• Title, Summary, Keyword: Energy Values

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Using Chemical and Biological Approaches to Predict Energy Values of Selected Forages Affected by Variety and Maturity Stage: Comparison of Three Approaches

  • Yu, P.;Christensen, D.A.;McKinnon, J.J.;Soita, H.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.228-236
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    • 2004
  • Two varieties of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L cv. Pioneer and Beaver) and timothy (Phleum pratense L cv. Climax and Joliette), grown at different locations in Saskatchewan (Canada), were cut at three stages [1=one week before commercial cut (early bud for alfalfa; joint for timothy); 2=at commercial cut (late bud for alfalfa; pre-bloom head for timothy); 3=one week after commercial cut (early bloom for alfalfa; full head for timothy)]. The energy values of forages were determined using three approaches, including chemical (NRC 2001 formula) and biological approaches (standard in vitro and in situ assay). The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of forage variety and stage of maturity on energy values under the climate conditions of western Canada, and to investigate relationship between chemical (NRC 2001 formula) approach and biological approaches (in vitro and in situ assay) on prediction of energy values. The results showed that, in general, forage species (alfalfa vs. timothy) and cutting stage had profound impacts, but the varieties within each species (Pioneer vs. Beaver in alfalfa; Climax vs. Joliette in timothy) had minimal effects on energy values. As forage maturity increased, the energy contents behaved in a quadratic fashion, increasing at stage 2 and then significantly decreasing at stage 3. However, the prediction methods-chemical approach (NRC 2001 formula) and biological approaches (in vitro and in situ assay) had great influences on energy values. The highest predicted energy values were found by using the in situ approach, the lowest prediction value by using the NRC 2001 formula, and the intermediate values by the in vitro approach. The in situ results may be most accurate because it is closest to simulate animal condition. The energy values measured by biological approaches are not predictable by the chemical approach in this study, indicating that a refinement is needed in accurately predicting energy values.

A Study on the Correlation between Pulse Energy and Sasang Constitutional Syndromes (맥 Energy와 사상체질병증의 연계 연구)

  • Kim, Dal-Rae;Kim, Sun-Hyung
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.26-39
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    • 2009
  • Objectives: Pulse energy values recorded with an add-pres sure-type pulse apparatus were correlated with Sasang constitutional syndromes in order to match pulse energy values with Sasang prescriptions. Methods: The pulse energy values were measured with Daeyo Pulse Apparatus at the Gwan pulse point of both wrists. Prescriptions were divided into two major categories of interior syndromes or exterior syndromes, and categorized according to major component herbs specific to each of the four Sasang constitutions, and the relationship between the pulse energy and each groups divided by their prescription was studied. Results: About 10% of all people had nonmal pulse energy values. 10% had values over normal range, and $70\sim80%$ had lower values than normal. The normal range of pulse energy was regarded as being between 450 and 700. Conclusions: 1. For patients of the Soeum constitution, prescriptions without Panax ginseng is suitable for patients with high pulse energy, and prescriptions containing Panax ginseng are suitable for patients who have lower pulse energy. 2. All prescriptions for the Soyang constitution containing Rehmannia radix preparata or Comus officinalis are suitable for patients who have lower pulse energy, and prescriptions containing Rehmannia radix or Gypsum fibrosum are applicable to patients with pulse energy values higher than normal. 3. Most prescriptions for the Taeum constitution containing Semen coicis or Semen castaneae are suitable for patients with lower pulse energy, and prescriptions containing Radix puerariae or Radix et rhizoma rhei can be prescribed for patients who have lower pulse energy levels. 4. The Taeyang constitutional prescription Ogapijangcuck-tang is suitable for patients who have higher pulse energy levels and Mihudeungsikjang-tang is better for patients with lower than normal pulse values. As described above, the pulse energy level of each patient can be matched with a specific Sasang constitutional prescription. If this relationship is taken into consideration with other conventional symptoms, it can be helpful in diagnosis, improving efficacy of treatment, and be used as objective evidence.

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Feed Energy Evaluation for Growing Pigs

  • Kil, D.Y.;Kim, B.G.;Stein, H.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.9
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    • pp.1205-1217
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    • 2013
  • Pigs require energy for maintenance and productive purposes, and an accurate amount of available energy in feeds should be provided according to their energy requirement. Available energy in feeds for pigs has been characterized as DE, ME, or NE by considering sequential energy losses during digestion and metabolism from GE in feeds. Among these energy values, the NE system has been recognized as providing energy values of ingredients and diets that most closely describes the available energy to animals because it takes the heat increment from digestive utilization and metabolism of feeds into account. However, NE values for diets and individual ingredients are moving targets, and therefore, none of the NE systems are able to accurately predict truly available energy in feeds. The DE or ME values for feeds are important for predicting NE values, but depend on the growth stage of pigs (i.e., BW) due to the different abilities of nutrient digestion, especially for dietary fiber. The NE values are also influenced by both environment that affects NE requirement for maintenance ($NE_m$) and the growth stage of pigs that differs in nutrient utilization (i.e., protein vs. lipid synthesis) in the body. Therefore, the interaction among animals, environment, and feed characteristics should be taken into consideration for advancing feed energy evaluation. A more mechanistic approach has been adopted in Denmark as potential physiological energy (PPE) for feeds, which is based on the theoretical biochemical utilization of energy in feeds for pigs. The PPE values are, therefore, believed to be independent of animals and environment. This review provides an overview over current knowledge on energy utilization and energy evaluation systems in feeds for growing pigs.

A Study on Estimation of Metabolizable Energy Content in Cereal (주요곡물의 에너지 함량 평가에 관한 연구)

  • 김은미
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.50-58
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    • 1996
  • This study was undertaken to determined the metabolizable energy of cereal by the different method. Raw or cooked cereal foods were freeze-dried and fed to Sprague Dawley rat with 200-300g body weight to measure apparent metabolizable energy(AME) values and nitrogen-corrected AME(AMEn) values for four days after three days of preliminary period for adaptation to the diets. The AME values of Karaeddok, raw rice, cooked rice, raw brown rice, raw glutinous rice, cooked glutinous rice, raw barley and cooked barley applerared 4516.1, 3380.6, 4072.2, 3457.0, 4448.0, 2929.4 and 3780.2kcal/kg dry matter, respectively. The AMEn values of karaeddok, raw rice, cooked rice, raw brown rice, cooked brown rice, raw glutinous rice, cooked glutinous rice, raw barley and cooked barley appeared 4421.5, 3349.6, 4160.0, 3918.7, 4039.3, 3572.0, 4552.5, 3009.9 and 3873.4kcal/kg dry matter, respectively. A slight difference was observed when the AME values of the cereals measured in present study were compared with the energy values calculated by various conversion parameters such as Atwater's, Rubner's, Sochun's adn FAO's, indicating that the latter energy values by all conversion factors are acceptabel for several cereals.

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Life cycle analysis on correlation relationship between GHG emission and cost of electricity generation system for energy resources (전과정을 고려한 에너지 자원별 전력생산의 온실가스 배출량과 비용의 상관관계 분석)

  • Kim, Heetae;Ahn, Tae Kyu
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.136.2-136.2
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    • 2011
  • In this work, we analyzed correlations between life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and life-cycle cost of energy resources. Energy resources studied in this paper include coal, natural gas, nuclear power, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind power, solar thermal energy, and solar photovoltaic energy, and all of them are used to generate electricity. We calculated the mean values, ranges of maximum minus minimum values, and ranges of 90% confidence interval of life-cycle GHG emissions and life-cycle cost of each energy resource. Based on the values, we plotted them in two dimensional graphs to analyze a relationship and characteristics between GHG emissions and cost. Besides, to analyze the technical maturity, the GHG emissions and the range of minimum and maximum values were compared to each other. For the electric generation, energy resources are largely inverse proportional to the GHG emission and the corresponding cost.

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Development of In vitro Technique for Bioavailable Corn Energy Value

  • Kim, I.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1645-1646
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    • 2001
  • The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro digestion technique to estimate bioavailable energy values of different corn hybrids in swine and poultry. A total of 21 samples were investigated; 18 normal corn (NC) and 3 high-oil corn (HOC) hybrids. One step-two enzymes digestion system was introduced to develop the in vitro technique. The gross energy (GE) values of NC hybrids were correlated with the in vitro disappearing energy values (IVE; r=0.85, p<0.01), the in vitro energy digestibilities (IVED; r=0.70, p<0.01), and the in vitro DM digestibilities (IVDM; r=0.55, p<0.05). It appears, however, that IVE values of NC and HOC hybrids were not significantly different according to the one step-two enzyme digestion system. Results of in vivo and in vitro estimates suggested that there was no significant correlation between them in poultry. The IVE value was regressed linearly with ME and DE values in swine with low regression coefficient (34 and 41%, respectively).

Factors Affecting True Metabolizable Energy Determination of Poultry Feedingstuffs V. The Effect of Levels of Metabolizable Energy of Basal Diets on the Apparent Metabolizable Energy and True Metabolizable Energy Values of Corn and Soybean Meal (양계사료의 True Metabolizable Energy측정에 영향하는 요인에 관한 시험 V. 기초사료의 에너지수준이 옥수수와 대두박의 Apparent Metabolizable Energy 및 True Metabolizable Energy가에 미치는 영향)

  • 이영철
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.109-114
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    • 1984
  • The experiment was made to study the effect of levels of metabolizable energy of basal diets on apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) values of corn and soybean meals. The test materials, corn and soybean meals, were substituted with basal diet at 50% and 30%, respectively. The excreta of fed md unfed birds were collected for 30 hours. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The AME values of corn were not significantly different among treatments (P>0.05) except for 2400 Kcal/13% treatment, The AME values of soybean meals differed significantly between 2,400 Kcal/13% and 2,800 Kcal/15% or 3,000 Kcal/16%, but were not different between 2,400 Kcal/13% and 2,600 Kcal/14 % (probability at 5% level). 2. The energy levels of basal diets did not affect the AME values of corn and soybean meals (P>0.05) except 2,400 Kcal/13% treatment. This fact indicates that it is not necessary to change energy levels of basal diet according to test materials. 3. That the values of standard error of soybean meals were higher than those of corn was resulted from its low level of substitution with basal diet. 4. The TME values of corn showed significant differences (P<0.05) between 2,400Kcal/13% treatment and other treatments but those of soybean meals were not different among all treatments (P>0.05). 5. The reason that the AME values of corn and soybean meals and the TME values of corn reduced significantly in 2,400 Kcal/13% could be explained by the effect of interaction among ingredients in the diet.

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Study on the method for calculating of optimal passive elements values in Maximum Solar Energy Tracking System (Maximum Solar Energy Tracking System에서의 최적정수산정에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang, Young-Moon;Baek, Byung-San;Sung, Baek-Joo
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.425-429
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    • 1990
  • In order to spread the practical utilization of solar energy, it depends upon how we can increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion system. This paper describes the method for calculating of optimal passive elements values in Maximum Solar Energy Tracking System. And experimental results with those calculated values are presented.

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Relationship between Conformational Preferences and Torsional Parameters in Molecular Mechanics (MM3) Calculations

  • 조수경;박규순
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.143-149
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    • 1997
  • We have investigated a relationship between conformational preferences of various substituents in monosubstituted cyclohexanes and pertinent torsional parameter values in molecular mechanics calculations. We have manipulated torsional parameters to supply a certain energy difference between gauche and anti conformers, and applied those parameters to monosubstituted cyclohexanes. After investigating 6 different substituents, namely Me, SiH3, F, Cl, Br, and I, MM3 calculations show that (1) the MM3 calculated A values with the current torsional parameters reproduce the available experimental values well, (2) the conformational energy difference between axial and equatorial conformations (the A value) correlates perfectly with the gauche/anti energy differences of the corresponding butane-like fragment (correlation coefficient=l.000), and (3) the A values are essentially twice as the gauche/anti energy differences (slopes=1.86-2.00). On the basis of our analysis, the A values as well as the gauche/anti energy differences are easily calibrated by an adjustment of the relevant torsional parameter. Thus, our technique for tuning the torsional parameters may be of great use in updating molecular mechanics results about conformational preferences whenever a further refinement is necessary.

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A study on estimation of metabolizable energy content in starch-foods and seaweeds (주요 당류 및 해조류의 대사 에너지 함량 평가에 관한 연구)

  • 김은미
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.251-259
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    • 1996
  • The validity of the energy data of the starch-foods and seaweeds in Korean food composition tables has been suspected due to possible differences in their chemical compositions from those of western food ingredients. Energy conversion parameters being used currently in nutrition has been derived in countries where food items re quite different from ours. This study was undertaken to determine the metabolizable energy of starch-foods and seaweeds by the method selected in preexperiment20). Cooked starch foods and seaweeds were freeze-dried and fed to Sprague Dawley rat with 200∼300g body weight to measure apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values and nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEn) values for four days after three days of preliminary period for adaptation to the diets. The AME and AMEn values of the wheat noodle were 4554.6, 4584.7, the Starch Vermicelli, 3763.4, 3855.7, the Ra myon, 4916.9, 4876.0, the Buckwheat noodle, 4469.7, 4442.0kcal/kg dry matter, the Potato, 4514.6, 4520.0 and those of the Bread, 3256.9, 3582.6, 3260.5, kcal/kg dry matter, respectively. Those of Sea tangle were 1437.3, 1631.3 and of Laver, 3126.6, 3171.3kcal/kg dry matter, resectively. When the AME values of the starch-foods and seaweeds measureed in present study were compared with energy values calculated by various conversion parameters such as Atwater's Rubner's, Sochun's and FAO's, there appeared dramatic differences indicating that for many of the food items, the latter energy values by conversion factors are hardly acceptable. These data also suggest that the existing energy conversion factors are not applicable to seaweeds and a further study is needed to obtain specific factors for the conversion to biological energy from the chemical composition of seaweeds.

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