• Title, Summary, Keyword: Enterobacteriaceae

Search Result 179, Processing Time 0.039 seconds

Distribution and Characterization of Integrons in Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Chickens in Korea

  • Sung, Ji Youn;Oh, Ji-Eun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.24 no.7
    • /
    • pp.1008-1013
    • /
    • 2014
  • The use of antimicrobial agents for additives or therapeutics is strongly associated with a prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Enterobacteriaceae. We aimed to characterize integrons in Enterobacteriaceae isolates obtained from chicken cecums in Korea. Moreover, the correlation between integron gene cassettes and antimicrobial resistance was also investigated. A total of 90 isolates the belonged to Enterobacteriaceae were recovered from chickens grown at Gyeongsang and Chungcheong provinces in Korea. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by the disk diffusion method. PCR and DNA sequencing were also performed to characterize the gene cassette arrays of the integrons. Of the 90 Enterobacteriaceae isolates tested, 39 (43.3%) and 10 (11.1%) isolates carried class 1 and 2 integrons, respectively. Whereas the class 2 integron did not contain gene cassettes, the class 1 integrons carried seven different gene cassette arrays. The class 1 integrons harbored genes encoding resistant determinants to aminoglycosides (aadA1, aadA2, and aadA5), trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA12, dfrA17, and dfrA32), lincosamides (linF), and erythromycin (ereA). Moreover, the presence of a class 1 integron was significantly related to a high resistance rate of antimicrobial agents, such as spectinomycin and trimethoprim. We confirmed that diverse class 1 integrons were widely distributed in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from chickens and directly contributed to the resistance to diverse antimicrobial agents in Korea.

Antimicrobial resistance and distribution of resistance gene in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from dogs and cats (개와 고양이에서 분리된 Enterobacteriaceae와 Pseudomonas aeruginosa의 항균제 내성 및 내성 유전자의 분포)

  • Cho, Jae-Keun;Kim, Jin-Hyun;Kim, Jeong-Mi;Park, Choi-Kyu;Kim, Ki-Seuk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
    • /
    • v.36 no.3
    • /
    • pp.171-180
    • /
    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial resistance pattern and distribution of resistance gene in 44 Enterobacteriaceae and 21 Pseudomonas (P) aeruginosa isolated from hospitalized dogs and cats in animal hospital from 2010 to 2011 in Daegu. Among Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia (E) coli was highly resistant to ampicillin (56.7%), followed by tetracycline (53.3%), cephalothin, streptomycine, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, gentamicin and norfloxacin (40.0~43.3%). The remaining isolates of Enterobacteriaceae had high resistance to ampicillin (64.3%) and streptomycin (42.9%). Whereas, P. aeruginosa was low resistant to all antimicrobials tested (less than 15%). int I 1 gene was detected in 20 (57.1%) of 35 antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae and 2 (9.5%) of 21 P. aeruginosa., but int I 2 gene was not detected in all isolates. The eight resistance genes were found either alone or combination with other gene (s): $bla_{TEM}$, aadA, strA-strB, clmA, tetA, tetB, sul I and sul II. About 78% of integron-positive isolates were resistance to more than four antimicrobial agents. The findings suggest that class I integrons are widely distributed in E. coli among Enterobacteriaceae from dogs and cats and multi-drug resistance related to the presence of class I integrons. The prudent use of antimicrobials and continuous monitoring for companion animals are required.

Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of ESBL Producing Enterobacteriaceae from Highly Polluted Stretch of River Yamuna, India

  • Siddiqui, Kehkashan;Mondal, Aftab Hossain;Siddiqui, Mohammad Tahir;Azam, Mudsser;Haq., Qazi Mohd. Rizwanul
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
    • /
    • v.46 no.2
    • /
    • pp.135-144
    • /
    • 2018
  • The rapid increase in number and diversity of Extended Spectrum ${\beta}$-Lactamases (ESBLs) producing Enterobacteriaceae in natural aquatic environment is a major health concern worldwide. This study investigates abundance and distribution of ESBL producing multidrug resistant Enterobacteriaceae and molecular characterization of ESBL genes among isolates from highly polluted stretch of river Yamuna, India. Water samples were collected from ten different sites distributed across Delhi stretch of river Yamuna, during 2014-15. A total of 506 non duplicate Enterobacteriaceae isolates were obtained. Phenotypic detection of ESBL production and antibiotic sensitivity for 15 different antibiotics were performed according to CLSI guidelines (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute, 2015). A subset of ESBL positive Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene and screened for ESBL genes, such as $bla_{CTX-M}$, $bla_{TEM}$ and $bla_{OXA}$. Out of 506 non-duplicate bacterial isolates obtained, 175 (34.58%) were positive for ESBL production. Susceptibility pattern for fifteen antibiotics used in this study revealed higher resistance to cefazolin, rifampicin and ampicillin. A high proportion (76.57%) of ESBL positive isolates showed multidrug resistance phenotype, with MAR index of 0.39 at Buddha Vihar and Old Delhi Railway bridge sampling site. Identification and PCR based characterization of ESBL genes revealed the prevalence of $bla_{CTX-M}$ and $bla_{TEM}$ genes to be 88.33% and 61.66%, respectively. Co-occurrence of $bla_{CTX-M}$ and $bla_{TEM}$ genes was detected in 58.33% of the resistant bacteria. The $bla_{OXA}$ gene was not detected in any isolates. This study highlights deteriorating condition of urban aquatic environment due to rising level of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae with multidrug resistance phenotype.

Identification and Antibiotics Susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Feces of Wild Mammals in Choniu Zoo (동물원의 야생포유류 분변에서 분리한 장내세균의 동정과 약제감수성)

  • 송회종;윤창용;김성훈;채효석;도흥기;허부흥
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
    • /
    • v.14 no.2
    • /
    • pp.263-267
    • /
    • 1997
  • Eighty-seven strains of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from feces of wild mammals in Choniu zoo were tested for their biochemical reaction and susceptibility to 19 antibiotics or chemicals by using disc diffusion test and/or Microscan Walkway 40/96. Out of 87 isolates, Enterobacteriaceae (44), Hafinia alvei (9), Citrobacterfreundi (5) and Proteus vulgaris (5) were frequently detected. The detective frequency of Enterobacteriaceae in animals classified by their eating pattern was higher in carnivorous and omnivorous than in herbivorous animal. In antibiotic susceptibility tests most of isolates were susceptible to cefazolinl ceftazidime, aztreoname, trimethoprin/sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, cofuroximel ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and eftizoximel and moderately susceptible to cephalotin and ticarcillin but resistant to ticarcillin/K and amikacin.

  • PDF

Risk Factors of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Acquisition at a Community-based Hospital (지역기반 상급종합병원 내 카바페넴 내성 장내세균 획득에 관한 위험인자)

  • Lee, Yeonju;Kang, Ji Eun;Ham, Jung Yeon;Lee, Ja Gyun;Rhie, Sandy Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
    • /
    • v.30 no.2
    • /
    • pp.120-126
    • /
    • 2020
  • Objective: The rising number of carbapenemase-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) cases has become a concern worldwidely. This study investigated patient characteristics with CRE and analyzed the risk factors associated with its acquisition. Methods: A retrospective review of the electronic medical records of the Kangbuk Samsung Medical Center from May 2016 to April 2019 was performed. The inclusion criterion was hospitalized patients aged ≥18 years with confirmed CRE acquisition. Patients were divided by CRE acquired and non-required patients. CRE acquired patients were those with CRE confirmed by their active surveillance cultures, while non-acquired patients were those with carbapenemase-sensitive Enterobacteriaceae (CSE). If CRE was isolated more than once during hospitalization, only the first isolation was used for data analysis. Patient characteristics, antibiotic used, and the duration of use were compared between two groups using univariate analysis, and the risk factors associated with CRE were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Among the 73 CRE acquired patients, 44 (60.3%) were positive for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Infection from Klebsiella pneumonia (42 cases, 57.5%), Escherichia coli (17 cases, 23.3%), and Enterobacter cloacae (5 cases, 6.8%). The risk of CRE acquisition was significantly increased by 4.99 times [confidence interval (CI), 1.40-17.78; p=0.013] with mechanical ventilation, 3.86 times (CI, 1.59-9.36; p=0.003) with penicillin administration, and 21.19 times (CI, 6.53-68.70; p<0.001) with carbapenem administration. Conclusions: Proper antibiotic use including the selection, frequency, and duration, and patients on mechanical ventilators need close monitoring.

Prevalence of Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria Belonging to Gram Negative Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from a Domestic Stream (국내 하천에서 분리된 그람 음성 Enterobacteriacaea의 항생제 다제내성)

  • Jang, Yejin;Song, Ki-Bong;Chung, In-Young;Kim, Hyuk;Seok, Kwang-Seol;Go, Eun Byeul;Kim, Byeori;Yoo, Yong-Jae;Rhee, Ok-Jae;Chae, Jong-Chan
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
    • /
    • v.43 no.4
    • /
    • pp.396-400
    • /
    • 2015
  • Enterobacteriaceae is one of the major families responsible for public health threats. Due to the emergence of pathogens with antibiotic resistance, great concern has been raised regarding the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in natural environments. Therefore, the diversity of Gram negative Enterobacteriaceae was investigated in water samples collected from five streams in Korea using the cultivation method. Profiling of multi-drug resistance was conducted with isolates via disk diffusion assay. The results indicated that the Gram negative Enterobacteriaceae consisted of the following genus; Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Pantoea, Plesiomonas, Raoultella, Shigella and Enterobacter. These latter strains represented 49% of identified isolates. In addition, 78.3% of the identified genus exhibited resistance against more than seven out of thirteen tested antibiotics, suggesting a high prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria in natural environments.

Detection of mcr-1 Plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae Isolates From Human Specimens: Comparison With Those in Escherichia coli Isolates From Livestock in Korea

  • Yoon, Eun-Jeong;Hong, Jun Sung;Yang, Ji Woo;Lee, Kwang Jun;Lee, Hyukmin;Jeong, Seok Hoon
    • Annals of Laboratory Medicine
    • /
    • v.38 no.6
    • /
    • pp.555-562
    • /
    • 2018
  • Background: The emerging mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, is an ongoing worldwide concern and an evaluation of clinical isolates harboring this gene is required in Korea. We investigated mcr-1-possessing Enterobacteriaceae among Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated in Korea, and compared the genetic details of the plasmids with those in Escherichia coli isolates from livestock. Methods: Among 9,396 Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates collected between 2010 and 2015, 1,347 (14.3%) strains were resistant to colistin and those were screened for mcr-1 by PCR. Colistin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by microdilution, and conjugal transfer of the mcr-1-harboring plasmids was assessed by direct mating. Whole genomes of three mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates and 11 livestock-origin mcr-1-positive E. coli isolates were sequenced. Results: Two E. coli and one Enterobacter aerogenes clinical isolates carried carried IncI2 plasmids harboring mcr-1, which conferred colistin resistance (E. coli MIC, 4 mg/L; E. aerogenes MIC, 32 mg/L). The strains possessed the complete conjugal machinery except for E. aerogenes harboring a truncated prepilin peptidase. The E. coli plasmid transferred more efficiently to E. coli than to Klebsiella pneumoniae or Enterobacter cloacae recipients. Among the three bacterial hosts, the colistin MIC was the highest for E. coli owing to the higher mcr-1-plasmid copy number and mcr-1 expression levels. Ten mcr-1-positive chicken-origin E. coli strains also possessed mcr-1-harboring IncI2 plasmids closely related to that in the clinical E. aerogenes isolate, and the remaining one porcine-origin E. coli possessed an mcr-1-harboring IncX4 plasmid. Conclusions: mcr-1-harboring IncI2 plasmids were identified in clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates. These plasmids were closely associated with those in chicken-origin E. coli strains in Korea, supporting the concept of mcr-1 dissemination between humans and livestock.

Bacterial Distribution and Variation in Water Supply Systems (상수도계통에서의 세균 분포 및 변화)

  • 박성주;조재창;김상종
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
    • /
    • v.31 no.3
    • /
    • pp.245-254
    • /
    • 1993
  • Distribution and variation of bacterial densities of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and Enterobacteriaceae in the water supply systems comprising raw, treated, and three tap water samples of a water treatment plant in Seoul were studied 23 times from 1991 to 1992. HPC bacteria of raw. treated, and tap waters on $R_{2}A$ agar media were at a density of $1.22{\times}10^{3} to 3.05{\times}10^{5}$, $1.50{\times}10^{1} to 4.29{\times}10^{3}$ and 2 to $5.41{\times}10^{3}$ cfu/ml, respectively. Densities of Enterobacteriaceae in raw, treated, and tap waters on mENDO-LES agar media ranged from 0.] to 8200 cfu/ml, 0 to 17.5 cfu/JOO mI. and 0 to 47.5 cfu/IOO ml, respectively. Injured Enterobacteriaceae of treated and tap waters on m-T7 agar media were at a density of o to 27 and 0 to 35 cfu/100 mI. These results showed that the density of bacteria in the treated water outflowing from the water plant significantly increased as the water flowed along the distribution sytems, which is so-called bacterial regrowth. The predominant bacteria] types in the water supply system were Pw'udomonas and Acinerobacter. In raw water, the ratio of Pseudomonas was higher than that of Acinetobaeter, but in treated and tap waters. both ratios were reversed. The most predominant species of Enterobacteriaceae was Enterobacter agglomerans. Some species such as Citrobacter freundii. Escherichia coli. Klebsiella pneumoniae. and Shigella dysenteriae which are opportunistic pathogens or pathogens were not found in the treated water but additionally detected in tap waters.

  • PDF

CTX-M-14 Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Chickens at Gyeongsang Provinces (경북지역의 닭으로부터 CTX-M-14 생성 장내세균 분리동정)

  • Sung, Ji Youn;Kwon, Taek Young
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
    • /
    • v.48 no.2
    • /
    • pp.118-123
    • /
    • 2016
  • Antimicrobial agents have been used in poultry for treatment of bacterial infections or additives over the past half century. However, increasing antimicrobial resistance has led to selective pressure for therapeutic use in humans and made treatment of bacterial infection more difficult. In this study, we examined the prevalence of plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistant determinants for resistance to ${\beta}-lactam$, quinolone, and aminoglycoside in Enterobacteriaceae isolates obtained from chickens in Gyeongsang provinces, and correlation between the resistant genes and antimicrobial resistance rate was also assessed. A total of 43 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were recovered from 40 chickens at Gyeongsang provinces in Korea. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion method. PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to characterize the antimicrobial resistant genes. Of the 43 Enterobacteriaceae isolates tested, 2 isolates harbored $bla_{CTX-M-14}$ gene, and 2 and 5 strains contained qnrS and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes, respectively. A total of 43 isolates displayed a relatively lower susceptible rate ranging between 0.0 and 23.3% to most of the antimicrobial agents, except cefepime, ceftazidime, and cefaclor. We confirmed that plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistant determinants were distributed in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from chickens. Investigation of the genes and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance rate is required to prevent further spreading of antimicrobial resistant genes among Enterobacteriaceae isolates.

Clinical Laboratory Aspect of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (카바페넴내성장내세균속균종의 임상검사 측면)

  • Park, Chang-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
    • /
    • v.52 no.1
    • /
    • pp.18-27
    • /
    • 2020
  • The correct distinction of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and ccarbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and the rapid detection of CPE are important for instituting the correct treatment and management of clinical infections. Screening protocols are mainly based on cultures of rectal swab specimens on selective media followed by phenotypic tests to confirm a carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity, the rapid carbapenem inactivation method, lateral flow immunoassay, the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight test and molecular methods. The CPE is accurate for detection, and is essential for the clinical treatment and prevention of infections. A variety of phenotypic methods and gene-based methods are available for the rapid detection of carbapenemases, and these are expected to be routinely used in clinical microbiology laboratories. Therefore, to control the spread of carbapenemase, many laboratories around the world will need to use reliable, fast, high efficiency, simple and low cost methods. Optimal effects in patient applications would require rapid testing of CRE to provide reproducible support for antimicrobial management interventions or the treatment by various types of clinicians. For the optimal test method, it is necessary to combine complementary test methods to discriminate between various resistant bacterial species and to discover the genetic diversity of various types of carbapenemase for arriving at the best infection control strategy.