• Title, Summary, Keyword: Embryo Technology

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A Study of Guidelines for Genetic Counseling in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) (착상전 유전진단을 위한 유전상담 현황과 지침개발을 위한 기초 연구)

  • Kim, Min-Jee;Lee, Hyoung-Song;Kang, Inn-Soo;Jeong, Seon-Yong;Kim, Hyon-J.
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.125-132
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), also known as embryo screening, is a pre-pregnancy technique used to identify genetic defects in embryos created through in vitro fertilization. PGD is considered a means of prenatal diagnosis of genetic abnormalities. PGD is used when one or both genetic parents has a known genetic abnormality; testing is performed on an embryo to determine if it also carries the genetic abnormality. The main advantage of PGD is the avoidance of selective pregnancy termination as it imparts a high likelihood that the baby will be free of the disease under consideration. The application of PGD to genetic practices, reproductive medicine, and genetic counseling is becoming the key component of fertility practice because of the need to develop a custom PGD design for each couple. Materials and Methods: In this study, a survey on the contents of genetic counseling in PGD was carried out via direct contact or e-mail with the patients and specialists who had experienced PGD during the three months from February to April 2010. Results: A total of 91 persons including 60 patients, 49 of whom had a chromosomal disorder and 11 of whom had a single gene disorder, and 31 PGD specialists responded to the survey. Analysis of the survey results revealed that all respondents were well aware of the importance of genetic counseling in all steps of PGD including planning, operation, and follow-up. The patient group responded that the possibility of unexpected results (51.7%), genetic risk assessment and recurrence risk (46.7%), the reproduction options (46.7%), the procedure and limitation of PGD (43.3%) and the information of PGD technology (35.0%) should be included as a genetic counseling information. In detail, 51.7% of patients wanted to be counseled for the possibility of unexpected results and the recurrence risk, while 46.7% wanted to know their reproduction options (46.7%). Approximately 96.7% of specialists replied that a non-M.D. genetic counselor is necessary for effective and systematic genetic counseling in PGD because it is difficult for physicians to offer satisfying information to patients due to lack of counseling time and specific knowledge of the disorders. Conclusions: The information from the survey provides important insight into the overall present situation of genetic counseling for PGD in Korea. The survey results demonstrated that there is a general awareness that genetic counseling is essential for PGD, suggesting that appropriate genetic counseling may play a important role in the success of PGD. The establishment of genetic counseling guidelines for PGD may contribute to better planning and management strategies for PGD.

Embryonic and Larva Development of Slime Flounder, Microstomus achne (찰가자미(Microstomus achne)의 난발생 및 자치어 형태 발달)

  • Byun, Soon-Gyu;Lee, Sung-Hun;Hwang, Jae-Ho;Han, Kyeong-Ho;Kang, Kyeong-Wan;Kim, Jin-Do;Kim, Yi-Cheong;Lee, Bae-Ik
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.281-289
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    • 2009
  • The slime flounder Microstomus achne were caught at Geomun Island, Yosu-si, Jeollanamdo from January to March in 2006. The fertilized eggs were observed for morphological development of egg, embryo and larva. Eggs were colorless transparent, separative pelagic, absent of oil globule, and the diameter was 1.64${\pm}$0.03 mm (n=50). The eggs were hatched at 168 hours 40 minutes after fertilization in the range of $9.8\sim13.0^{\circ}C$ (mean $11.4{\pm}1.6^{\circ}C$). Total length of newly hatched larva was 4.05${\pm}$0.18 mm (n=20). The larva had developed membranous fin showing waterdrop-shaped structure, and their mouth and anus were not open. The myotomes were 14~15+33~34=47~49. The egg yolks were 1.64${\pm}$0.12 mm in major axis, and 1.23${\pm}$0.19 mm in minor axis. At 12 days after hatching, the total length was 7.32${\pm}$0.42 mm(n=20). The egg yolk was completely absorbed and transferred to post larval stage. Star-shaped melanophores and branch-shaped xanthophores in the edge of membranous fin were more densed. Chrysanthemum-shaped melanophores in the notochord were densed and formed 4~5 melanophore bands. At 90~93 days after hatching, morphological features of the larva, 19.91${\pm}$1.63 mm TL(n=20), were transferred to juvenile stage showing similar features with those of the adult fish.

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The Effect of Modified Cryopreservation Method on Viability of Frozen-thawed Primordial Germ Cell on the Korean Native Chicken (Ogye) (한국재래닭 (오계) 원시생식세포에 있어 동결방법의 개선이 융해 후 생존율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyun;Kim, Dong Hun;Han, Jae Yong;Choi, Sung Bok;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu;Do, Yoon Jung;Seong, Hwan-Hoo;Kim, Sung Woo
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.427-434
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to establish methods for preserving chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) for long-term storage in liquid nitrogen and for developmental engineering or preservation of species. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or chicken serum (CS) treatment on the viability of cryopreserved PGCs from Korean Native Chicken (Ogye). PGCs separated from a germinal gonad of an early embryo at day 5.5-6 (stage 28) were suspended in a freezing medium containing freezing and protective agents (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol). The values from 0, 5, 10, and 15 % DMSO plus FBS treatment were 21.6, 30.36, 36.42, 50.39, and 48.36 %, respectively. The viability of PGCs after freeze-thawing was significantly higher for 10% EG plus FBS treatment than for 10% EG + FCS treatment (p<0.05) (64.36% vs. 50.66%). This study establishes a method for preserving chicken PGC that enables systematic storage and labeling of cryopreserved PGC in liquid nitrogen at a germplasm repository and an ease of entry into a database. In the future, the importance for this new technology is that poultry lines can be conserved while work is being conducted to improve the production of germline chimeras.

The Establishment of Nitrogen Fixation by Cultured Cell-Rhizobium Association Through Tissue Culture Technique in Soybean (대두조직배양세포(大豆組織培養細胞) - Rhizobium에 의(依)한 질소고정력(窒素固定力))

  • Kang, Sang Jae;Park, Woo Churl
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.4
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 1986
  • This experiment was carried out to elucidate the factor of nitrogenase formation and to establish the nitrogen fixation system in mixed culture of cultured cells and rhizobia through tissue culture technique using three soybean varieties, Hwangkeum, Namcheon and D 68-0099 as host plants. The results obtained were as follows; The callus was induced in embryo and radicle, but not in hypocotyl. The most favorable callus induction was caused by the individual application of 2,4-D and NAA at the concentration of 2mg/1 and 4mg/1, respectively, but in case of treating both 2,4-D and kinetin, that was done at the concentration of 0.2mg(2,4-D)/0.05mg(kinetin)per liter. The growth of cultured cell was good at the concentration of 2.0mg(2,4-D)/1 and 0.2mg(2,4-D)/0.05mg(kinetin)per liter. When cultured cells were inoculated with R. japonicum 019 and 011, their growthes were considerably inhibited. The addition of single amino acid inhibited the growth of cultured cells. Hwangkeum was inhibited considerably by methionine and leucine. The inhibition of growth by single amino acid can be abolished by the addition of certain amino acids. The differentiation of adventitious root was good at the concentration of 2.0mg 2,4-D and 0.2mg 2,4-D/0.05mg kinetin per liter. Of three host plants tested with 25 R. japonicum strains, Hwangkeum had affinity for 10 strains, Namcheon for 7 strains and D68-0099 for none. The nitrogen fixing abilities of Hwangkeum and Namcheon caused by cultured cell-Rhizobium association were high in strain 019, 007, and in 007 mixed with 119, respectively.

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Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

  • Liu, H.C.;Huang, J.F.;Lee, S.R.;Liu, H.L.;Hsieh, C.H.;Huang, C.W.;Huang, M.C.;Tai, C.;Poivey, J.P.;Rouvier, R.;Cheng, Y.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.605-611
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    • 2015
  • A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility) and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings) ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie), the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F), the total number of dead embryos (M), the maximum duration of fertility (Dm) and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H) with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H); F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201) was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie ($h^2=0.07{\pm}0.03$) and M ($h^2=0.07{\pm}0.01$), moderately low for Dm ($h^2=0.13{\pm}0.02$), of medium values for H ($h^2=0.20{\pm}0.03$) and F ($h^2=0.23{\pm}0.03$). High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm ($r_g=0.93$), between F and H ($r_g=0.97$) and between Dm and H ($r_g=0.90$). The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201), with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201) and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality rate. The average predicted genetic response for F was 40% of genetic standard deviation per generation of selection. The mule ducklings' feather colour also was improved. It was concluded that this study provided results for a better understanding of the genetics of the duration of fertility traits in the common female duck bred for mule and that the selection of a synthetic strain was effective method of improvement.

Cellular Localization and Translocation of Duplication and Alternative Splicing Variants of Olive Flounder Phospholipase C-δ1 (넙치 3가지 타입 인지질가수분해효소(PLC-δ1)의 세포 내 위치 및 이동)

  • Kim, Na Young;Kim, Moo-Sang;Jung, Sung Hee;Kim, Myoung Sug;Cho, Mi Young;Chung, oon Ki;Ahn, Sang Jung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1369-1375
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular characterization of phospholipase C-${\delta}1$ in olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus). In general, phospholipase C signaling pathways are distributed in nuclei at plasma membranes and in cytoplasms, although the pathways' nuclear localization mechanisms are unclear. P. olivaceus duplicates type-A PoPLC-${\delta}1$ (PoPLC-${\delta}1A$), which has a high similarity to the human isoform PLC-${\delta}$; type-B PoPLC-${\delta}1$ (PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ [Sf]), which has a low similarity to the human isoform PLC-${\delta}$ and the alternative splice variant PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ (Lf), which has a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES) for nuclear imports and exports, respectively. This study confirmed the effects of the cellular localization and translocation of GFP-tagged PoPLC-${\delta}1A$, PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ (Sf) and PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ (Lf). It administered treatments of $Ca^{2+}$ ionophore ionomycin and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-$Ca^{2+}$ pump inhibitor thapsigargin to hirame natural-embryo (HINAE) cells. A laser-scanning confocal microscope was used. GFP-tagged PoPLC-${\delta}1A$ was distributed to the cellular organelles, rather than to the cytoplasms and cytomembranes, when PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ (Lf) and PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ (Sf) were localized at the plasma membranes. The treatments of ionomycin and thapsigargin showed the accumulation of PoPLC-${\delta}1A$ in the nuclei when PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ (Lf) nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ (Sf) nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were not observed. The results were the first evidence that PoPLC-${\delta}1A$, which contains functional, intact NES sequences, has a main role in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and translocation in fish.