• Title, Summary, Keyword: Embryo Technology

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MIGRATION OF THE PRIMORDIAL GERM CELLS AND GONAD FORMATION IN THE EARLY CHICKEN EMBRYO

  • Hong, Y.H.;Seo, D.S.;Jeong, D.K.;Choi, K.D.;Han, J.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.557-562
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    • 1995
  • In this study, characteristics of chick primordial germ cells (PGCs), which is the founder cell of the germline, and gonadal development of the chick embryo between 12hrs and 6 day of incubation were investigated by transverse serial sections of chick embryos under the light microscopic observation. In embryo stage 20 (3 day of incubation), there are a lot of PGCs at the mesenchym, which were moving to the thickened epithelium (gonadal ridge). The PGCs arrive at both right and left gonad primordial in equal number prior to stage 24 (4 day of incubation), but in the following stages, the distribution of the PGCs became asymmetrical. More PGCs colonized the left than the right gonad, but the reason for the unequal distribution of PGCs is uncertain. The PGCs have mostly settled in the gonadal ridge (GR) at 6 day embryo. This study was conducted to investigate characteristics of the PGC migration and gonadal formation and observe the best condition for PGC isolation, culture and to attempt the possibility of the production for transgenic germline chimeras with manipulated PGCs.

Effect of OPU Session Periods on the Efficiency of In Vitro Embryo Production in Elite Korean Native Cow

  • Choi, Byung-Hyun;Song, Seok-Hwan;Park, Bun-Young;Kong, Rami;Son, Mi-Ju;park, Chan-Sang;Shin, Nyeon-Hak;Cheon, Hye-Young;Lee, Sung-Hoon;Jin, Jong-In;Lee, Jung-Gyu;Kong, Il-Keun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.265-270
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    • 2018
  • Up-to-date artificial insemination (AI) using frozen sperm consider as the most widely using technology for improvement of Korean Native Cow (Hanwoo) embryo production. However, it is time consuming, required at least 15~20 years to make more than 6 generations, and their offspring number is limited. To overcome such limitations, superovulation and in vitro fertilization have been developed. For superovulation, the number of produced embryos are not enough for commercialization and donor cows need rest period. This led to use of slaughterhouse ovary for in vitro fertilization, but it is impossible to repeat the collection from the same individual and it only can improve the genetic merits of offspring for one generation. Production of embryos using Ovum Pick-Up (OPU) technique, where oocytes can be repeatedly collected from living elite donor, might overcome these limitations. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using OPU technique from donors at different age and different session periods for mass-embryo-production. Oocytes were collected from 26 donor cows twice per week, 3 - 4 months per year, between 2013 and 2016. Results showed that, the average number of embryo produced in first year used donor was significantly higher than that in second year used donor ($3.89{\pm}2.85$ vs $3.29{\pm}2.70$), however, there was no significant difference between third year used donor ($3.51{\pm}3.32$) and other groups. Taken together, our data showed that repeated using of donor up to three years is possible for in vitro embryo mass-production. Moreover, OPU can be used as suitable embryo producing technique for livestock breed improvement.

Endocrine Disruptors in Developing Embryo on Daphnia magna

  • Kim, Pan-Gyi;Hwang, Seong-Hee
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.17-22
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    • 2002
  • In crustaceans, as in other arthropods, the molt cycle and the physiological process of growth are controlled by molting hormones (MH) which are steroid hormones, the ecdysteroids. Ecdysteroids are major arthropod hormones which control both development (embryonic and larval molts, metamorphosis) and reproduction. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate both fenarimol and methoprene for embryotoxicity to daphnids. The embryotoxicity associated with each compound was assessed to discern whether the embryotoxicity of methoprene might be due to ecdysone agonist and the ecdysone antagonistic effects of fenarimol on Daphnia embryo. Exposure of daphnids for three weeks to 50 M methoprene resulted in a significantly high incidence of offspring that exhibited general toxicity. This exposure concentration had significant effects on the overall number of embryo death. However, exposure to 3 or 1 $\mu$M fenarimol were no significant effects on the embryo toxicity. The incidence of both of these toxicity increased with methoprene exposure. This observation suggest that methoprene showed embryonic general toxicity during embryo development, while, only fenarimol showed weak general toxicity with early stages of embryonic development.

Effect of EGF on In Vitro Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Development and Expression of EGF mRNA in Bovine Oocytes and Embryo II. Detection of Epidermal Growth Factor mRNA in bovine Ova during In Vitro Maturation and after Fertilization In Vitro

  • Kim, Kwang-Sig;Kim, Chang-Keun;Chung, Yung-Chai;Hwang, Seong-Soo;Chang, Won-Kyong;Cheong, Il-Cheong;Park, Jin-Ki;Min, Kwan-Sik;Lee, Yun-Keun
    • Proceedings of the KSAR Conference
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    • pp.29-29
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to examine, by the reverse transcription chain reaction(RT-PCR)and Immunostain assays, epidermal growth factor mRNA expression in bovine ova during oocyte maturation in vitro(0-2lh)and after fertilization in vitro(6-144hr: zygotes to blastocysts). In this study, the transcripts of EGF was detected in oocytes using primers for EGF. Transcripts for EGF mRNA was not detected in oocytes through in vitro maturation. But EGF mRNA were present after fertilization up to the 2-cell stage and the blastocyst stage. The highest mRNA levels in 4-cell stage embryos were decreased at 8cell stage and then reincreased upto morulae and blastocysts. The results of this study showed EGF mRNA are present in embryo after fertilization and this factors are involved in the regulation of bovine embryo development.

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Cats Cloned from Fetal Fibroblast Cells by Nuclear Transfer

  • Yin, X.J.;Lee, H.S.;Lee, Y.H.;Hwang, W.S.;Kong, I.K.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Embryo Transfer Conference
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    • pp.26-31
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    • 2004
  • This work was undertaken in order to study the developmental competence of nuclear transfer cat embryo with fetal fibroblast and adult skin fibroblast as donor nuclei. Oocytes wererecovered by mincing the ovaries in Hepes-buffered TCM199 and selected the cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) with compact cumulus cell mass and dark. Homogenous ooplasm were cultured for maturation in TCM199 + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 12 hours and used as a source of recipient cytoplast for exogenous somatic nuclei. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the effect donor cell types on the reconstruction and development of cloned embryos. Fusion, first cleavage and blastocyst developmental rate was not different between fetal fibroblast and adult skin cell (71.2 vs. 66.8; 71.0 vs. 57.6; 4.0 vs. 6.1 %, P<0.05). In Experiment 2, cloned embryos were surgically transferred into the oviducts of recipient queens. One of seven recipient queens was delivered naturally 2healthy cloned cats and 1 stillborn from fetal fibroblast cell of male origin after 65 days embryo transfer. One of three recipient queens was delivered naturally 1 healthy cloned cat from adult skin cell of female after 65 days embryo transfer. The cloned cats showed genotypes identical to the donor cell lines, indicating that adult somatic cells can be used for feline cloning.

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Production of Korean Native Cow from Mongolian Cow following Transfer of Vitrified Blastocyst (Mongolian 수란우에 한우 동결수정란의 이식 후 산자 생산)

  • Kong, I.K.;Sanjjav, G.;Yang, C.J.;Cho, S.G.;Bae, I.H.;Oh, D.H.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparison of viability of bovine blastocysts following glass micropipette (GMP) vitrification and the possibility of production of Korean Native Cow ("Hanwoo,"Bos taurus coreanae) following embryo transfer into Mongolia cows (Bos taurus mongolian). The embryos of Korean Native Cow were produced by IVMFC or superovulation methods in Korea, cryopreserved by GMP vitrification, and subsequently trans-ported to Mongolia. The recipient cows were synchronized using a CIDR plus and prostaglandin $F_2\alpha$($PGF_2\alpha$) treatment. To produce in vivo embryos, seven cows were superovulated using FSH and PGF$_2$/sub $\alpha$/ treatment. A total of 64 blastocysts ( $9.1\pm2.94$ per cow) were collected. In vitro embryos were produced using a defined culture system which cleaved in 80.1% ova (174/217), and developed to blastocyst stage embryos of 40.8% (71/174). The post-thaw survival rate of in vivo blastocysts (93.7%; 45/48) was significantly higher than that of in vitro blastocysts (82.5%; 52/63, P<0.05). Embryo transfer was carried out using 8 Mongolian recipient cows and 2 post-thaw blastocysts per recipient. Five of 8 recipients were found pregnant at Day 60 but one abortion occurred by Day 240. Two of offspring were produced from the Mongolian cows at 275 days after embryo transfer. These results indicated that a GMP vitrification method could be used as a cryopreservation technique for in vivo or in vitro bovine blastocysts and produced effectively a Korean Native Cow following embryo transfer into a Mongolian recipient cow.