• Title, Summary, Keyword: Embryo

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Studies on the Improvement of Embryo Transfer Efficiency in Korean Cattle I. Effect of Embryo Conditions on Pregnancy Rate after Embryo Transfer (한우에서 수정란 이식의 효율 증진에 대한 연구 I. 수정란의 조건이 이식 후 수태율에 미치는 영향)

  • 김흥률;김덕임;원유석;김창근;정영채;이규승;서길웅;박창식
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to establish an effective system for embryo transfer techniques by analyzing several factors affecting in-vivo embryo transfer in Korean cattle. Embryos produced in-vivo were transferred into a total of 301 recipients. The results obtained in studies on the factors affecting pregnancy rate after embryo transfer by condition of embryos were as follow ; 1. The pregnancy rate of 301 recipients was 45.2% and higher with fresh embryos than with frozen embryos(63.5% : 21.4%, P<0.01). Embryos superovurated by FSH-P had slightly greater than by SUPER-OV in pragnancy rate, athough these were no difference between two treatments. 2. The pregnancy rates of transferred morulae and blastocysts showed no difference between fresh and frozen embryos(63.5% : 63~6% ; 20.0% : 25.8%). However, the pregnancy rates by quality of flesh and frozen embryos were significantly different(P<0~05). The pregnancy rates were outstandingly high in the grade A, B of fresh embryos(59.0~66.4%), and in the grade A of frozen embryos(43.6%). 3. The number of transferred embryos showed no difference in pregnancy rate, but when frozen embryos transferred, the pregnancy rate was slightly higher with two embryos than that with one embryo.

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Effects of Extracellular Proteins on the Recovery of Embryogenic Potential in Long-term Cultures of Daucus carota (세포외 단백질을 이용한 장기 배양 식물세포(Daucus carota)에서의 Embryo 생성에 관한 연구)

  • 정욱진
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.504-507
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    • 1993
  • A declining tendency in embryogenic capability was seen during 6 months culture period during which embryo production decreased from 1000 embryos/ml to 500 embryos/ml. The presence of extracellular factors extracted from newly established embryo cultures restored the embryogenic capability and even enhanced the embryo production up to 5 times (2500 embryos/ml) for old carrot suspension cultures compared with that of control cultures. The stimulating effect on the embryo production indicates that the enhancing effect comes from extracellular compounds that are probably protein molecules.

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Ascorbic acid and Lipid Contends of the Silkworm eggs(Bombyx mori)during its development of Embryo. (가잠난 배자발육 과정에서 Ascorbic acid와 Lipid의 변동에 관하여)

  • 김원경;임영우;전형원
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.8
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 1968
  • As a result of investigating the change of Ascorbic acid and Lipid which have a relation with metabolism of a silkworm egg in the process of the growth of embryo is silkworm eggs. The following facts have been found 1) Ascorbic acid has gradually increased before the period of the Byong B embryo and it has decreased after period of Byong B embryo. 2) Triglyceride and Total cholesterol has gradually increased before the period of the Byong B embryo and it has decreased after period of the Byong B embryo. 3) Phospholipid has gradually decreased before the period of the Byong A embryo and it increased during the Byong B embryo and decreased again at same stage. It has increased from the head pigment of embryo to hachting. 4) Free Fatty acid decreased during the Byong A embryo stage and increased from the Byong B embryo stage to the Ki A embryo stage and decreased again and increased shortly before the hachting.

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Developmental characterization of embryo size mutant in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

  • Hong, Soon-Kwan
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.141-154
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    • 2002
  • In this experiment, three kinds of mutations(ge, re, and eml )relating to the size of embryos were used to study their generation, genetic mechanism and developmental characteristics, and the interactions between embryo and endosperm were also examined. Giant embryo mutation comprises 7 kinds including the already isolated ge, and ge-2, which share an identical gene site. The SAM and the size of radicule for the ge showed little difference compared to a normal type. The number of embryo cells did not increased as much as it would affect the size of embryo. Therefore, the enlargement of embryo was due to the enlargement of scutellum that originated from the corpulence of each cell. Both F$_1$' s of re ]and odm 49 formed reduce embryos, and other combinations of hybridization showed all wild type of embryo sizes. Accordingly, the odm 49 must have an identical gene site of re 1, while odm 48 and odm 62 have different gene sites. Their shoots and radicules also shrank by the same ratio, however no sign of physical change was noticed. The size of embryo cell showed no change, while the number of cells was the half of that of wild types. The three gene sites of re represent all of them control the size of the entire embryo forming organs. The eml 1 was defined to have temperature sensibilities that the generation of endosperms was active at a high temperature while that was hampered at a low temperature.

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Studies on the Aggregation of H-Y Antibody-Sexed and Bisected Rabbit Embryo (H-Y항체에 의한 토끼배의 성 감별과 이등분 절단 토끼배의 융합에 관한 연구)

  • 최화식;임경순;진동일
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.85-93
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    • 1997
  • These experiments were carried out to examine the development capacity of sexed and then bisected embryo from 8-cell to morula stage. Antisera to histocompatibility-Y(H-Y) antigen were prepared in inbred SD female rat by repeated immunization of spleen cell or testis supernatant from males of same strain. Male and female embryos were separated by delaying development of embryos against H-Y antibody. After sexing, rabbit embryos were bisected and aggregated. The results obtained from the these experiments were summuerized as follows: 1. When mouse and rabbit 8-, 16-cell and morular embryos were culature in H-Y antiserum, the ratio of embryo which has developed to hatching blastocyst was 53.4, 46.3 and 57.4% in mouse embryos, and 49.0, 52.0 and 61.0% in rabbit embryo, respectively. The ratio of mouse and rabbit embryos developed to hatching blastocyst showed nearly natural sex rate(50%), except rabbit mourla showed a little higher ratio(61.0%) as compared to natural sex ratio. 2. When rabbit demi-embryos from 8-, 16-cell embryo and morula were cultured, the percentage of demi-embryos was 70, 68 and 58% without zona pellucida removed, and 62, 69 and 51% with zona pellucida. The rate of aggregation was higher in 8- and 16-cell demi-embryos than in morula demi-embryo. 4. When sexed-demi-embryo was aggregated with another demi-embryo with demi-embryo with same sex, the rate of embryo developed to blastocyst was 60, 50 and 25%, respectively. Eight-cell demi-embryo showed highest rate. In conclusion, it showed that H-Y antiserum which was made by rat spleen cell enabled sexing rabbit embryos. And when rabbit sexed 8-, 16-cell and morula demi-embryo were aggregated, they were developed to eu-blastocyst which suggested the potential of sexed embryo manipulation.

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Inheritance Analysis of Giant Embryo Mutation Induced by T-DNA Insertion in Rice

  • Qin, Yang;Kim, Suk-Man;Park, Hee-Yeon;Sohn, Jae-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2009
  • Recently, giant embryonic rice and functional rice food are preferred by more consumers, which are attributed to the fact that the embryo has high concentrations of essential amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins relative to other parts of rice grains. In this report, the heredity and stability of giant embryo mutations in successive generations were analyzed regarding a giant embryonic line, 'P47', induced by T-DNA insertion and a $F_2$ population from a cross between 'P47' and 'Junam'. The mutant lines with increases of 1.5, 1.7 and 1.8 times on embryo length, width and 100-embryo weight to those of the control showed stable inheritance across three generations. The continuous frequency distributions of embryo size in the $F_2$ population showed that the embryo size is a quantitative trait of polygene controlled. In addition, wide range of transgressive segregations of six traits affecting embryo size confirmed exchange of genetic materials and recombination between genes controlling embryo size. Five giant embryo mutant lines selected from the $F_2$ population will be used for artificial selection and improvement of giant embryonic varieties.

Associations of post-warming embryo or blastocyst development with clinical pregnancy in vitrified embryo or blastocyst transfer cycles

  • Hong, Yeon Hee;Lee, Jang Mi;Kim, Seul Ki;Youm, Hye Won;Jee, Byung Chul
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.140-146
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    • 2020
  • Objective: To investigate whether the degree of post-warming embryo or blastocyst development is associated with clinical pregnancy in vitrified embryo or blastocyst transfer cycles. Methods: Ninety-six vitrified cleavage-stage embryos and 58 vitrified blastocyst transfer cycles were selected. All transfer cycles were performed from February 2011 to March 2019, and all vitrified embryos or blastocysts were warmed from 4 PM to 6 PM and then transferred the next morning from 9 AM to 10 AM. The scores of the cleavage-stage embryos and blastocysts were assessed at warming and at transfer using the modified Steer method and the Gardner method, respectively. The mean embryo or blastocyst score, score of the single top-quality embryo or blastocyst, and the difference in the score between warming and transfer were compared between nonpregnant and pregnant women. Results: In the cleavage-stage embryo transfer cycles, both the top-quality embryo score at transfer and the difference in the score between warming and transfer were significantly associated with clinical pregnancy. A top-quality embryo score at transfer of ≥ 60.0 (area under the curve [AUC], 0.673; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.531-0.815) and a difference in the score between warming and transfer of ≥ 23.0 (AUC, 0.675; 95% CI, 0.514-0.835) were significant predictors of clinical pregnancy. In blastocyst transfer cycles, the top-quality blastocyst score at transfer was the only significant factor associated with clinical pregnancy. A top-quality blastocyst score at transfer of ≥ 38.3 was a significant predictor of clinical pregnancy (AUC, 0.666; 95% CI, 0.525-0.807). Conclusion: The top-quality embryo score at transfer and the degree of post-warming embryo development were associated with clinical pregnancy in vitrified cleavage-stage embryo transfer cycles. In vitrified blastocyst transfer cycles, the top-quality blastocyst score at transfer was the only significant factor affecting clinical pregnancy.

The Influence of Microinjection of Foreign Gene into the Pronucleus of Fertilized Egg on the Preimplantation Development, Cell Number and Diameter of Rabbit Embryos

  • Makarevich, A.V.;Chrenek, P.;Fl’ak, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.171-175
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    • 2006
  • The aim of this in vitro study was to test the effect of microinjection (Mi) of foreign gene into the rabbit egg pronucleus and epidermal growth factor (EGF) addition on the blastocyst rate, the cell number and the diameter of embryos, and to determine possible relationships between embryo cell number and embryo diameter. Blastocyst rate was significantly decreased in gene- Mi (G-Mi/E0) group (63.1%) comparing to intact ones (83.5%, $p_1$<0.05). The addition of EGF at 20ng/ml (G-Mi/E20) or 200 ng/ml (GMi/ E200) to gene-Mi embryos did not affect blastocyst rate (65.6 and 55.2% resp.). As a control for Mi, the eggs were microinjected with the same volume of phosphate-buffered solution (PBS-Mi) instead of the gene construct solution. Cell numbers and embryo diameters were measured from embryo images obtained on confocal laser scanning microscope. Bonferroni-modified LSD test showed that the embryo cell number in PBS-Mi group was significantly lower ($p_1$<0.05) and in gene-Mi group was tended to decrease compared with intact embryos. Embryo diameter was not different among experimental groups. No effect of EGF given at any doses both on the cell number and embryo diameter was found. A positive correlation between cell number and embryo diameter was observed in all groups of embryos. Since embryo diameter was not changed under the influence of Mi or EGF addition in this study, this seems to be more conservative characteristics of the embryo morphology. These results suggest that the pronuclear microinjection compromises developmental potential of embryos, decreasing blastocyst rate and embryo cell number, whilst embryo diameter is not affected. No effects of EGF on studied parameters were confirmed. Declined quality of Mi-derived embryos is caused by the microinjection procedure itself, rather than by the gene construct used.

Somatic Embryogenesis - Apical Meristems and Embryo Conversion

  • Yeung, Edward C.;Stasolla, Claudio
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.299-307
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    • 2000
  • A large amount of information is currently available for somatic embryogenesis of plants. However, one common problem related to somatic embryos is that the conversion rate can be low for some species. Apical meristems are responsible for post-embryonic growth of the embryo. The low percentage observed is most likely a result of poor apical meristem development or defects in the meristem organization during somatic embryogenesis. In flowering plants, apical meristems are well developed by the late heart stage of zygotic embryo development. In conifers, such as white spruce, apical meristems are formed at the pre-cotyledon stage. Thus, apical meristem development occurs very early, prior to the maturation stage of embryo development. Once formed, meristems are stably determined. In the somatic embryo, as exemplified by white spruce, since embryo development is not synchronous, tissue differentiation including apical meristem formation occurs throughout the“maturation”stage. Different apical meristem organizations can be found among different individuals within a population. In contrast to their zygotic counterparts, the apical meristems appear not to be stably determined as their organization, as the shoot apical meristem especially, can be easily modified or disrupted. Precocious germination seldom results in functional plantlets. All these observations suggest that the conditions for somatic embryo maturation have not been optimized or are not suitable for meristem formation and development. The following strategies could improve meristem development and hence conversion: 1. Simulate in ouuio conditions to promote meristem development prior to the“maturation”treatment.2. Prevent deterioration of apical meristem organization during somatic embryo maturation.3. Promote further meristem development during embryo germination.

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