• Title, Summary, Keyword: Estrous Cycle

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Menstruation and Sleep (월경과 수면)

  • Park, Doo-Heum
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.81-85
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    • 2002
  • There are several factors which are more likely to have sleep disorders in fertile women with menstruation than adult men. Menstrual cycle plays an important role in them. We describe herein the overview about the association of menstrual cycle and sleep disorders by viewing the interactions of menstrual cycle and circadian rhythm. We review how menstrual cycle affects sleep-wake cycle by reviewing menstrual cycle and estrous cycle to understand these interactions. Menstrual cycle and estrous cycle are mainly affected by hormonal cycle and light-dark cycle, respectively and they are generally determined in monthly rhythm and annual rhythm, respectively. The determination of estrous cycle is also affected by cyclic changes of hormones besides light-dark cycle. Although sleep-wake cycle almost alternates according to estrous cycle in non-primate mammals, it is hardly affected by menstrual cycle in primate mammals as compared with estrous cycle. But menstrual cycle affects sleep-wake cycle via desynchronization of sleep-wake cycle and temperature rhythm. The decrease of amplitude and phasic change during luteal phase in the daily fluctuation of body core temperature can partially contribute to the induction of sleep disorders in fertile women. In addition to this, premenstrual syndrome which nearly happens during luteal phase commonly have sleep problems. Therefore, we suggest that menstrual cycle and PMS can partially contribute the increase of sleep disorders in fertile women.

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Thymocyte Differentiation is Regulated by a Change in Estradiol Levels during the Estrous Cycle in Mouse

  • Lee, Hyojin;Kim, Heejung;Chung, Yiwa;Kim, Jinhee;Yang, Hyunwon
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.441-449
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    • 2013
  • Recent study showed that T cells in the immune organs and peripheral blood are influenced by estradiol, leading to a dysfunction of the immune system. However, little is known about the thymic-gonadal relationship during the estrous cycle in mouse. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which a change in estradiol levels during the estrous cycle regulates the development of T cells in the mouse thymus. Six-week-old ICR mice were used and divided into four groups, including diestrous, proestrous, estrous, and metestrous. We first confirmed that ER-${\alpha}$ and - ${\beta}$ estrogen receptors were expressed in thymic epithelial cells, showing that their expression was not different during the estrous cycle. There was also no significant difference in thymic weight and total number of thymocytes during the estrous cycle. To determine the degree of thymocyte differentiation during the estrous cycle, we analyzed thymocytes by flow cytometry. As a result, the percentage of CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) T cells was significantly decreased in the proestrous phase compared to the diestrous phase. However, CD4+CD8- or CD4-CD8+ (SP) T cells were significantly increased in the proestrous phase compared to the diestrous phase. In addition, the percentage of CD44+CD25- (DN1) T cells was significantly decreased in the estrous phase compared to other phases, whereas the percentages of CD44+CD25+ (DN2), CD44-CD25+ (DN3), and CD44-CD25- (DN4) were not changed during the estrous cycle. These results indicate that the development of thymocytes may arrest in the DP to SP transition stage in the proestrous phase displaying the highest serum level of estradiol. This study suggests that a change in estradiol levels during the estrous cycle may be involved in the regulation of thymocyte differentiation in the mouse thymus.

Comparison of Appearance Rate of Vaginal Cytology According to Estrous Cycle in Small Pet Bitches (소형 애완견에서 발정주기별 질세포 출현율의 비교)

  • Yang, Jun-Yeol;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.307-311
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study was to compare the appearance rate of vaginal cytology during estrous cycle in small pet bitches. A characteristic features of vaginal cytology during the estrous cycle were the high proportion of superficial cell in proestrus, anuclear cell in estrus, small intermediate cell in diestrus, and small intermediate cell in anestrus, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences of appearance rate of vaginal cytology among small pet bitches in the each phase of estrous cycle. These results indicated that the vaginal cytology was useful method for estimating estrous cycle and optimal breeding time in small pet bitches.

Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Their Receptors: Expression and Regulation in the Uterine Endometrium during the Estrous Cycle in Pigs

  • Yoo, Inkyu;Kim, Minjeong;Han, Jisoo;Jang, Hwanhee;Choi, Sun-Ho;Ka, Hakhyun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.323-333
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    • 2016
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-$1{\beta}$(IL1B), IL6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), are known to play important roles in regulating the endometrial function in the uterus during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in several species. However, the expression and function of these cytokines and their receptors in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle have not been studied in pigs. Thus, this study determined the expression and regulation of IL1B, IL6, TNF and their respective receptors, IL1R1, IL1RAP, IL6R, GP130, TNFRSF1A, and TNFRSF1B during the estrous cycle in pigs. To analyze levels of each gene expression in the uterine endometrium we obtained from endometrial tissues on Days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 of the estrous cycle. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that levels of IL1B, IL1RAP, IL6R, GP130, TNF, TNFRSF1A, and TNFRSF1B mRNAs were highest on Day 15 or 18 of the estrous cycle, which corresponds to the proestrus period. Levels of IL1R1 were highest on Day 0, while levels of IL6 were biphasic with high levels on Day 6 and Day 15. The abundance of IL1B, IL6, IL6R, and TNF mRNAs was decreased by progesterone, while levels of GP130 were increased by progesterone in endometrial tissue explants. These results showed that expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their receptors changed stage-specifically during the estrous cycle and regulated by progesterone in the uterine endometrium in pigs, suggesting that these pro-inflammatory cytokines may be involved in the regulation endometrial function during the estrous cycle in pigs.

Behavioural Estrous, Short Estrous Cycles and Serum Level of Estradiol-17$\beta$ durig Peri-Estrus following Superovulation Treatments in Korean Native Goats (산양의 과배란 처리에 따른 발정발현과 단발정주기의 발생 및 발정기의 혈중 estradiol-17$\beta$의 농도변화)

  • 이지삼;박충생;최경문
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.175-182
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    • 1990
  • Behavioural estrus and short estrous cycles were observed and serum concentrations of estradiol-17$\beta$(E2) before and after of estrous were measured following superovulation treatments in 30 pluriparous Korean native goats. The goats were divided into 2 groups. Fifteen goats were injected IM with 1,000IU PMSG on Day 12 of the estrous cycle followed by 10mg PGF2$\alpha$ 48h later(P4+PMSG), and the other 15 goats were injected IM with 10mg progesterone(P4)in oil once daily for 10d beginning at any days of estrous cycle followed by 1,000IU PMSG and 10mg PGF2$\alpha$ at the 8th day of progesterone treatment(P4+PMSG group). After injection of PGF2$\alpha$, onset of standing estrus occurred in 12 of 15 goats(80.0%) at 50.0$\pm$7.7h and in 11 of 15 goats(73.3%) at 135.6$\pm$10.1h in PMSG and group and P4+PMSG group, respectively. The mean interval from PGF2$\alpha$ injection to first estrus was significantly(P<0.01) earlier in PMSG group than in P4+PMSG group. This result indicate that the delayed infusion of P4 in P4+PMSG group caused the later exhibition of their estrous behaviors. However, duration fo frist estrus(31.5$\pm$2.6h vs 26.2$\pm$2.3h), length of estrous cycle(14.1$\pm$3.3d vs 16.6$\pm$3.8d) and percentage of short estrous cycle(50.0% vs 45.5%) were not different between PMSG and P4+PMSG group. The mean concentration of serum E2 in 4 goats showing normal estrous cycle in P4+PMSG group(PP-NEC) was higher than in 6 goats showing normal(P-NEC) or in 6 goats showing short estrous cycle(P-SEC) in PMSG group. The peak level of serum E2 was observed at the time of onset of standing estrus in PP-NEC(67.6pg/ml), 6h earlier in P-NEC(53.1pg/ml) and 6h later in P-SEC(52.3pg/ml) than the onset of standing estrus. The profiles of serum concentration of E2 during the period of peri-estrus was similar in the goats of PMSG or P4+PMSG and also in the goats showing the subsequent estrous cycle of normal or short length.

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Effect of a 20 kHz Sawtooth Magnetic Field Exposure on the Estrous Cycle in Mice

  • Jung, Kyung-Ah;Ahn, Hae-Sun;Lee, Yun-Sil;Gye, Myung-Chan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.398-402
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    • 2007
  • Abstract Female mice post weaning were exposed to 20 kHz sawtooth electric and magnetic fields (EMF) with $6.25{\mu}T$ peak intensity for 6 weeks. Estrous cycles were checked using vaginal smears over the last 10 days of the experimental period. The vaginal smears from EMF-exposed mice revealed an increase in the frequency of one or two phases persisting. The number of estrous cycles less than 1 was more in the EMF-exposed group than in the sham control group. Furthermore, in the EMF-exposed group, the duration of proestrous and metestrous stages of the estrous cycle was significantly increased compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that exposure to 20 kHz sawtooth EMF may affect normal cycling of the estrous cycle by disrupting the female reproductive endocrine physiology. We should not disregard the possible adverse reproductive effect of the 20 kHz sawtooth EMF generated under the occupational exposure situation in females.

Changes of spontaneous pancreatic exocrine secretion during the estrous cycle in rats (흰쥐에서 발정주기에 따른 자발적인 췌장외분비의 변화)

  • Park, Hyung-seo;Lee, Tae-im;Kim, Se-hoon;Park, Hyoung-jin;yang, Il-suk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.677-681
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    • 2000
  • Since the role of female sexual hormones on pancreatic exocrine secretion was not fully understood, this study was investigated to clarify the difference of spontaneous pancreatic exocrine responses during the estrous cycle and the roles of ovarian hormones on pancreatic exocrine secretion in the anesthetized female rats. Pancreatic juice was collected from the sequential 15-min samples, and then fluid and protein secretion were measured from the collected samples. The stages of estrous cycle were defined by staining the vaginal smear. The spontaneous pancreatic fluid and protein secretion were significantly increased during the diestrus stage compare to the corresponding value during the estrus stage. In the ovariectomized rat, spontaneous pancreatic exocrine secretion was significantly decreased compare to the value of female rat during the diestrus stage and was restored by subcutaneous injection of progesterone (50 mg/kg). This results suggest that the spontaneous pancreatic exocrine secretion of female rat is fluctuated according to the estrous cycle and progesterone released from ovary could stimulate the spontaneous pancreatic exocrine secretion of female rat.

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Studies on Steroid Hormone Concentration during the Estrous Cycle in the MediKinetics Micropig®

  • Seong, Hun-Ki;Seo, Kyeong-Seok;Kim, Jeong-Su;Her, Chang-Gi;Kang, Myung-Hwa;Sim, Bo-Woong;Yoon, Jong-Taek;Min, Kwan-Sik
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2017
  • In all mammalian species, progesterone is essential to both the preparation for, and maintenance of, pregnancy. The $20{\alpha}$-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ($20{\alpha}$-HSD) enzyme predominantly converts progesterone into its biologically inactive form $20{\alpha}$-hydroxyprogesterone, thereby regulating its activity. Thus, to directly assess sexual maturation in the MediKinetics $micropig^{(R)}$, we analyzed the concentration of the steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol during the estrous cycle. Our results show that the progesterone level exhibited by the analyzed $micorpig^{(R)}$ was low at the beginning of the estrous cycle, and then abruptly increased to $30.32{\pm}10.0ng/mL$ and $46.37{\pm}11.0ng/mL$ by days 9 and 11 of the cycle, respectively. It reached the highest level $55.87{\pm}3.5ng/mL$ on day 13 of the estrous cycle, before decreasing to $46.58{\pm}13.1ng/mL$ and $10.0{\pm}7.6ng/mL$ by days 15 and 17 of the cycle, respectively. In contrast, the estradiol level was shown to be highest ($27.13{\pm}11.2ng/mL$) at the initiation of the estrous cycle, after which point it decreased to $13.29{\pm}6.5ng/mL$ and $10.94{\pm}5.9ng/mL$ by days 4 and 5 of the estrous cycle, respectively. By day 17 of the estrous cycle, the estradiol level decreased to $4.13{\pm}7.6ng/mL$. We anticipate that these results will provide useful information to enable the study of human ovulation and reproductive physiology using the MediKinetics $micoripig^{(R)}$ as a model system. We recommend further investigation to elucidate the functional mechanisms underlying the regulation of sexual maturation in the MediKinetics $micropig^{(R)}$.

Serial Ultrasonographic Appearance of Normal Uterus during Estrous Cycle in Miniature Schnauzer Dogs

  • Kim, Jae-Hong;Park, Chul-Ho;Mun, Byeong-Gwon;Kim, Hee-Su;Kim, Bang-Sil;Lee, Ju-Hwan;Park, In-Chul;Kim, Jong-Taek;Suh, Guk-Hyun;Oh, Ki-Seok;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.109-113
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    • 2009
  • Serial ultrasonography was performed to measure the normal appearance of uterine during estrous cycle and to determine whether the unterine appearance was related to the sex hormone, progesterone and estrogen. The uterine appearances, shape, diameter and echogenicity were daily monitored with ultrasonography in 9 Miniature Schnauzer dogs undergoing II estrous cycles. During proestrus and estrous, the uterus became hypoechoic but developed hyperechoic luminal echo. In the longitudinal view, the shape of the uterus occasionally changed from rectangular to coiled or serpentine, compared to other stages of the cycle. The diameter of the uterus during proestrus and estrous was larger (range: 0.60${\sim}$0.86 mm) than other stages (range: 0.48${\sim}$0.62 mm) of the cycle. The rising estrogen concentrations (range: 14.51${\sim}$16.86 pg/ml) in plasma during proestrus correlated with changes in the uterus (p<0.05). Progesterone concentrations were 0.08${\sim}$0.15 ng/ml at the onset of proestrus, but rose 1.06${\sim}$1.26 ng/ml at the end of proestrus. There was no relation to progesterone concentration from onset of estrus (p>0.05). There was dramatical changes in normal uterus and sex hormone during estrous cycle. Especially, the appearance, shape and diameter of uterus were related to plasma estrogen concentration during proestrus, correlated with other stages of the cycle.

Leukemia inhibitory factor and its receptor: expression and regulation in the porcine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle and pregnancy

  • Yoo, Inkyu;Chae, Soogil;Han, Jisoo;Lee, Soohyung;Kim, Hyun Jong;Ka, Hakhyun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.192-200
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    • 2019
  • Objective: Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) binds to a heterodimeric receptor composed of LIF receptor (LIFR) and glycoprotein 130 (GP130) to transmit signals into the cell. LIF plays an important role in reproduction by regulating immune response, decidualization, and implantation in several species. However, the expression of LIF and LIFR in the endometrium throughout the estrous cycle and pregnancy in pigs is not fully understood. Methods: We analyzed the expression of LIF and LIFR in the endometrium on days 0 (estrus), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 of the estrous cycle, and days 12, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 114 of pregnancy, in conceptuses on days 12 and 15, and in chorioallantoic tissues on days 30, 60, 90, and 114 of pregnancy in pigs. We also determined the effects of estrogen and progesterone on the expression of LIF and LIFR in endometrial tissues. Results: The expression of LIF increased in the endometrium during the late diestrus phase of the estrous cycle and during mid- to late- pregnancy, while the expression of LIFR increased during early pregnancy. The expression of LIF was induced by increasing doses of estrogen, whereas the expression of LIFR was induced by increasing doses of progesterone. Conclusion: These results indicate that the expression of LIF and its receptor LIFR in the endometrium is regulated in a stage-specific manner during the estrous cycle and pregnancy, suggesting that LIF and its receptor signaling system may play critical roles in regulating endometrial function in pigs.