• Title, Summary, Keyword: Elements

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Nursing Home Environment with Positive Distraction for Reduction of Chronic Pain and Healing (만성통증의 경감과 치유를 위한 노인요양시설의 긍정적 관심 전환 환경)

  • Chung, Miryum
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.206-216
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    • 2015
  • Majority of the seniors living in nursing homes suffer from persistent chronic pain, which may cause depression and compromised quality of life if untreated. The environment should support them to lift their focus from current pain and worries to the positive feelings and the delight of life. The purpose of this research is to classify the healing environment elements for positive distraction, and analyze 6 international cases to see the current situation. The elements were categorized as follows, based on literature review from both healing spaces and elderly care field: spatial elements(view, natural elements, artificial elements, exercise space, garden), psychological elements(grooming area, space for privacy, meal/drink area, elements for recollection, religious space), social elements(common living area, activity/hoppy room, family/visitor area, information area, local community program space). Analysis on 6 facilities showed that each elements were reflected to designed relatively well. New inventions from workers who think distraction is important were also introduced. Healing environment for positive distraction requires delicate touch, derived from understanding characteristics and situation of the residing elderly individuals. Technology update is also significant, from audio books to virtual reality devices, since cultural life of nursing home is far behind from what the others enjoy now.

A Study on the Characteristics of Healthy Houses Planned and Built by Non-experts People (비전문가에 의해 계획된 건강주택 사례들에 나타난 특성연구)

  • Lee, Yeun Sook;Lee, Ji Hye;Ahn, Chang Houn
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.5-16
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    • 2013
  • As rapid aging society comes and people have growing interest in health, health issue has become an important value in modern society. The demand for healthy and comfortable residential environment has also increased and people themselves have made effort to build healthy residential environments. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of health housings planned and built by ordinary people. The study analyzed the contents of healthy houses that were broadcasted on TV with the title of healthy houses. Analyzed items were the planning elements and motives of building such healthy houses reflected in the samples of respective healthy houses. The result of the study revealed there were many examples of housings for healing purpose and the planning elements were in the order of architecture elements, natural elements, decoration elements, other elements and technical elements. While the experts usually put priority on technical elements for developing of healthy houses, ordinary people put priority on natural elements. This study comprehensively presents the overall characteristics of healthy houses which ordinary people pursue, on empirical basis. It is expected that this study will inspire to think about the desirable direction of healthy houses for the residents by comparing with or along with the concepts of housings that experts pursue.

Two-dimensional nonconforming finite elements: A state-of-the-art

  • Choi, Chang-Koon;Kim, Sun-Hoon;Park, Young-Myung;Chung, Keun-Young
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.41-61
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    • 1998
  • A state-of-the-art report on the new finite elements formulated by the addition of nonconforming displacement modes has been presented. The development of a series improved nonconforming finite elements for the analysis of plate and shell structures is described in the first part of this paper. These new plate and shell finite elements are established by the combined use of different improvement schemes such as; the addition of nonconforming modes, the reduced (or selective) integration, and the construction of the substitute shear strain fields. The improvement achieved may be attributable to the fact that the merits of these improvement techniques are merged into the formation of the new elements in a complementary manner. It is shown that the results obtained by the new elements give significantly improved solutions without any serious defects such as; the shear locking, spurious zero energy mode for the linear as well as nonlinear benchmark problems. Recent developments in the transition elements that have a variable number of mid-side nodes and can be effectively used in the adaptive mesh refinement are presented in the second part. Finally, the nonconforming transition flat shell elements with drilling degrees of freedom are also presented.

The Development of Planning Model for a Sustainable Housing Estate (지속가능한 주거단지 계획모형 개발)

  • 박원규
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.39-54
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    • 2002
  • There have been endeavors for sustainable development all over the world after the Rio World Summit and the idea of sustainable development has become common paradigm. Now, Korea has come to a situation where we need to apply the concept of sustainable development inevitably. Especially housing estate development must be preliminary change for sustainable development. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to establish sustainable planning element system of housing estate, and to propose a sustainable planning model compatible with the Korean situation. The scope of this study focused on typical multi-family housing estates in Korea and the environmental sustainable planning model. The model was developed from the evaluation of the important level and extra costs of planning elements for sustainable development of housing estate. The important level of planning principles and elements was analyzed by conducting a survey to experts. As the results of this study, four planning section ('land use and transport', 'pollution and waste', 'energy', and 'natural resource') and twelve planning items were identified. Twenty-one planning principles and fifty-five planning elements were found. Synthetically, the sustainable planning element system is composed of four planning sections, twelve planning items, twenty-one planning principles, and fifty-five planning elements. Based on survey to experts, $\ulcorner$The short-term strategic model$\lrcorner$ was developed for the social implosion of sustainable development, which is composed of ten basic elements, eighteen necessary elements, twelve optional elements, and seven arbitrary elements. $\ulcorner$The long-term future model$\lrcorner$was developed for application to from 10 to 15 years later. It is composed of fifteen basic elements, thirty-three necessary elements, and seven optional elements. The planning model proposed by this study can be used as a prototype for the development of a sustainable housing estate and can provide a practical tool for developers and planners who are not familiar with the concept of sustainable development.

The Application Status of the Traditional Decorative Components in Restaurants of Korea and China (한·중 전통식 레스토랑에의 전통장식요소 적용현황 비교)

  • Peng, Si-Si;Shin, Kyung-Joo
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.34-45
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    • 2012
  • In these days, restaurants are not simply used as a physical space but used as a cultural space in which people can enjoy and experience different cultures and traditional images. Moreover, from the restaurants design elements which help to form the atmosphere of the restaurants which serve food of specific country, we can see the history and traditions of that country. The additional value of the traditional decorative components which are the main factors forming the atmosphere of the restaurant will be different according to the various expressions used in the restaurant space. For this article, 12 restaurants, Norangjugory korean restaurant, Yongsusan korean restaurant, Best well-bing food restaurant, Awoolim, Mugunhwa, Ondal in Korea, and Songhelou, South Beauty, Xuxian restaurant & lounge, Beijing dadong roast duck restaurant, The horizon chinese restaurant, Dynasty jade garden in China, were selected for the field study. This study focused on a comparative analysis of the traditional decorative elements, especially, the application rate of the traditional decorative elements. The analyzed elements are nature, religious beliefs, history and culture for the intangible elements and facade, courtyard, trademark, ground, wall, ceiling, door, window, furniture and adornment for the tangible elements. After that, we analyzed the rates of the use of traditional decorative elements and modern decorative elements. Through the survey result and ratio analysis, we concluded as below. In Korean restaurant, traditionality is expressed in furnitures while, in Chinese restaurant, traditionality is expressed in decorative pattern. When it comes to the intangible elements among the traditional decorative components of the Korean and Chinese restaurants, Chinese and Korean restaurants have similarities in emphasizing the natural elements. Korean restaurants focus much on the environmentally friendly parts, while Chinese restaurants focus much on the fantastic natural atmospheres like those shown and expressed in the poems. As for religion characteristics, Chinese restaurants emphasize "geomancy" more than Korean restaurant. When it comes to the visible elements among the traditional decorative components of the Korean and Chinese restaurants, in Korean restaurants, the interior part has more traditionality than exterior part, while in Chinese restaurants, the exterior part has more traditionality than the interior part.

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A Study on Expression Characteristics of Indoor Spaces and Food related Elements in Fusion Korean Restaurants (퓨전 한식 레스토랑에 나타난 실내공간과 음식관련요소의 표현특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Ji-Hyun;Oh, Hye-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.204-213
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    • 2008
  • In this age of information ruled by new technologies and knowledge, the world is interconnected as a single community, and within this trend of globalization, new cultural codes are emerging through temporal fusion between the past and the present and spatial fusion between different regions and countries. In this situation, it seems meaningful to review Korean fusion foods and restaurants serving such foods, as well as to consider their future directions. Thus, the objective of the present study was to survey and analyze Korean fusion restaurants representing Korean culture not only in Korea, but also in foreign cities, and to identify the expression characteristics of such restaurants. Based on restaurants recommended in relevant magazines and on Internet sites, 18 spaces were selected, visited, and surveyed, in which tradition and modernism were well-mixed. Data on the shapes, materials, colors, and patterns of spatial elements and food-related elements, including photographs, were collected and analyzed. The results are as follows. Of the 18 restaurants, 13 (72%) showed temporal fusion in both spatial and food-related elements, 4 showed temporal fusion in spatial elements and cultural fusion in food-related elements, and 1 showed cultural fusion in both spatial and food-related elements. In general, the spaces were mainly designed with modern elements and partially with traditional elements (ceilings, windows, furniture, articles), and the fusion of food-related elements was made in diverse forms that included temporal fusion restructuring traditional menus contemporarily, and cultural fusion harmonizing traditional food with Western cookery.

Influence to the Doppler Images by the Defects of SAE in the Probe of Medical Ultrasonic Scanners (초음파 프로브에서 인접 단위 소자군(SAE) 결함이 도플러 영상에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kyung-Sung
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2015
  • A ultrasonic probe is very important in medical ultrasonic image, but the frequency of probe defects are often. Therefore practical tools for probe based ultrasonic QA should be developed. Advanced research on the effects of the probe defects on the quality of ultrasonic images is required. This study has investigated the effects of the defects in the probe elements influence Doppler images in the medical ultrasonic scanners. Especially the defects in a set of adjacent elements(SAE) electrically disconnected influence Doppler images were tested. The results show Doppler brightness and velocity became rapidly reduced as the defected elements is located centrally, as the defected elements is activated. The more the defected elements increased, the more Doppler brightness and velocity increased. As a set of the element disconnected moved, it appeared Doppler velocity starting to decrease and then was followed by brightness. The strength is not consistent with the velocity in the number and location of the defected elements. The defects in the probe elements influence Doppler velocity when the defected elements got out of the elements activated at Doppler mode.

A Study on the Evaluation of Carbon Neutral Housing Development through SBTool (SBTool을 활용한 탄소중립형 주거단지 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Woo-Seon;Choi, Joon-Sung;Oh, Deog-Seong
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.83-92
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    • 2012
  • Recently, many countries are tightening a variety of policies and controls with great efforts to reduce emission of GHGs(Greenhouse Gases) as concern for climate change heightens. The purpose of the study is to provide guidelines for planning and evaluate element and evaluate housing development. The elements are also assorted into 6 sections and 30 planning elements were drawn from them. It is drawn to 6 sections, 27 categories, 31 evaluation elements except cultural and perceptual aspects unrelated to planning elements from these elements. Case analysis has shown that most of planning elements were applied because these cases obtained environment-friendly certification in the country. Followings are the common characteristics. Firstly, it showed that application of planning element in all cases is excellent. Secondly, the case with excellent application of elements related with energy and application degree obtained excellent degree i environment-friendly certification in the country. Finally, application of planning elements related with renewable energy was in poor condition in all cases. With the utilization of SBTool, the evaluation results about planning elements of housing complex of Carbon emissions-reduction type showed that CASE-A obtained 11.17 points and CASE-B obtained 9.24 points. In the case of renewable energy section, it was confirmed that the evaluation doesn't work well. As a result, changes of planning elements affect environment-friendly extent. It was confirmed that accessibility to housing complex of Carbon emissions-reduction type could change. Estimated result of Amount of Carbon emission showed that annual energy consumption per each family of CASE-A is $4,269,964MJ/m^2$, as a result of which, Carbon emission is $234,815kg/m^2$. And annual energy consumption per family of CASE-B is $4,197,563MJ/m^2$, as a result of which, Carbon emission is $214,584kg/m^2$. Application of planning elements in the aspect of housing complex of Carbon emissions-reduction type shows that the level for Carbon emissions-reduction is high level. And study with assessment from the draft should be followed.

A Study on the Architectural Characteristics and Satisfaction Analysis of Street-scape in a Small and Medium City -Focused on the Street of Central Market, Pohang City- (중소도시 가로경관의 건축적 특성과 만족도분석 연구 -포항시 중앙상가로변을 중심으로-)

  • Choi, Moo-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Rural Architecture
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 2009
  • This study aims for proposing improvement method for streetscape in a small and medium city of Korea. According to this purpose, in chapter 2, by inspecting conservation of street environment and streetscape, deduce the frame for analyzing streetscape in commercial district. In chapter 3, analyzing present condition and problems of selected streets in Pohang City, derive the primary factors to induce desirable streetscape through problems and their reason between the analyzed elements of building form. Analyzed elements are composed of floor elements, wall elements, ceiling elements. The detailed elements are pavement of road, street furniture, height of buildings, color and material of building and outdoor advertisements. In chapter 4, by conducting a questionnaire survey of pedestrians about street images -choosing impressive physical elements and the feeling of the street by the list of adjective of semantic differential scale- and the preference, propose the direction of improvement about streetscape in commercial district.

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Transition membrane elements with drilling freedom based on mixed-type formulation (Mixed 형태의 정식화에 기초한 회전자유도를 가진 변이 평면요소)

  • 최창근;이완훈
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 1993
  • The transition membrane elements with drilling freedom have been developed. The functionals for the linear problem, in which the drilling rotations are introduced as independent variables, have been presented by Hughes & Bressi. And 4-node membrane elements with drilling degrees of freedom were developed by Ibrahimbegovic. The transition elements can be efficiently used in modelling the in-plane structures, in particular, where the stress concentration exists. A modified Gaussian quadrature adopted to evaluate the stiffness matrices of these transition elements which have slope discontinuity of displacement within the elements. Detailed numerical studies show the excellent performance of the transition elements.

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