• Title, Summary, Keyword: Endometrial cancer

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Relations of Platelet Indices with Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Cancer

  • Karateke, Atilla;Kaplanoglu, Mustafa;Baloglu, Ali
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.4905-4908
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    • 2015
  • Background: Platelets are blood elements thought to play a role in the immune system and therefore tumor development and metastasis. Platelet activation parameters such as mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and plateletcrit (PCT) can be easily evaluated with the whole blood count and have been studied as markers of systemic inflammatory responses in various cancer types. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the correlation between endometrial pathologies and MPV, PDW and PCT. Materials and Methods: A total of 194 patients who presented to our clinic with abnormal vaginal bleeding were included in our study. The patients were divided into 3 groups (endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer, control) according to their pathology results. The groups were compared for MPV, PDW, and PCT values obtained from the blood samples taken on endometrial biopsy day. Results: The endometrial cancer patients were the oldest group (p=0.04). There was no significant difference between the three groups in terms of white blood cell count (WBC), platelet count (PC), and hemoglobin (Hb) level. The highest MPV (p<0.001), PDW (p=0.002), and PCT (p<0.001) levels were in the endometrial cancer group, and the lowest levels were in the control group. Conclusions: The easy evaluation of platelet parameters in patients who are suspected of having endometrial pathology is a significant advantage. We found MPV, PDW, and PCT to be correlated with the severity of endometrial pathology with the highest values in endometrial cancer. Studies to be conducted together with different laboratory parameters will further help evaluate the diagnosis and severity of endometrial cancer and precursor lesions.

No Effect of Energy Intake Overall on Risk of Endometrial Cancers: a Meta-analysis

  • Chu, Ke-Tan;Song, Yang;Zhou, Jian-Hong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10293-10298
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    • 2015
  • Background: Previous epidemiologic studies on the association between energy intake and endometrial cancer risk have only generated contradictory results. The role of energy intake in endometrial carcinogenesis thus remains unclear. To quantitatively assess the potential association between energy intake and endometrial cancer, a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies was here conducted. Materials and Methods: Eligible studies were retrieved via both computerized searches and review of references. Fixed-or random-effect models were used to summarize the estimates of OR with 95%CIs. Stratified analyses on study design, region and macronutrients' calorie were performed. Results: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria of the meta-analysis. No association between total energy intake and endometrial cancer was observed in either overall group (OR=1.11, 95%CI 0.92-1.30) or subgroups stratified by study design and region. In the specific macronutrients' calorie analysis, higher fat energy intake was found to be associated with increased endometrial risk (OR=1.72, 95%CI 1.12-2.32) while energy from carbohydrate and protein was not related to endometrial cancer risk. Conclusions: Our analysis did not support that total energy intake is related to endometrial cancer risk, in contrast to fat energy.

Which Endometrial Pathologies Need Intraoperative Frozen Sections?

  • Balik, Gulsah;Kagitci, Mehmet;Ustuner, Isik;Akpinar, Funda;Guven, Emine Seda Guvendag
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.6121-6125
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    • 2013
  • Background: Endometrial cancers are the most common gynecologic cancers. Endometrial sampling is a preferred procedure for diagnosis of the endometrial pathology. It is performed routinely in many clinics prior to surgery in order to exclude an endometrial malignancy. We aimed to investigate the accuracy of endometrial sampling in the diagnosis of endometrial pathologies and which findings need intra-operative frozen sections. Materials and Methods: Three hundred nine women applying to a university hospital and undergoing endometrial sampling and hysterectomy between 2010 and 2012 were included to this retrospective study. Data were retrieved from patient files and pathology archives. Results: There was 17 patients with malignancy but endometrial sampling could detect this in only 10 of them. The endometrial sampling sensitivity and specificity of detecting cancer were 58.8% and 100%, with negative and positive predictive values of 97.6%, and 100%, respectively. In 7 patients, the endometrial sampling failed to detect malignancy; 4 of these patients had a preoperative diagnosis of complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia and 2 patients had a post-menopausal endometrial polyps and 1 with simple endometrial hyperplasia. Conclusions: There is an increased risk of malignancy in post-menopausal women especially with endometrial polyps and complex atypia hyperplasia. Endometrial sampling is a good choice for the diagnosis of endometrial pathologies. However, the diagnosis should be confirmed by frozen section in patients with post-menopausal endometrial polyps and complex atypia hyperplasia.

Overexpression of Platelet-derived Growth Factor-D as a Poor Prognosticator in Endometrial Cancer

  • Ding, Jie;Li, Xiao-Mao;Liu, Sui-Ling;Zhang, Yu;Li, Tian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3741-3745
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    • 2014
  • Background: Emerging evidence implicates the platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) in many types of human solid tumors. We investigated whether PDGF-D plays an important role in endometrial cancer (EC) in relation to clinicopathologic phenotype, angiogenesis, and patient prognosis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed PDGF-D protein expression by Western blotting in twenty-seven human endometrial cancer tissues, and matched normal endometrial controls collected at the third Affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University during 2012-2013 (n=27). Immunohistochemical staining was performed using a human PDGF-D antibody on the endometrial cancer patients collected in the same facility during January 2001 and October 2013 (n=152). Patients were followed from the time of primary surgery in 2001-2013 until death or last follow-up. We correlated the PDGF-D expression levels with clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis in human endometrial cancer patients. Results: Compared with matched normal endometrial cases, PDGF-D was up-regulated in endometrial cancer. Expression of PDGF-D protein, found in 78% of the cases, was associated with nonendometrioid histologic type (p=0.028), FIGO stage III/IV (p=0.039), >50% solid tumor growth (p=0.048), pelvic LN metastasis (p=0.035) and ER and PR negativity (p=0.04 and 0.002). PDGF-D expression was also significantly associated with expression of VEGF-A (p=0.021). In multivariate analysis, PDGF-D expression proved to be an independent prognostic factor in addition to histologic grade and FIGO stage. Patients with high expression levels of PDGF-D had a significantly poorer overall survival rate compared with patients with no expression. Conclusions: PDGF-D expression is frequently up-regulated in endometrial cancer, and is associated with aggressive features and poor prognosis.

Risk Factors for Endometrial Cancer: Results from a Hospital-Based Case-Control Study

  • Andarieh, Maryam Ghanbari;Delavar, Mouloud Agajani;Moslemi, Dariush;Esmaeilzadeh, Sedighe
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.4791-4796
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association between endometrial cancer and possible etiological agents. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Iran between March 2012 and May 2016. The demographic and reproductive factors of 205 women with endometrial cancer were compared, and 590 healthy cases were participated in the control group. For each endometrial cancer case, there were three controls, who were matched in terms of age and residence. The data were considered significant at $p{\leq}0.05$. Results: After adjusting the variables, the nulliparity (OR 6.23, 95% CI 2.86-13.59), the nulligravidity (OR 5.94, 95% CI 2.51-14.06), the positive family history of reproductive cancer (OR 4.97, 95% CI 2.33-10.59), the infertility history (OR 2.38, 95%CI 1.32-4.31), the obesity ($BMI{\geq}25$) (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.16-2.52), the early menarche age (<12 years) (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.17-3.75), and the hormonal contraception use (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.15-2.49) were found to be associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Nevertheless, the education level, the job of women, the marital age, the leisure activities, and the breast feeding were not found to be associated with the endometrial cancer after adjusting the variables. Conclusion: Scheduling of the screening program is vitally indispensable to identify endometrial cancer in women with nulliparity, nulligravidity and the positive family history of cancer. In addition, women with early menarche, those with the history of infertility, the obese ones, and those who use contraception pills need to be particularly aware of the potential risks.

Accuracy of Frozen Sections for Intraoperative Diagnosis of Complex Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia

  • Turan, Taner;Karadag, Burak;Karabuk, Emine;Tulunay, Gokhan;Ozgul, Nejat;Gultekin, Murat;Boran, Nurettin;Isikdogan, Zuhal;Kose, Mehmet Faruk
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.1953-1956
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    • 2012
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to correlate the histological diagnosis made during intraoperative frozen section (FS) examination of hysterectomy samples with complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia (CAEH) diagnosed with definitive paraffin block histology. Methods: FS pathology results of 125 patients with a preoperative biopsy showing CAEH were compared retrospectively with paraffin block pathology findings. Results: Paraffin block results were consistent with FS in 78 of 125 patients (62.4%). The FS sensitivity and specificity of detecting cancer were 81.1% and 97.9%, with negative and positive predictive values of 76.7%, and 98.4%, respectively. Paraffin block results were reported as endometrial cancer in 77 of 125 (61.6%) patients. Final pathology was endometrial cancer in 45.3% patients diagnosed at our center and 76.9% for patients who had their diagnosis at other clinics (p=0.018). Paraffin block results were consistent with FS in 62.4% of all cases Consistence was 98.4% in patients who had endometrial cancer in FS. Conclusion: FS does not exclude the possibility of endometrial cancer in patients with the preoperative diagnosis of CAEH. In addition, sufficient endometrial sampling is important for an accurate diagnosis.

Two Cases of Endometrial Cancer Treated with Palliative Herbal Medication Hangam-dan (HAD)

  • Yoo, Hwa-Seung;Kim, Seung-Hyun;Lee, Yeon-Weol;Cho, Chong-Kwan;Lee, Keun-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.176-180
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    • 2007
  • Background : Advanced-stage endometrial cancer patients show a poor prognosis because of limited success from surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Recently, the uses of complimentary and alternative medicines have gained popularity for these patients. Cases : The first case is a 46-year-old patient with FIGO stage IVb endometrial cancer who had distant metastasis on her supraclavicular LNs area; the second, a 72-year-old stage Ib patient who could not be treated with surgery or chemotherapy because of chronic heart disease and her refusal of radiation therapy due to her advanced age. They remain alive and in stable condition under a strict traditional herbal medicine regiment 41 and 52 months, respectively, after diagnosis. Conclusion : We present two cases of endometrial cancer patients who desire to be treated by traditional herbal medication with no further development.

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Does HBV Infection Increase Risk of Endometrial Carcinoma?

  • Jiang, Xue-Feng;Tang, Qiong-Lan;Zou, Yuan;Xu, Ling;Zeng, Hua;Chi, Cong;Jiang, Jing-Ru;Zhang, Bin-Zhong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.713-716
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    • 2014
  • Objective: Connections between chronic inflammation and tumor development and progression are now generally accepted. Recent evidence indicates that hepatitis B is associated with several types of cancer, but whether endometrial carcinoma (EC) is included has not been reported. Methods: We analyzed HBV serum marker status in 398 patients with endometrial cancer, comparing them to 788 control women undergoing health examination. Results: The total prevalence of HBsAg tested positive in cancer group was significantly higher than the control group (12.8% vs 6.0%, P=0.001), while positive HBsAb was significantly lower (41.2% vs 68.5%, P=0.001). Hepatitis B carriers in endometrial cancer group were also more frequent than in the control group (9.3% vs 5.5%, P=0.013). Interestingly, in the endometrial cancer group, 147 cases were HBV serum marker negative, which was also higher than in the control group (36.9% vs 15.6%, P=0.001). Conclusion: There may be a correlation between HBV infection and endometrial carcinoma.

Evaluation of Hemoglobin A1c Levels in Endometrial Cancer Patients: a Retrospective Study in Turkey

  • Karaman, Erbil;Karaman, Yasemin;Numanoglu, Ceyhun;Ark, Hasan Cemal
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1817-1820
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    • 2015
  • Background: Hemoglobin A1c(HgA1c) is a marker of poor gylcemic control and elevation HgA1c is associated with increased risk of many cancers. We aimed to determine the HgA1c levels in endometrial cancer cases and any relationship with stage and grade of disease. Materials and Methods: A retrospective data review was performed between June 2011 and October 2012 at a tertiary referral center in Turkey. The study included 35 surgically staged endometrial cancer patients and 40 healthy controls. Preoperative HgA1c levels drawn within 3 months before surgery were compared. Also the relationships between HgA1c levels and stage, grade and hystologic type of cancer cases were evaluated. Results: The mean HgA1c levels were statistically significantly higher at $6.19{\pm}1.44$ in endometrial cancer cases than the $5.61{\pm}0.58$ in controls (p=0.027). With endometrial cancer cases, the mean HgA1c level was found to be $6.62{\pm}1.40$ for stage I and $6.88{\pm}1.15$ for stages II-IV (p=0.07). The figures were $6.74{\pm}1.65$ for endometrioid and $6.63{\pm}1.41$ for non-endometrioid type tumors (p=0.56). Mean HgA1c levels of $6.72{\pm}1.14$ for grade 1 and $6.62{\pm}1.42$ for grade 2-3 were observed (p=0.57). Conclusions: HgA1c levels in endometrial cancer patients were statistically higher than healthy controls. However, HgA1c did not show any significant correlation with stage, grade and histologic type in endometrial cancer cases.

Endometrial Cancer in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia

  • Wan-Nor-Asyikeen, Wan Adnan;Siti-Azrin, Ab Hamid;Jalil, Nur Asyilla Che;Othman, Nor Hayati;Zain, Anani Aila Mat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2867-2870
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    • 2016
  • Background: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy among females worldwide, approximately 320,000 women being diagnosed with the disease each year and 76,000 dying. To date, there is limited knowledge of endometrial cancer in Malaysia. Objectives: To identify the epidemiological profile and prognostic factors of survival. Materials and Methods: A list of endometrial cancer patients in 2000-2011 was obtained from the hospital Record Department. Only cases confirmed by histopathology examination were included. We excluded those with incomplete medical records or referral cases. Simple and multiple Cox regression approaches were used for data analysis. Results: Only 108 cases were included with a mean (SD) age of 62.7 (12.3) years, with 87.0% Malay ethnicity. Grade of cancer was: 29.1% grade 1, 43.7% grade 2 and 27.2% grade 3. The majority of patients had non-endometrioid type (60.2%), with myometrial invasion (82.2%) and lymphovascular invasion (57.3%). The significant prognostic factors were age (HR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.08, p=0.002) and having lymphovascular invasion (HR 2.15; 95% CI: 1.08, 4.29; p=0.030). Conclusions: Endometrial cancer patients should be diagnosed earlier to reduce the risk of mortality. The public should be given education on the signs and symptoms of the disease.