• Title, Summary, Keyword: Environmental Uncertainty

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Environmental Uncertainty on Supply Chain Interdependence and Relationship Commitment (환경 불확실성이 공급사슬에서의 상호의존성과 관계결속에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Chan Kwon;Park, Sung Min
    • Journal of the Korean society of supply chain management
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.133-150
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    • 2018
  • This study is a study on the relationship between environmental uncertainty, interdependence, and relationship commitment in supply chain. The results of this study are as follows. First, environmental uncertainty items have positive (+) significant effects on economic dependence and emotional dependence. And both economic and emotional dependence had a positive (+) significant effect on economic commitment and emotional commitment. It is also confirmed that there is mediating effect of interdependence only between technical uncertainty and relationship commitment. The implications of this study are as follows. First, the higher the perceived level of environmental uncertainty, the higher the level of economic and emotional dependence. These results suggest that if individual firms perceive environmental uncertainty, their interdependence with other trading companies is enhanced. Second, the enhancement of economic and emotional dependence appears as economic commitment and emotional commitment. Finally, individual firms suggest that economic and emotional dependence can be linked to economic and emotional commitment as interdependence in the context of environmental uncertainty.

Measurement Uncertainty of Nicotine in Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)

  • Lee, Jeong-Il;Lee, Cheol Min;Shim, In-Keun;Kim, Seong-Mi;Lee, Woo-Seok;Kim, Yoon-Shin
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.2394-2398
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    • 2013
  • Nicotine is the main component of environmental tobacco smoke, and its presence in indoor air is widely used as a secondhand-smoke indicator. Environmental tobacco smoke is a major source of indoor air pollution, but sufficient investigation of the uncertainty of its measurement, which mirrors the reliability of nicotine measurement, has not been performed. We calculated the uncertainty of measurement of indoor air nicotine concentration at low, medium, and high concentrations of 11.3798, 10.1977, $98.3768{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively, and we employed the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements (GUM), proposed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The factors considered in determining the uncertainty were uncertainty of the calibration curve (calibration curve and repeated measurements), desorption efficiency, extraction volume, and sampling airflow (accuracy and acceptable limits of flowmeter). The measurement uncertainty was highest at low concentrations; the expanded measurement uncertainty is $0.9435{\mu}g/m^3$ and is represented as a relative uncertainty of 63.38%. At medium and high (concentrations, the relative uncertainty was 13.1% and 9.1%, respectively. The uncertainty of the calibration curve was largest for low indoor nicotine concentrations. To increase reliability of measurement in assessing the effect of secondhand smoke, measures such as increasing the sample injection rate ($1{\mu}L$ or more), increasing sampling volume to increase collected nicotine, and using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or GC/MS/MS, which has a lower quantitation threshold, rather than gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous detector, should be considered.

Uncertainty Analysis and Application to Risk Assessment (위해성평가의 불확실도 분석과 활용방안 고찰)

  • Jo, Areum;Kim, Taksoo;Seo, JungKwan;Yoon, Hyojung;Kim, Pilje;Choi, Kyunghee
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.425-437
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: Risk assessment is a tool for predicting and reducing uncertainty related to the effects of future activities. Probability approaches are the main elements in risk assessment, but confusion about the interpretation and use of assessment factors often undermines the message of the analyses. The aim of this study is to provide a guideline for systematic reduction plans regarding uncertainty in risk assessment. Methods: Articles and reports were collected online using the key words "uncertainty analysis" on risk assessment. Uncertainty analysis was conducted based on reports focusing on procedures for analysis methods by the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). In addition, case studies were performed in order to verify suggested methods qualitatively and quantitatively with exposure data, including measured data on toluene and styrene in residential spaces and multi-use facilities. Results: Based on an analysis of the data on uncertainty, three major factors including scenario, model, and parameters were identified as the main sources of uncertainty, and tiered approaches were determined. In the case study, the risk of toluene and styrene was evaluated and the most influential factors were also determined. Five reduction plans were presented: providing standard guidelines, using reliable exposure factors, possessing quality controls for analysis and scientific expertise, and introducing a peer review system. Conclusion: In this study, we established a method for reducing uncertainty by taking into account the major factors. Also, we showed a method for uncertainty analysis with tiered approaches. However, uncertainties are difficult to define because they are generated by many factors. Therefore, further studies are needed for the development of technical guidelines based on the representative scenario, model, and parameters developed in this study.

The impact of firm's intra-cooperation practice on NPD performance: with focus on the moderating effect of environmental uncertainty (기업 내부 부서간의 협력이 신제품 개발성과에 미치는 영향: 환경적 불확실성의 조절효과를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Chang-Ki;Jung, Uk
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Quality Management
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.617-632
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study aims to explore the relationship between the focal firm's interdepartmental cooperation and new product development (NPD) performance with focus on the moderating effect of environmental uncertainty. The basic hypothesized model is that there are positively associated relationships. Methods: The proposed research model was tested using structural equation modeling with 601 responses from multi-functional and multiple respondents in Korean manufacturing firms. Multi-group SEM analyses were conducted to explore the degree to which the hypothesized model was equivalent for different levels of environmental uncertainty. Results: Interdepartmental cooperation between R&D and production is positively associated with NPD performance under both higher and lower environmental uncertainties, while one between R&D and marketing is positively associated under only higher environmental uncertainty. Conclusion: This paper determined that NPD performance is positively correlated with R&D-production cooperation in a focal firm, and the relationship between R&D-marketing cooperation and NPD performance is positively moderated by level of environmental uncertainty. Consequently, this study suggests that it is always important for firms to put much effort on R&D-production cooperation for a better NPD performance, while R&D-marketing cooperation should be enhanced especially under higher environmental uncertainty than lower.

Cost-effective Investigation on Contaminated Land and Assessment of Measurement Uncertainty (오염토양의 효율적 조사기법과 측정불확도의 평가방법)

  • 이종천
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.49-59
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    • 2004
  • The concectration and distribution of contaminants obtained from a contaminated land investigation or an environmental geochemistry survey constitutes the basis of a decision-making process on environmental policies or of scientific researches. As the quality of data determines the reliability of the result, the investigation plan should be adjusted according to the purpose of the investigation. In general, the effort to improve the data quality had been focused mainly on the QA/QC procedures in laboratories. The rapid progress of analytical instrument has also contributed toward improving the analytical precision to a sacrificable degree. Nevertheless, in many cases, it is not the analytical precision that needs improvement for the better precision of overall measurement process: it is rather during the sampling process in the field that is responsible for the poor precision. To assess the data quality on a measured value, ISO recommends to provide information on "measurement uncertainty" along with the measured value. The measurement uncertainty in an environmental measurement context can be explained as the statistical number that expresses the degree of the uncertainty stemming from the sampling and analytical procedures. There is a cost involved in order to improve the precision of sampling and analytical methods so as to decrease the degree of measurement uncertainty. The economical point of compromise in an investigation planning can be achieved when the allowable degree of uncertainty has been set before-hand. The investigation can then be planned accordingly not to exceed the uncertainty limit. Furthermore, if the measurement uncertainty estimated from the preliminary investigation can be separated into sampling and analytical uncertainties, it can be used as a criterion where the resources for the investigation should be allotted cost-effectively to reinforce the weakest link of the whole investigation process. This paper aims to present a method of estimating the level of measurement uncertainty of a measured contamination concentration at a site used as an example and to show how the estimated uncertainty can be applied to serve the particular purpose of an investigation.

Uncertainty Assessment for CAPSS Emission Inventory by DARS (DARS에 의한 CAPSS 배출자료의 불확도 평가)

  • Kim, Jeong;Jang, Young-Kee
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.26-36
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    • 2014
  • The uncertainty assessment is important to improve the reliability of emission inventory data. The DARS (Data Attribute Rating System) have recommended as the uncertainty assessment technic of emission inventory by U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EIIP (Emission Inventory Improvement Program). The DARS score is based on the perceived quality of the emission factor and activity data. Scores are assigned to four attributes; measurement/method, source specificity, spatial congruity and temporal congruity. The resulting emission factor and activity rate scores are combined to arrive at an overall confidence rating for the inventory. So DARS is believed to be a useful tool and may provide more information about inventories than the usual qualitative grading procedures (e.g. A through E). In this study, the uncertainty assessment for 2009 CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) emission inventory is conducted by DARS. According to the result of this uncertainty assessment, the uncertainty for fugitive dust emission data is higher than other sources, the uncertainty of emission factor for surface coating is the highest value, and the uncertainty of activity data for motor cycle is the highest value. Also it is analysed that the improvement of uncertainty for activity data is as much important as the improvement for emission factor to upgrade the reliability of CAPSS emission inventory.

Application of Probabilistic Health Risk Analysis in Life Cycle Assessment -Part I : A General Framework for Uncertainty and Variability Analysis of Health Risk in Life Cycle Assessment (전과정평가에 있어 확률론적 건강영향분석기법 적용 -Part I : 전과정평가에 있어 확률론적 위해도 분석기법 적용방안에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Kwang-Soo;Park, Jae-Sung
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.185-202
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    • 2000
  • Uncertainty and variability in Life Cycle Assessment(LCA) have been significant key issues in LCA methodology with techniques in other research area such as social and political science. Variability is understood as stemming from inherent variations in the real world, while uncertainty comes from inaccurate measurements, lack of data, model assumptions, etc. Related articles in this issues were reviewed for classification, distinguish and elaboration of probabilistic/stochastic health risk analysis application in LCA. Concept of focal zone, streamlining technique, scenario modelling and Monte Carlo/Latin Hypercube risk analysis were applied to the uncertainty/variability analysis of health risk in LCA. These results show that this general framework of multi-disciplinary methodology between probabilistic health risk assessment and LCA was of benefit to decision making process by suppling information about input/output data sensitivity, health effect priority and health risk distribution. There should be further research needs for case study using this methodology.

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Business Environment, e-Business Strategy and Performance : An Empirical Study of Venture Firms in Daedeok Valley and Hsinchu Science Park (한.대(韓.臺) 벤처기업의 경영환경, e-비즈니스 전략, 성과간의 관계)

  • Hwang, Kyung-Yun;Moon, Hee-Cheol
    • Journal of Information Technology Applications and Management
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.43-65
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    • 2008
  • This study investigates the effects of business environment on the e-business strategy and performance of venture firms. The development of the research model is based on the empirical studies on the strategy literature. The data from the survey was analyzed using Partial Least Squares(PLS). For Daedeok Valley Venture Firms, product innovation differentiation strategy is affected by environmental uncertainty. And, cost leadership strategy tend to be influence by environmental uncertainty. Finally, venture firm's performance is effected by cost leadership strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. However, for in Hsinchu Science Park Venture Firms, product innovation differentiation strategy is affected by environmental uncertainty and heterogeneity. And, marketing differentiation strategy is enhanced by environment uncertainty and industry growth. In addition, cost leadership strategy tend to be influence by environmental uncertainty and heterogeneity. Finally, venture firm's performance is effected by cost leadership strategy and product innovation differentiation strategy.

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Utilization of health insurance data in an environmental epidemiology

  • Ha, Jongsik;Cho, Seongkyung;Shin, Yongseung
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.30
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    • pp.12.1-12.7
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    • 2015
  • Objectives In South Korea, health insurance data are used as material for the health insurance of national whole subject. In general, health insurance data could be useful for estimating prevalence or incidence rate that is representative of the actual value in a population. The purpose of this study was to apply the concept of episode of care (EoC) in the utilization of health insurance data in the field of environmental epidemiology and to propose an improved methodology through an uncertainty assessment of disease course and outcome. Methods In this study, we introduced the concept of EoC as a methodology to utilize health insurance data in the field of environmental epidemiology. The characterization analysis of the course and outcome of applying the EoC concept to health insurance data was performed through an uncertainty assessment. Results The EoC concept in this study was applied to heat stroke (International Classification of Disease, 10th revision, code T67). In the comparison of results between before and after applying the EoC concept, we observed a reduction in the deviation of daily claims after applying the EoC concept. After that, we categorized context, model, and input uncertainty and characterized these uncertainties in three dimensions by using uncertainty typology. Conclusions This study is the first to show the process of constructing episode data for environmental epidemiological studies by using health insurance data. Our results will help in obtaining representative results for the processing of health insurance data in environmental epidemiological research. Furthermore, these results could be used in the processing of health insurance data in the future.

New Development of Methods for Environmental Impact Assessment Facing Uncertainty and Cumulative Environmental Impacts (불확실성과 누적환경영향하에서의 환경영향평가를 위한 방법론의 새로운 개발)

  • Pietsch, Jurgen
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 1995
  • At both international and national levels, such as in the Rio Declaration and the EU's Fifth Environmental Action Plan, governments have committed themselves to the adoption of the precautionary principle (UNCED 1992, CEC 1992). These commitments mean that the existence of uncertainty in appraising policies and proposals for development should be acknowledged. Uncertainty arise in both the prediction of impacts and in the evaluation of their significance, particularly of those cumulative impacts which are individually insignificant but cumulatively damaging. The EC network of EIA experts, stated at their last meeting in Athens that indirect effects and the treatment of uncertainty are one of the main deficiencies of current EIA practice. Uncertainties in decision-making arise where choices have been made in the development of the policy or proposal, such as the selection of options, the justification for that choice, and the selection of different indicators to comply with different regulatory regimes. It is also likely that a weighting system for evaluating significance will have been used which may be implicit rather than explicit. Those involved in decision-making may employ different tolerances of uncertainty than members of the public, for instance over the consideration of the worst-case scenario. Possible methods for dealing with these uncertainties include scenarios, sensitivity analysis, showing points of view, decision analysis, postponing decisions and graphical methods. An understanding of the development of cumulative environmental impacts affords not only ecologic but also socio-economic investigations. Since cumulative impacts originate mainly in centres of urban or industrial development, in particular an analysis of future growth effects that might possibly be induced by certain development impacts. Not least it is seen as an matter of sustainability to connect this issue with ecological research. The serious attempt to reduce the area of uncertainty in environmental planning is a challenge and an important step towards reliable planning and sustainable development.

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