrus 60.0% and silent estrus was 28.0% in the intramuscular injection group, and vigorous estrus was 15.4%, normal estrus 61.5%, and silent estrus 23.1% in the intraovarian injection group. 4. Conception rate in the cows induced to estrus was 64.0% in the intramuscular injection group and 65.4% in the intraovarian injection group.

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Quantifiable and feasible estrus detection using the ultrasonic sensor array and digital infrared thermography

  • Lee, Ji Hwan;Lee, Dong Hoon;Yun, Won;Oh, Han Jin;An, Ji Seon;Kim, Young Gwang;Kim, Gok Mi;Cho, Jin Ho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.3
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    • pp.163-169
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    • 2019
  • Detection of estrus is an essential factor as a method of successful breeding in the sow. As increasing the adaption of the information and communication technology (ICT) into swine industry, this study focuses on a possibility and quantification of standing time, vulva and body temperature as methods of estrus detection, comparing each time and temperature in estrus and non-estrus period, and analyzing each success rate of new and existing methods. Ultrasonic sensor array and digital infrared thermography were used to evaluate whether new methods such as standing time and number, and vulva and skin temperature can be replaced, or these methods can be quantifiable in estrus period. Ultrasonic sensor array was installed beside the stall and digital infrared thermography was placed in the rear of sow to collect the dates of sow in estrus and non-estrus period. This study showed total standing time, number and number over 10 minutes, and vulva temperature of the sow in estrus period were increased (p < 0.05) compared with those of sow in non-estrus period, respectively. Detection of estrus using standing time and vulva temperature tended (p = 0.06) to increase the success rate when artificial insemination (AI) was performed. In conclusion, standing time and vulva temperature increased when estrus happened. Success rate of AI of sow using these methods showed an increasing trend. Therefore, existing method using the naked eye can be replaced to new method such as vulvar temperature and standing time when detecting the estrus.

Changes of estrus signs and genital organs by hormomal induction of estrus in the bitch (인공발정유도견의 발정기 변화와 생식기의 변화)

  • Yu, Il-jeoung;Kim, Yong-jun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.719-729
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    • 1996
  • To investigate changes of estrus signs and genital organs in the bitch by hormonal induction of estrus, fourteen bitches of nulliparous and multiparous(2nd-5th) were grouped into diestrus and anestrus according to their estrus cycle. The hormonal treatments were divided into four groups: group A($PGF_2{\alpha}+PMSG+hCG$) and group B(PMSG+hCG) in diestrus bitches and group C(GnRH+FSH+hCG) and group D(PMSG+hCG) in anestrus bitches. The external signs of proestrus and estrus as well as the vaginal smear findings and natural breeding as estrus detection were investigated in all the experimental groups. Also, genital organs were examined at two months after the hormone treatment. The bitches in anestrus showed 100% of male attraction, vaginal bleeding and vulvar swelling as proestrus signs after the hormonal treatment for estrus induction and they showed higher numerical value of signs than the bitches in diestrus. The group A showed the lowest value in proestrous signs of all the groups. The bitches in anestrus treated with GnRH+FSH showed 100% of positive estrus by vaginal smear findings and 75% of natural breeding as estrus detection index and these values were the highest of all the groups. Pregnancy was recognized in only group C and the conception rate was 7.14% in al the experimental animals. Of the side effects after the hormone treatment, external findings of continous male attraction, continous external swelling and purulent exudate were recognized in all the experimental groups and the bitches in diestrus showed higher value of the findings than the bitches in anestrus. Of the changes of genital organs after the hormone treatment, hypertrophy of uterine horn, sanguineous exudate and purulent exudate as uterine findings were recognized in all the groups and these findings were shown more in the bitches in diestrus than in those in anestrus. These results indicated that group C showed the highest value of all the experimental groups in external signs of estrus and estrus detection and also pregnancy was recognized only in that group, consequently, that the hormonal treatment of group C would be the most effective for estrus induction, and also indicated that bitches in anestrus were more suitable than bitches in diestrus for the induction of estrus. In addition, side effects in external genital organs and uteri after hormone treatment were shown more in the bitches in diestrus than in those in anestrus, indicating that bitches in anestrus would be of choice for estrus induction.

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GH Increases the Progesterone at Peri-estrus Stage in Mice Co-injected with PMSG for Superovulation

  • Kim, Young-Gee;Ryoo, Zae-Young;Park, Young-Sik
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.519-525
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    • 2011
  • Growth hormone (GH) is obligatory for growth and development. But, there is controversy on the GH effect about reproductive processes of sexual differentiation, pubertal maturation, gonadal steroidogenesis, gametogenesis and ovulation. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of GH on estrus, ovulation and embryo implantation. The results obtained were as follows. GH stimulated to increase estrus rate (p<0.05), pregnancy rate (p<0.05), and total fetus number in mice treated for superovulation. Also, the correlation between GH and steroids, E2 and P4, at peri-estrus stage/ peri-ovulation stage/ peri-implantation stage of the superovulation-induced mice was examined. Consequently, GH co-injected with PMSG especially increased P4 level (p<0.05) at peri-estrus stage of superovulationinduced mice. In conclusion, GH co-treatment in superovulation system boosted the rate of estrus, pregnancy and total fetus by increasing progesterone level at peri-estrus stage of superovulation-induced mice.

Detection of Matrix Metalloprotease-9 and Analysis of Protein Patterns in Bovine Vaginal Mucus during Estrus and Pregnancy

  • Kim, Sang-Hwan;Baek, Jun-Seok;Lee, Ho-Jun;Min, Kwan-Sik;Lee, Deuk-Hwan;Yoon, Jong-Taek
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 2012
  • To investigate the biochemical nature of changes in vaginal physiology during estrus and pregnancy, we examined the cytology and viscosity, and monitored the protein expression profile in vaginal mucus during estrus and pregnancy. The viscosity progressively decreased from estrus to pregnancy. Cell type analysis revealed that white blood cells progressively increased from estrus to pregnancy, while red blood cells progressively decreased during pregnancy. The cornification index (CI) was higher in estrus than in pregnancy. Protein mass spectrumetry identified the presence of ribosome-binding protein 1, GRIP 1 (Glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1)-associated protein 1, DUF729 (Domain of unknown function729) domain-containing protein 1, prolactin precursor, dihydrofolatereductase, and MMP (Matrix metalloprotease)-9 in vaginal mucus. MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins in the vaginal mucus were active throughout estrus and gestation, as measured by a gelatinase assay, but most abundant in the vaginal mucus on day 0 of estrus. Results from ELISA of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were in accordance with the gelatinase assay. In light of the crucial role of metalloproteinases in extracellular matrix remodeling, the level of MMP-9 in vaginal mucus might be useful as an indicator of estrus and pregnancy to increase the efficiency of reproduction.

Length of Estrous Cycle and Duration of Estrus following Natural and Induced Estrus in Korean Native Goats (山羊의 自然 및 誘起發情時 發情週期 및 發情持續時間에 관한 硏究)

  • Lee, Ji-Sam;Song, U-Jun;Choe, Gyeong-Mun;Park, Chung-Saeng
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 1991
  • This study was carried out to investigate the length of the estrous cycle and duration of estrus in Korean native goats. The effects of the type of last estrus : induced or natural, and the length of preceeding estrous cycle on the subsequent cycle and duration of estrus in goats were also examined. From 481 observations, the mean length of estrous cycles was 18.1${\pm}$0.5days. The cycle length was significantly(P<0.05) shorter following induced estrus (15.2${\pm}$0.8 d) than natural estrus(19.0${\pm}$0.6 d). Significantly higher(P<0.05) incidence of short estrous cycle was observed following induced estrus(40%) than natural estrus(27%). The frequency distribution in the estrous cycle was 30%, 3%, 56% and 11% for short(3-11 d), medium(12-16 d), normal(17-24 d) and long(${\geqq}$25 d), respectively. The most frequent type of short estrous cycle was 6 days in length. Mean duration of estrus was 34.0${\pm}$0.5 h with a range of 18 to 84 h. Duration of estrus was not significantly different the preceeding natural (33.8${\pm}$0.6 h) and induced estrus (34.4${\pm}$1.1 h), and was not significantly affected by the last cycle length. These results suggest that the short estrus cycles are more frequent following induced estrus than natural one, and the duration of estrus are affected greatly by the various intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

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Comparisons of Estrus Induction with Anti-Prolactin and Hormones in Bitches (Anti-Prolactin과 다양한 호르몬 투여에 따른 개의 발정 유도 효율 비교)

  • Heo, Young;Kang, Eun-Ju;Maeng, Geun-Ho;Kim, Min-Jung;Jo, Gyu-Wan;Lee, Sung-Lim
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 2009
  • Domestic bitches are non-seasonally monoestrus; spontaneously ovulate only once or twice occurs at anytime of the year. Estrus induction has been applied infrequent estrus, misleading ovulation, mating difficulties, failure to conceive after normal mating, pregnancy failure and biological research. Protocol of estrus induction which included variable hormones such as FSH, GnRH, and PMSG have been applied for the last decades. Recently, Bromocriptine, one of anti-prolatin/dopamine agonist has been occasionally applied for estrus induction. The study was carried out to investigate the effective method for the induction of estrus in bitches using different hormone treatments, and the initiation time of estrus from hormone treatment by assessments of cytological observation and blood plasma progesterone concentration. A total of 54 bitches on anestrus were selected for the study and divided randomly into 8 treatment groups as follow. Control, natural estrus; FSH (L), FSH (1.5 mg/kg, twice a day, $Falltrophin^{(R)}$, Vetrepharm); FSH (H), FSH (3.0 mg/kg, twice a day); GnRH+FSH, GnRH (5 ug/kg, once first day, $GNADON^{(R)}$, Dongbang)+FSH (3 mg/kg, SID); PMSG, PMSG (50 IU/kg, every third day $FOLLIGON^{(R)}$, Intevet); GnRH+PMSG, GnRH (5 ug/kg, only first day)+PMSG (50 IU/kg, every third day); GnRH, GnRH (5 ug/kg, only first day); Bromocriptine, bromocriptine (0.3 mg/kg, SID, $Parlodel^{(R)}$, Novartis). The bitches were evaluated clinical sign, cytological exam and $OVUCHECK^{(R)}$ Premate for assessment of estrus induction. Estrus induction rates were significantly (P<0.05) higher in GnRH+PMSG (100%) compared to others. PMSG and GnRH+PMGS (87.5 and 100%) and Bromocriptine (77.8%) were higher than others except GnRH+PMSG. Analysis of vaginal smear has proved to be effective a correct assessment of estrus induction with assay of progesterone concentration by $OVUCHECK^{(R)}$ Premate. Proestrus initiated by the $6^{th}$ after induction in most case. In conclusion, bromocriptine is an effective drug for estrus induction in bitches and assay of progesterone concentration by $OVUCHECK^{(R)}$ Premate with examination of vaginal smear that should be useful to detection of estrus induction of estrus induced bitches.

The Estrus Manifestation according to the Follicle Size and the Growth Phase after $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ Injection in Korean Native Cows (한우에서 $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ 투여 후 난포 크기 및 발달 과정에 따른 발정 증상의 발현)

  • Park, Chul-Ho;Ryu, Jae-Sun;Yu, Dae-Jung;Park, In-Chul;Kim, Jong-Taek;Suh, Guk-Hyun;Oh, Ki-Seok;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.141-147
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    • 2012
  • This study was operated to establish induction using ultrasonography by estimating the relation of follicle size and estrus manifestation. Clinical estrus symptoms were observed 97.4% in cows and 87.5% in heifers when overall 55 cows were induced to estrus in a single dose of $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ after verifying CL through ultrasonography, which means estrus hours among those 52 cows showing the clinical estrus symptoms were estimated 2.39 days on cows and for 2.37 days on heifers which showed no differences (p>0.05). The estrus manifestation hours according to the follicle size in cows didn't have any significance each other (p>0.05), though estrus hours was 54 hours (the shortest) with follicle size bigger than 10 mm and were made up within 69 hours. The estrus manifestation hours according to the follicle size in heifers didn't have any significance each other (p>0.05) and took around 42 hours (the shortest) with follicle size of 5mm (the smallest) and were made up within 66 hours. Follicles after $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ injection were ovulated and assigned to many phases as follows; Group 1 (growing phase) - continuously growing into ovulation, Group 2 (growing and static phase) - delaying in growth after the growth of follicles, Group 3 (static and growing phase) - growing after growth delay, Group 4 (regressing and new growing phase) - the follicle is closed and a new follicle grows. In addition, the process of follicle development and estrus hours had no significance each other (p>0.05), though estrus manifestation hours in Group 1 and 2 was relatively short, and in Group 3 and 4 for a relatively long time. In the result of all above, the estrus manifestation hours after $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ injection has no differences accoring to the follicle size in cows and heifers. Therefore, High pregnancy rate is obtained when practicing artificial insemination within 3 days in estrus or TAI in 72 to 80 hours after adminitrating $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$.