• Title, Summary, Keyword: Energy-saving

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A study on the hybrid communication system to remove the communication shadow area for controller system of navigational aids (전파 음영지역 해소를 위한 항로표지관리용 하이브리드 통신 시스템에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Joong Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.409-417
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    • 2013
  • Mu-communication board supported by multi-communication is designed with Atxmega 128A1 which is a low power energy consuming of 8-bit microcontroller. ATxmega128A1 microcontroller consists of 8 UART(Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter) ports which can be setting appropriate user interface having command line interpreter(CLI) program with each port, 2 kbytes EEPROM, 128 kbytes flash memory, 8 kbytes SRAM. 8 URAT ports are used for the multi communication modem, GPS module, etc. and EEPROM is used for saving a configuration for program running, and flash memory of 128 kbytes is used for storing a Firm Ware, and 8 kbytes SRAM is used for stack, storing memory of global variables while program running. If we uses the hybrid communication of path optimization of VHF, TRS and CDMA to remote control AtoN(aid to navigation), it is able to remove the communication shadow area. Even though there is a shadow area for individual communication method, we can select an optimum communication method. The compatibility of data has been enhanced as using of same data frame per communication devices. For the test, 8640 of data has been collected from the each buoy during 30 days in every 5 minutes and the receiving rate of the data has shown more than 99.4 %.

Analysis on CO2 Mitigation Potential and Economic Effect of Green Life in the Residential Sector in Korea (녹색생활 실천에 따른 가정부문의 이산화탄소 감축잠재량 및 경제적 효과 분석)

  • Jin, Hyung Ah;Yeo, So Young;Yoon, So Won;Kim, Dai Gon;Seo, Jeong Hyeon;Hong, Yoo Deog;Han, Jin Seok
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.668-681
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    • 2013
  • The Korean government announced a national mid-term target to reduce 30% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from business-as usual (BAU) level by 2020 in a voluntary and independent manner. In this study, we examined the $CO_2$ mitigation potential and conducted an economic effect analysis of green living actions in households in Korea. We also proposed some ways to implement green life to achieve the national target. If green lifestyle takes root in households nationwide, $CO_2$ emission would be reduced to 27.3% of the emission in 2007. This would save the country about 4.93 trillion won per year and each household could save about 300,000 won per year, which accounts for about 0.5% of GDP (as of 2007). Considering the five-year plan for green growth to invest 2% of GDP in green growth every year, this would not only reduce the economic burden on households, industries and the country but also increase economic growth potential by reinvesting the saved resources into green growth. Heating and lighting would be the greatest contributor to GHG mitigation of green life in the residential sector. It means we could achieve the national goal by reducing unnecessary heating and lighting and using energy-saving electric home appliances. The implementation of green living actions would reduce a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions, ultimately relieving the burden on businesses to reduce GHG emissions. And it is one of the most cost-effective mitigation tools in order to achieve the mid-term GHG mitigation goal.

Effects of Organic Passivation Films on Properties of Polymer Solar Cells with P3HT:PC61BM Active Layers (유기 패시베이션 박막이 P3HT:PC61BM 활성층을 갖는 고분자 태양전지의 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang Hee;Park, Byung Min;Cho, Yang Keun;Chang, Ho Jung;Jung, Jae Jin;Pyee, Jaeho
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.105-110
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    • 2014
  • It is required to improve the efficiency and the reliability of the polymer solar cells (PSCs) as the energy saving optical device for the future application of the smart farm facilities. In this study, we fabricated the bulk hetero junction PSCs with organic passivation film layer for the reliability improvement of the devices. The effects of the passivation layer on the electrical properties of the PSCs were studied. The materials of passivation layer are composed of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and ammonium dichromate, and the passivation films were fabricated by the spin coating method on the P3HT:$PC_{61}BM$/LiF/Al substrate. The prepared structure of the device is the glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:$PC_{61}BM$/LiF/Al/passivation layer. The performances of the PSCs with the organic passivation film showed better electrical properties compared with the PSCs without passivation layers. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) values of passivated PSCs decreased from 3.0 to 1.3% after air exposure for 140 hrs. In contrast, the PCE values for the devices without passivation decreased sharply from 3.5 to 0.1% under the same exposure condition.

Efficient Cyclization of Substituted Diphenols : Application to the Synthesis of Sulforhodamine B (치환 다이페놀의 효율적 고리화 반응: 설퍼로다민B의 합성에의 응용)

  • Park, Min Kyun;Shim, Jae Jin;Ra, Choon Sup
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 2015
  • Rhodamine dyes are widely used as fluorescent probes because of their excellent photophysical properties, such as high extinction coefficients, excellent quantum yields, great photostability, relatively long emission wavelengths. A great synthetic effort has been focused on developing efficient and practical procedures to prepare rhodamine derivatives, because for most applications the probe must be covalently linked to another (bio)molecule or surface. Sulforhodamine B is one of the most used rhodamine dyes for this purpose, because it carries two sulfoxy functions which can be easily utilized for binding with other molecules. Recently, we needed an expedient, practical synthesis of sulforhodamine derivatives. We found the existing procedure for obtaining those compounds unsatisfactory, particularly, with the cyclization process of the dihydroxytriarylmethane (1) to produce the corresponding xanthene derivative (2). We report here our findings, which represent modification of the existing literature procedure and provide access to the corresponding xanthene derivative (2) in a high yield. Use of methanol as a co-solvent was found quite effective to prohibit the water molecule produced during the cyclization reaction from retro-cyclizing back to the starting dihydroxytriarylmethane and the yield of the cyclization was increased (up to 84% from less than 20%). The reaction temperature was significantly lowered (80 vs. 135 ℃). Thus, the reaction proceeds in a higher yield and energy-saving manner where the use of reactants and the production of chemical wastes is minimized.

Study on characteristics of thin films for reflection of near infrared light (근적외선 반사 박막 특성 연구)

  • Chung, Youn-Gil;Park, Hyun-Sik
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.4121-4124
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    • 2015
  • Near infrared blocking function in energy saving window glass is required. The design, deposition and characteristics of optical thin films for reflection of near-infrared light were studied. The optical thin film is designed as laminated film structure with low refractive index film and high index film. Deposition experiments of $SiO_2$ and $TiO_2$ thin films with designed structure using the RF sputtering method were carried out. The characteristics of the thin film with deposition conditions were analyzed. High-refractive-index thin film of $TiO_2$/low refractive-index thin film of $SiO_2$ and high-refractive-index thin film of $TiO_2$ structure for reflection of near-infrared light was designed to be simulated. Results of simulation showed reflectance of 30% or more in the range from 930nm to 1682nm. Triple layer thin films fabricated with simulated results showed wavelength bands from 930nm to 1525nm for the reflectance of 33% or more.

Trend in Research and Development Related to Motors and Permanent Magnets for Solving Rare-earth Resources Problem (희토류 자원문제 해결을 위한 모터 및 영구자석 연구개발 동향)

  • Lee, J.G.;Yu, J.H.;Kim, H.J.;Jang, T.S.
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.58-65
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    • 2012
  • Since Nd-Fe-B magnet was first synthesized in 1983, many new applications have emerged in the past two decades. With regard to motor market, it will expand because of strong energy saving requirements from the automobile and electric application markets. Especially, permanent magnet motors for hybrid and electric vehicles are drawing great attention and the usage of Nd-Fe-B magnets will increase all the more hereafter. There is, however, a serious problem as motors in such eco-friendly cars are said to operate in high temperatures of about $200^{\circ}C$. Nd-Fe-B magnet has a drawback of dramatically decreasing coercive force with the rise of temperature. In order to improve this aspect. the best way is to add dysprosium (Dy) into the magnet. So, Dy has become an essential element for Nd-Fe-B high-performance magnet as it helps to maintain coercive force even at high temperatures. On the other hand, the rare earth resources in the earth crust are eccentrically-located and its majority is produced in China. There is a need to reduce its usage as, especially compared to light rare earth elements as neodymium (Nd) and samarium (Sm), heavy rare earth elements including Dy are unevenly distributed to a dramatic degree, their output low, and their prices are about 10 times that of Nd. The present article includes a summary of the trend in research and development of motors and permanent magnets to solve rare-earth resources problem.

A Study on the Physical Properties of Interlocking Block with the Contents of the Recycled Aggregate (순환골재 혼합비율에 따른 인터로킹 블록의 물리적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Chan-Soo;Song, Tae-Hyeob;Yoon, Sang-Hyuck
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2012
  • Recycled aggregates are made from construction wastes, and they have many national and social benefits by saving energy, developing substitute resources, and protecting environment. However, low-quality recycled aggregate with low density and high absorption rate cannot be used for structural concrete aggregate but is used mainly for low added value. Therefore, this study aims to identify the characteristics of the materials of recycled aggregates made after crashing and pulverizing waste concrete. For this, their major physical characteristics of cement content, absolute dry density, absorption rate, etc. were reviewed to make a mix design (draft) for the production of the secondary product and performance evaluation was done on the bending strength, absorption rate, bending strength after freezing and thawing, compressive strength, air-dried gravity, etc. of the test products produced by applying the mix design to compare the results with the quality standards of GR mark. The results of the tests showed that the substitution rate of recycled aggregate increased to 50~90 %, which is of superior quality than the performance standards of GR F 4007. Therefore, it is thought that they can be used for various construction works with certain physical characteristics applicable to the production of secondary concrete products using recycled aggregates.

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Recent Developments and Field Application of Foreign Waterworks Automatic Meter Reading (국외 상수도 원격검침시스템의 개발 동향 및 현장 적용 사례 고찰)

  • Joo, Jin Chul;Ahn, Hosang;Ahn, Chang Hyuk;Ko, Kyung-Rok;Oh, Hyun-Je
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.34 no.12
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    • pp.863-870
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    • 2012
  • The market trends of automatic meter reading associated with smart water meters were investigated. Also, recent developments and field applications of key technology for automatic meter reading associated with smart water meters were analyzed. Smart water meters have been manufactured mostly in United States and Europe and have been expanded their business to Asia. Integrated water management system combining with the additional functions such as real-time consumption metering, cost notification, water conservation, leak detection, water quality monitoring, and flow control have been operated in automatic meter reading. Both water quality and quantity data measured from smart water meters and sensors were transferred to data concentration units through neighborhood area network, and then were transferred to integrated server through wide area network. The data transfer methods were determined by comprehensively considering urban scale, density of smart water meters, power supply and network topologies. Common data collection methods such as fixed network to data concentation units, vehicles drive by, people walk by, and drone fly by have been applied. The automatic meter reading associated with smart water meters are spread throughout the world, and both water and energy savings result in saving the money and reducing the greenhouse gases emission.

A Robust Continuous Object Tracking Protocol Using Chained Selective Wakeup Strategy in Wireless Sensor Networks (무선 센서 네트워크에서 연결된 선택적 활성화 기법을 사용하는 강건한 연속 객체 추적 프로토콜)

  • Hong, Hyungseop;Kim, Sang-Ha
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.38B no.1
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    • pp.72-79
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    • 2013
  • In wireless sensor networks, the selective wakeup scheme is one of the energy saving mechanisms, that is used for an object detecting or tracking. Recently, many protocols are proposed using the selective wakeup scheme for the continuous objects tracking such as forest fires and poison gas. They predict the future shape of continuous objects and activate only sensors in the predicted boundary area of the objects. It works correctly in a uniformly deployed wireless sensor networks. However, it cannot be directly applied to a randomly deployed sensor networks with voids. When the predicted area is in the void area, the activation message cannot reach and the predicted area cannot be activated at the right time. It leads to many detection errors for continuous object. Moreover, if a sensor is once foiled in a activation control then the next activation control might be continuously failed. The detection errors can be result in serious harm to people. In this paper, we propose a chaining selective wakeup scheme for robust continuous object tracking in wireless sensor networks. In our protocol, we collect the information of a void area during the network configuration time; if the next boundary area is in the void area, we activate the chained area surrounding the void area with activation control message.

A Study of the Diagnosis of Downtown Deterioration in Busan (부산시 도심 노후화 진단에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon, Il-Hwa;Nam, Kwang-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.39-53
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    • 2013
  • Although the efficient formation of urban space structure is a key factor in energy saving and environmentally-friendly aspect, the maintenance of the center and sub-center of the city that are key factors has been becoming increasingly difficult due to the variability and complexity of urban activities. In the case of Busan, amid the expansion of urban scale due to rapid economic development and overpopulation, systematic approaches to professional diagnosis and maintenance have been significantly insufficient - other than the city basic plan which has been conducted at an interval of 20 years. For the effective management of urban central area, systematic monitoring of the CBD through demand forecast and blight forecast at a city level must first be implemented. In order to fulfill this goal, this study is to figure out the current state of the CBD through the diagnosis on blight of the urban central area in the viewpoint of rehabilitation of the CBD and to propose the measures for practical utilization of the information about space for the further management of the central area of the city. For analysis, the study looks into the present state in terms of physical index, economic index, and social index. And then as a micro-approach by utilizing economic index, the study has thoroughly examined the economic blight of the Seomyun urban central area of Busan. The outcome of the analysis shows that in terms of population distribution and land utilization the area is in the stage of inefficient dispersion after having gone through the stage of suburbanization. It is expected that this study, as the material that proves the necessity of enhancing the function of the CBD, can propose the direction for the management of the urban center of Busan through blight prediction and management of the urban center and can provide the basic data for the long-term urban development that aims at the efficient strengthening of functions of the CBD.