• Title, Summary, Keyword: Emotion Category

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Exploratory Understanding of the Uncanny Valley Phenomena Based on Event-Related Potential Measurement (사건관련전위 관찰에 기초한 언캐니 밸리 현상에 대한 탐색적 이해)

  • Kim, Dae-Gyu;Kim, Hye-Yun;Kim, Giyeon;Jang, Phil-Sik;Jung, Woo Hyun;Hyun, Joo-Seok
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.95-110
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    • 2016
  • Uncanny valley refers to the condition where the affinity of a human-like object decreases dramatically if the object becomes extremely similar to human, and has been hypothesized to derive from the cognitive load of categorical conflict against an uncanny object. According to the hypothesis, the present study ran an oddball task consisting of trials each displaying one among a non-human, human and uncanny face, and measured event-related potentials (ERPs) for each trial condition. In Experiment 1, a non-human face was presented in 80% of the trials (standard) whereas a human face for another 10% trials (target) and an uncanny face for the remaining 10% trials (uncanny). Participants' responses were relatively inaccurate and delayed in both the target and uncanny oddball trials, but neither P3 nor N170 component differed across the three trial conditions. Experiment 2 used 3-D rendered realistic faces to increase the degree of categorical conflict, and found the behavioral results were similar to Experiment 1. However, the peak amplitude of N170 of the target and uncanny trials were higher than the standard trials while P3 mean amplitudes for both the target and uncanny trials were comparable but higher than the amplitude for the standard trials. P3 latencies were delayed in the order of the standard, target, and uncanny trials. The changes in N170 and P3 patterns across the experiments appear to arise from the categorical conflict that the uncanny face must be categorized as a non-target according to the oddball-task requirement despite its perceived category of a human face. The observed increase of cognitive load following the added reality to the uncanny face also indicates that the cognitive load, supposedly responsible for the uncanny experience, would depend on the increase of categorical conflict information subsequent to added stimulus complexity.

The Effect of Users' Personality on Emotional and Cognitive Evaluation in UCC Web Site Usage (UCC(user-created-contents) 웹 사이트에서 사용자의 인성이 감정적, 인지적 평가와 UCC 활용에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Yun-Ji;Kang, So-Ra;Kim, Woo-Gon
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.167-190
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    • 2010
  • The research conducted here focuses on the effect of factors that affect the behavior of UCC (User Created Content) website users, other than user's rational recognition of how useful a UCC website can be. Most discussions in the existing literature on information systems have focused on users' evaluation how a UCC website can help to attain the users' own goals. However, there are other factors and this research pays attention to an individual's 'personality,' which is stable and biological in nature. Specifically, I have noted here that 'extroversion' and 'neuroticism,' the two common personality factors presented in Eysenck's most representative 'EPQ Model' and 'Big Five Model,' are the two personality factors that affect a site's 'usefulness,' by this I mean how useful does the user consider the website and its content. How useful a site is considered by the user is the other factor that has been regarded as the antecedent factor that influences the adoption of information systems in the existing MIS (Management Information System) research. Secondly, as using or creating a UCC website does not guarantee the user's or the creator's extrinsic motivation, unlike when using the information system within an organization, there is a greater likelihood that the increase in user's activities in relation to a UCC website is motivated by emotional factors rather than rational factors. Thus, I have decided to include the relationship between an individual's personality and what they find pleasurable in the research model. Thirdly, when based on the S-O-R Paradigm of Mehrabian and Russell, the two cognitive factors and emotional factors are finally affected by stimulus, and thus these factors ultimately have an effect on an individual's respondent behavior. Therefore, this research has presented an assumption that the recognition of how useful the site and content is and what emotional pleasure it provides will finally affect the behavior of the UCC website users. Finally, the relationship between the recognition of how useful a site is and how pleasurable it is to useand UCC usage may differ depending on certain situational conditions. In other words, the relationship between the three factors may vary according to how much users are involved in the creation of the website content. Creation thus emerges as the keyword of UCC. I analyzed the above relationships through the moderating variable of the user's involvement in the creation of the site. The research result shows the following: When it comes to the relationship between an individual's personality and what they find pleasurable it is extroverted users who have a greater likelihood to feel pleasure when using a UCC website, as was expected in this research. This in turn leads to a more active usage of the UCC web site because a person who is an extrovert likes to spend time on activities with other people, is sensitive to new experiences and stimuli and thus actively responds to these. An extroverted person accepts new UCC activities as part of his/her social life, rather than getting away from this new UCC environment. This is represented by the term 'Foxonomy' where the users meet a variety of users from all over the world and contact new types of content created by these users. However, neuroticism creates the opposite situation to that created by extroversion. The representative symptoms of neuroticism are instability, stress, and tension. These dispositions are more closely related to stress caused by a new environment rather than this creatingcuriosity or pleasure. Thus, neurotic persons have an uneasy feeling and will eventually avoid the situation where their own or others' daily lives are frequently exposed to the open web environment, this eventually makes them have a negative attitude towards the web environment. When it comes to an individual's personality and how useful site is, the two personality factors of extroversion and neuroticism both have a positive relationship with the recognition of how useful the site and its content is. The positive, curious, and social dispositions of extroverted persons tend to make them consider the future usefulness and possibilities of a new type of information system, or website, based on their positive attitude, which has a significant influence on the recognition of how useful these UCC sites are. Neuroticism also favorably affects how useful a UCC website can be through a different mechanism from that of extroversion. As the neurotic persons tend to feel uneasy and have much doubt about a new type of information system, they actively explore its usefulness in order to relieve their uncomfortable feelings. In other words, neurotic persons seek out how useful a site can be in order to secure their own stable feelings. Meanwhile, extroverted persons explore how useful a site can be because of their positive attitude and curiosity. As a lot of MIS research has revealed that the recognition of how useful a site can be and how pleasurable it can be to use have been proven to have a significant effect on UCC activity. However, the relationship between these factors reveals different aspects based on the user's involvement in creation. This factor of creationgauges the interest of users in the creation of UCC contents. Involvement is a variable that shows the level of an individual's mental effort in creating UCC contents. When a user is highly involved in the creation process and makes an enormous effort to create UCC content (classed a part of a high-involvement group), their own pleasure and recognition of how useful the site is have a significantly higher effect on the future usage of the UCC contents, more significantly than the users who sit back and just retrieve the UCC content created by others. The cognitive and emotional response of those in the low-involvement group is unlikely to last long,even if they recognize the contents of a UCC website is pleasurable and useful to them. However, the high-involvement group tends to participate in the creation and the usage of UCC more favorably, connecting the experience with their own goals. In this respect, this research presents an answer to the question; why so many people are participating in the usage of UCC, the representative form of the Web 2.0 that has drastically involved more and more people in the creation of UCC, even if they cannot gain any monetary or social compensation. Neither information system nor a website can succeed unless it secures a certain level of user base. Moreover, it cannot be further developed when the reasons, or problems, for people's participation are not suitably explored, even if it has a certain user base. Thus, what is significant in this research is that it has studied users' respondent behavior based on an individual's innate personality, emotion, and cognitive interaction, unlike the existing research that has focused on 'compensation' to explain users' participation with the UCC website. There are also limitations in this research. Firstly, I divided an individual's personality into extroversion and neuroticism; however, there are many other personal factors such as neuro-psychiatricism, which also needs to be analyzed for its influence on UCC activities. Secondly, as a UCC website comes in many types such as multimedia, Wikis, and podcasting, these types need to be included as a sub-category of the UCC websites and their relationship with personality, emotion, cognition, and behavior also needs to be analyzed.

A study of the destructive styles from Contemporary Paintings - Focused on distinguishing enmity-destruction and self-destruction - (현대회화에서 드러난 해체의 형식론에 관한 연구 -타의적 해체와 자의적 해체의 성격규정을 중심으로-)

  • Park Ki-Woong
    • Journal of Science of Art and Design
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    • v.7
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    • pp.5-63
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    • 2005
  • Generally, the meanings of destruction are related in the meaning of demolition, breakdown, into fragments ... and so on, and the similar meanings are twist, crush, demolish, split, cut, into pieces , break up ... etc. Further, it has related in the cruelty and destructive heart which are linked with orgy, Sadism, Necrophilia and so on. The meanings are also expressed by the initial , which are deprivation, deface, defame, deform, degrade, delegitimize, denounce , deride, destroy, devalue, as well as debase, debunk, declaim, declassify, decry, delete, denigrate, deprecate, despise or detract ...and so on. Dario Gamboni has discussed the meaning in his book as two categories Iconoclasm and Vandalism. And the similar meanings could be found in the words which has the initial of , like abase, abate, abhor, abjure, abolish, abridge, abuse ...and so on. Even though the distinct meanings of Iconoclasm and Vandalism, it is not easy to distinguish clearly between the differences when the results are accomplished in contemporary paintings because of the similarity of the results. In korean vocabulary there are no similar words to distinguish between the meanings of destruction and deconstruction, and the deconstruction is not recorded in the general dictionaries. However the meaning of is diminishing, separation, contrast and so on. So the unification of the word as do-construction is not construct, minus construction, reverse construction. And Vincent Ditch explained that there are the meaning of destroy the text. From Jacques Derrida, the deconstruction strategy is to criticise the world of traditional metaphysics and logocentrism, and not to reconstruire the philosophical meaning of texts but $d\'{e}construire$ them. And Saussure emphasized that the signifers could have more meaning that there can be more signified in traditional texts in the art. as a result, deconstruction is explained that there are many signified meanings in a signifer. In this thesis , from using the meanings of destruction and deconstruction, to distinguish the expressive skills in contemporary art works are arising. Therefore, special methods which are linked in the destruction styles are selected. As a result, the two different purposes of destruction is arising, one is enmity destruction and the other is self destruction another word, auto destruction or destruction to create The enmity destruction can be distinguished by the two category Iconoclasm and Vandalism. They come from the moment of different historical aspect is arising and want to attack the Icon or masterpiece this concept is from the study of John Philips and especially iconoclasm is linked with religious and artistic heart, but Vandalism is come from the political attack. Sometime, this distinguish is not clearly arising, because the two aspects are co-related in the attack. As a result, firstly, the Iconoclastic controversy had arisen in the methods of Dadaism which has developed by Man Ray, Francis Picabia and Marcel Duchamp. They want to attack the pre-established master-pieces and painting spaces, and they had 'non-artistic attitude' not to be art. Since 1980, the German artist Anselm Kiefer adapted the methods and made them his special skills so he had tried to paint tough brush strokes and draw with hugh pallette image line and fire and water images , they can be the image attack as the Iconoclasm. secondly, the model of vandalism is to be done by hammer, drill, canon and so on. the method is to attack the content of painting. Further, the object of destruction is bound by cords and iron lings to demolish or to declare the authority of pre-statues; it symbolize the pre-authority is gone already. Self-destruction based paintings are clearly different in the purpose of approaching the art work. First of all, they can be auto-destruction, creative destruction and metamorphosis destruction, which is linked with the skill the material aspect and basic stature, and sign destruction or signifier destruction, which is link with the inner meaning destruction that is considered as the Semiotical destruction in post-modern paintings. Since 1960, the auto destruction is based on the method of firing, melting, grinding and similar skills, which is linked with Neo-Dada and reverse-assemblage. Metamorphosis destruction is strongly linked with the basic inner heart price and quality, so it can be resulted in the changedness of expectation and recognition. Tony Cragg has developed the skills to metamorphose the wood as stone or iron as cloth and stone as sponge and rubber and so on. The researcher has developed the same style in the series of since 2003. The other self-destructive methods are found in the skill of sign destruction. In the methods the meaning of the art is not fixed as one or two, but is developed multi-meaning and differ from original starting situation, so Jacques Derrida called the difference meaning in deconstruction. It is the destruction of textes. These methods are accomplished by David Salle, Francesco Clemente, and recently Tracy Emin, who has developed the attacking heart in the spectators' emotion. Sometime in the method of self-destruction, it is based on horror and shock, the method is explored by Demian Hirst and Jakes and Dinos Chapman. Their destructive styles stimulate ambivalent heart and destroy original sign of girl and animals.

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