• Title, Summary, Keyword: Embryo Technology

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Systems for Production of Calves after Embryo Transfer of Nuclear Transplant Embryos (소 핵이식 수정란에 의한 산자 생산에 관한 연구)

  • 황우석
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 1995
  • Production of calves after transfer of nuclear transplant embryos is the latest technology to be applied in commercial livestock breeding. The objective of this study was to establish an efficient procedure to produce offsprings from nuclear transplant embryos. The fusion rates (72.7% vs. 80.8%), cleavage rates (62.5% vs. 71.4%) and rates of development in vitro (12.0% vs. 15.2%) of nuclear transplant embryos were not significantly different between 30 and 40h maturation age of cytoplast. The in vivo and in vitro-derived embryos as nuclei donor were used in this system of bovine nuclear transplantation. Fusion rates of nuclear transplant embryos were not significantly different between in vivo and in vitro-derived embryos (73.0 and 79.2%, respectively). The percentage of embryos reaching the morulae or blastocysts were 21.8% for in vivo-derived embryos and 11.9% for in vitro-derived embryos (p<0.01). Pregnancy rates after embryo transfer of nuclear transplant embryos were not significantly different between in vivo and in vitro-derived embryos (45.9 and 40.5%, respectively). However, calving rates after embryo transfer of nuclear transplant embryos were significantly higher in the in vivo-derived embryos than in vitro (p<0.01). Further research for age of cytoplast and use of in vitro-derived embryos as nuclei donor is required in this system. In conclusion, these results clearly show that the use of in vitro-derived oocytes as recipient cytoplast can improve the nuclear transplant system for genetic progress in cattle.

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Factors Affecting Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Cotyledon of Soybean

  • Kim, Young Jin;Park, Tae Il;Kim, Hyun Soon;Park, Ho Ki;Chon, Sang Uk;Yun, Song Joong
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 2004
  • Somatic embryos were induced from immature cotyledons and cultured on a MS medium containing 40mg/L 2,4-D. The maximum induction of embryos was obtained from immature cotyledons in a size of 3-4mm, and the highest frequency was obtained in the induction medium at pH 7.0. For embryo development, embryogenic tissues were transferred to a MSM6AC and MSM6 media. Developing embryos were placed at 27$^{\circ}C$with dim light (20$\mu$$molm^{-2}$$s^{-1}$) provided by cool fluorescent tubes (3-D wavelength light is better than standard light). Somatic embryos were clearly developed from globular stage to cotyledonary stages. The color of embryo may be a useful parameter for estimation of embryo quality. When the embryo becomes mature, embryo will be ready for desiccation in order to induce roots and shoots of embryos.

Amino acids in Embryo and Endosperm of Brown Rice different in Specific Gravity (비중선별(比重選別) 현미(玄米)의 배아(胚芽) 및 배유중(胚乳中) 아미노산(酸) 함량(含量))

  • Park, Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.12-16
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    • 1974
  • The amino acid pattern of embryo and endosperm of brown rice different in specific gravity was investigated using Jinheung (local leading temperate variety) and IR667-Suweon 213 (high-yielding newly bred tropical variety). 1. Embryo of IR667 (higher protein rice) showed lower protein, and lower lysine or essential amino acid per protein than that of Jinheung (lower protein rice). 2. In both embryo and endosperm nitrogen recovery as amino acids was highest in middle class of specific gravity and lowest in low class indicating that abundancy of non-protein nitrogen in low class and decomposition of amino acids by starch in high specific gravity class. 3. In both embryo and endosperm IR667 showed abundancy in order of glutamic acid, aspartic acid while Jinheung showed glutamic acid, arginine, suggesting varietal difference in nitrogen metabolism. 4. In both IR667 and Jinheung least amino acid was histidine and next leucine in embryo but histidine and next threonine in endosperm, suggesting organ difference in nitrogen metabolism.

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Differential Embryo Development among Tibetan Chicken, DRW and Shouguang Chicken Exposed to Chronic Hypoxia

  • Li, Mei;Zhao, Chun-Jiang;Wu, Chang-Xin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.336-342
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    • 2009
  • Avian embryos at high altitude are independent of maternal protection against hypoxia, which is contrary to mammals. It is well known that chronic hypoxic exposure at key points can significantly impact on avian development. Tibetan Chicken, a Chinese indigenous breed, living in Tibetan areas with an altitude of 2.2 to 4.1 thousand meters, has an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia. In the present study, fertilized eggs of Tibetan Chicken were incubated under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration. Two lowland chicken breeds, Shouguang Chicken, an indigenous chicken breed in Shandong Province of China, and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken, an imported breed in Beijing, were used as control groups. The embryo mass and some organs such as brain, heart, liver, stomach and eye weight in the three species were measured at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 39, 41, 43 and 45 under hypoxic and normal conditions. The results showed that in hypoxia Tibetan Chicken significantly differed from the two lowland chicken breeds in embryo mass at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 41, 43 and 45 (p<0.01). In particular, Dwarf Recessive White Chicken and Shouguang Chicken showed retarded growth in hypoxic incubation (p<0.01), whereas Tibetan Chicken showed no significant difference between hypoxic and normal conditions (p>0.05). In addition, heart and the other organs showed different susceptibility to hypoxia at the studied stages. In conclusion, chronic hypoxia induced a change in the embryo development of the three different species and Tibetan Chicken showed adaptation to hypoxia. Of note, the embryo developmental physiology of Tibetan Chicken in response to hypoxia will shed light on the process of physiological acclimation or evolutionary adaptation as well as the study of clinical disease.

Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2010

  • Lee, Gyoung Hoon;Song, Hyun Jin;Lee, Kyu Sup;Choi, Young Min
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.8-13
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    • 2015
  • Objective: Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea. This study was designed to report on the current status of ART therapy in South Korea between January 1 and December 31 of 2010. Methods: A revised survey, originally developed by the International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies, was sent to all available ART centers via email in 2013. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized into standard IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injections. These cases, the thawing embryo transfer (TET) cases, and other related procedures were surveyed. Results: Data from 30,785 ART procedures were provided by 78 clinics. Of the 28,200 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, 92.2% of these cycles were completely transferred. In addition, 8,075 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, which represent a pregnancy rate of 28.6% per oocyte pick-up and 31.1% per embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET was three embryos (37.3%) followed by two embryos (36.3%) and one embryo (14.0%). Of the 6,648 TET cycles transferred, 2,356 clinical pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography. The most common number of embryos in the TET group was two embryos (43.4%) followed by three embryos (25.4%) and one embryo (18.9%). Conclusion: The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer in the FET cycles was similar in 2009 and 2010. Among the FET cycles where one or two embryos were transferred, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer slightly increased from 2009 (28.7%) to 2010 (32.9%).

Study on the In-vitro Culture Method for Normal Embryonic Cell Development of Porcine Parthenogenetic Embryos

  • Jung, Na-Hyeon;Kim, Sang-Hwan;Kim, Dae-Seung;Yoon, Jong-Taek
    • Journal of Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.94-101
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    • 2020
  • In the early development of parthenogenetic embryo, cytoplasm and nucleic acid fragmentation may be a cause of lower embryo development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether embryonic development and apoptosis factors can be reduced by controlling the in-vitro culture environment by the addition of hormones, pregnancy serum and uterine milk. Our study showed that the activity of Casp-3 increased within the cytoplasm when artificially used hormones to induce the incubation environment, and PCNA's manifestation was low. However, the addition of pregnant serum appeared to lower the Casp-3 activity compared to the other groups. In addition, MMP-9 activity was increased and early embryo development and cytoplasmic fidelity were also increased. Therefore, the results of the present study showed that the use of gestational serum in the development of parthenogenetic embryo inhibit apoptosis and increases cytoplasmic reorganization by natural environmental control in in vitro culture.

Embryo Production in Superior Hanwoo Donors and Embryo Transfer (우수 한우의 수정란 생산 및 이식)

  • Son D.S.;Han M.H.;Choe C.Y.;Choi S.H.;Cho S.R.;Kim H.J.;Ryu I.S.;Choi S.B.;Lee S.S.;Kim Y.K.;Kim S.K.;Kim S.H.;Shin K.H.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.147-156
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this study was to supply excellent genetic resources to livestock farms by transferring embryos produced by genetically superior Korean cows (Hanwoo). Eighty Hanwoo donors were superovulated with gonadotropin ($Folltrpin^(R)\;or\;Antorin^(R)$) for 4 days combined with or without progesterone releasing intravaginal device (CIDR) insertion. The collected fresh or frozen-thawed embryos were transferred to 226 farm recipients. In this study, the effect of CIDR insertion in combination with gonadotropin ($Folltrpin^(R)$) treatments initiated at the random stage of estrous cycle on embryo production was evaluated and compared to conventional superovulation protocol. Moreover, the effect of gonadotropin ($Antorin^(R)$) dose in CIDR-treated Hanwoo donors on the embryo yield was determined. In addition, the effects of embryos (fresh vs. frozen-thawed), embryo transfer person, seasons and farms on the pregnancy rate were evaluated. In Hanwoo donors, CIDR insertion in combination with $Folltrpin^(R)$ treatments regardless of estrous detection resulted in increased numbers of total ova (6.5 vs. 5.8) and transferable embryos (3.9 vs. 3.2) compared to the conventional superovulation protocol (p<0.01). In CIDR-treated Hanwoo donors, the higher dose of $Antorin^(R)$ (36 vs. 28 mg) resulted in the increased number of transferable embryos (8.3 vs. 5.4, p<0.05). The embryos (fresh 43.9% vs. frozen-thawed 23.1%) and embryo transfer person (53.9 vs. $0{\sim}16.7%$) significantly affected the pregnancy rate after embryo transfer (p<0.01). These results suggest that CIDR-based superovulation protocol may be effectively used for production of superior Hanwoo embryos and, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer in Hanwoo might be effectively applied for livestock improvement if pregmancy rate with frozen-thawed embryos and embryo transfer skill would be improved.

Signaling Molecules at the Conceptus-Uterine Interface during Early Pregnancy in Pigs

  • Seo, Heewon;Choi, Yohan;Shim, Jangsoo;Kim, Mingoo;Ka, Hakhyun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.211-221
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    • 2012
  • The process of embryo implantation requires physical contact and physiological communication between the conceptus trophectoderm and the maternal uterine endometrium. During the peri-implantation period in pigs, the conceptus undergoes significant morphological changes and secretes estrogens, the signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy. Estrogens secreted from the conceptus act on uterine epithelia to redirect $PGF_2{\alpha}$, luteolysin, secretion from the uterine vasculature to the uterine lumen to prevent luteolysis as well as to induce expression of endometrial genes that support implantation and conceptus development. In addition, conceptuses secrete cytokines, interferons, growth factors, and proteases, and in response to these signals, the uterine endometrium produces hormones, protease inhibitors, growth factors, transport proteins, adhesion molecules, lipid molecules, and calcium regulatory molecules. Coordinated interactions of these factors derived from the conceptus and the uterus play important roles in the process of implantation in pigs. To better understand mechanism of implantation process in pigs, this review provides information on signaling molecules at the conceptus-uterine interface during early pregnancy, including recently reported data reported.

Production of In-Vivo Embryos by Superovulation and Result of Transfer with Fresh or Frozen Embryos for Hanwoo and Holstein Cattle (한우 및 젖소에서 과배란 처리를 이용한 체내수정란 생산과 신선 및 동결 수정란 이식 결과)

  • Kim Y. J.;Song J. W.;Seo S. H.;Jeong K. N.;Kim Y. S.;Lee H. R.;Shin D. S.;Jo S. W.;Kim S. H.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.209-218
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    • 2004
  • To investigate the feasibility of embryo transfer technology to promote productivity of cattle, 36 cows(18 Holstein, 18 Hanwoo) were superovulated. Fresh embryos were transferred to 25 recipients(14 Holstein, 11 Hanwoo), whereas frozen embryos were transferred to 17 recipients(10 Holstein, 7 Hanwoo). Two embryos were transferred at a time to 13 recipients(9 Holstein, 4 Hanwoo) to produce twin calves. 1. 75.0% of donor cattle were reacted to hormonal treatment far superovulation. 2. The rate of embryo recovery by non-surgical method for Holstein and Hanwoo was 90.4 and 95.8% in comparison with numbers of corpus luteum. 3. Of all the ova collected non-surgically, the rate of viable blastocyst was 66.4% and the rate of transferrable blastocysts was 48.6%. 4. The rate of embryo collection by one-catheter method was 75.0%. 5. The rate of pregnancy/delivery following embryo transfer with fresh embryos was 60.0%. 6. The rate of pregnancy/delivery following embryo transfer with frozen embryos was 35.3%. 7. In embryo transfer to produce twin calves, the rate of pregnancy/delivery was 28.6% with fresh embryos and 16.7% with frozen embryos.

Novel Reproductive Techniques in Swine Production - A Review

  • Okere, C.;Nelson, L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.445-452
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    • 2002
  • The main objective of modern reproductive technologies in pig reproduction is to increase reproductive efficiency and rates of genetic improvement. They also offer potential for greatly extending the multiplication and transport of genetic materials and the conservation of unique genetic resources in reasonably available forms for possible future use. The development and refinement of these technologies is concentrating on gamete and embryo collection, sorting and preservation, in vitro production of embryos, culturing, manipulation of embryos (splitting, nuclear transfer, production of chimeras, establishment embryo stem cells, and gene transfer) and embryo transfer. Also, the development of these novel technologies is facilitated by modern equipment for ultrasonography, microscopy, cryopreservation, endoscopy, and flow cytometry, microinjectiors, micromanipulators and centrifugation. The real impact on herd productivity will come from combining new reproductive techniques with powerful DNA technologies. The new reproductive techniques will allow a rapid turnover of generations, whereas the DNA technology can provide selection, which does not need phenotypic information when the selection decisions are made.